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Provedor de dados:  Inra
País:  France
Título:  Contribution à la connaissance de l'étiologie de la maladie de l'écorce du hêtre. II.- Etude expérimentale de l'association Cryptococcus fagisuga lin-Nectria coccinea ( Pers ex Fries ) Fries, Rôle respectif des deux organismes
Contribution to the knowledge of beech bark disease etiology II. - Experimental study of Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind Nectria coccinea (Pers. ex Fries) Fries association. Respective part of each organism
Autores:  Perrin, R.
Data:  1980
Ano:  1980
Resumo:  L’apport journalier d’ascospores de Nectria coccinea, d’octobre à juin, sur des portions d’écorce infestées de cochenilles, démontre que le champignon profite de la présence de C. fagisuga pour pénétrer dans l’écorce. Nectria coccinea, est introduit artificiellement (piqûre), dans des portionsd’écorces supportant des infestations variables de cochenilles ; il induit une nécrose qui est d’autant plus développée que les colonies de cochenilles sont plus nombreuses. L’élimination de la cochenille conduit à l’arrêt du développement et à un début de cicatrisation des lésions récemment apparues dues à N. coccinea. Enfin, un traitement mixte insecticide fongicide protège efficacement les portions traitées.

Previous french studies have placed Nectria coccinea’s part in a prominent position in mycoflora associated with beech bark necrosis after Cryptococcus fagisuga pullulations. Artificial inoculations have demonstrated N. coccinea ability to produce restricted beech bark decay. Necrosis’s perennity and spread seem to be conditionned by C. fagisuga population’s density. Results of 1976-1977 experimental studies, lay down necessary association of two organisms implicated : Each day, from October 1976 to June 1977, germinating ascospores have been sprayed on beech bark infested with beech scale (population density 3-4 E. J. Parker, scoring system). Two kinds of symptoms, red bark discoloration and slime flux, reveal successful N. coccinea infection, and corresponding necrosis (reisolation, november 1977). These infections occur especially in November and May-June. Although, these results prove that C. fagisuga assists N. coccinea beech bark enter, infection courts and processes remain unprecises. Artificial bringing of N. coccinea (mycelium, needle wounded) in beech bark. leed to a necrosis, spreading of wich depend on C. fagisuga density population. Restricted to one or two centimeters square, in lack of beech scale, necrosis rapidly extend to several decimeters square, where C. fagisuga are abounding. C. fagisuga brings a bark physiological disorder, rendering bark more vulnerable to N. coccinea destructive ability. Mechanical (vaccum cleaner, brush) or chemical (oleoparathion) elimination of beech scale onN. coccinea infected (or no) bark, confirms previous observations. Infections never occur, in lack of beech scale, or after insecticide treatment. Spread of beech bark necrosis stops, and a beginning of healing over occurs where C. fagisuga has been eliminated. Unlike, on same trees, necrosis extend in C. fagisuga infested place. It seems that beech scale disturbs natural physiological control processes. In conclusion, C. fagisuga assists, in peculiar manner N. coccinea implantation in bark of beech, brings a bark physiological disturbance, leading easier N. coccinea decay ability. Beech scale, necessary precursor of N. coccinea, take a prominent part in beech bark disease. Stands where disease, and particulary beech scale, are endemic, would be searched after, independently of climatic fluctuations. This imply a careful sanitary gestion and perhaps proscribes pure beech stands, always restored in the same place. Variations in some beech susceptibility to beech scale and to N. coccinea, as site situations influences on disease severity, would reveal advantageous in beech bark disease control method.
Tipo:  Journal Article
Idioma:  Francês
Formato:  application/pdf
Fonte:  Annales des Sciences Forestières. 1980, 37 (4) : 319-331

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