The forest economy is in transition across Canada. Faced with high dollar values, increasing competition within the global market, high input costs for energy, labour and fibre, and growing expectations for environmental performance, the forest sector is undergoing significant economic transitions as companies across the country cut costs, close mills and shed jobs. This report contributes to our understanding of community response to mill closure with a detailed description of six case study communities during a period of forest industry mill closures. Three communities are in British Columbia (Mackenzie, Quesnel and Fort St. James) and three communities are in New Brunswick (Dalhousie, Nackawic and Mirimachi). Empirical information is derived from national and local media reports as well as recent data from the Census of Canada. Key thematic areas include resilience, economic diversification, the nature of mill closure, union involvement, government involvement and concerns over government policy changes such as appurtenancy.