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Registro completo
Provedor de dados:  5
País:  France
Título:  State of the Climate in 2016
Autores:  Arndt, D. S.
Blunden, J.
Dunn, R. J. H.
Aaron-morrison, Arlene P.
Abdallah, A.
Ackerman, Steven A.
Adler, Robert
Alfaro, Eric J.
Allan, Richard P.
Allan, Rob
Alvarez, Luis A.
Alves, Lincoln M.
Amador, Jorge A.
Andreassen, L. M.
Arce, Dayana
Argueez, Anthony
Arndt, Derek S.
Arzhanova, N. M.
Augustine, John
Awatif, E. M.
Azorin-molina, Cesar
Baez, Julian
Bardin, M. U.
Barichivich, Jonathan
Baringer, Molly O.
Barreira, Sandra
Baxter, Stephen
Beck, H. E.
Becker, Andreas
Bedka, Kristopher M.
Behrenfeld, Michael J.
Bell, Gerald D.
Belmont, M.
Benedetti, Angela
Bernhard, G. H.
Berrisford, Paul
Berry, David I.
Bettolli, Maria L.
Bhatt, U. S.
Bidegain, Mario
Biskaborn, B.
Bissolli, Peter
Bjerke, J.
Blake, Eric S.
Blunden, Jessica
Bosilovich, Michael G.
Boucher, Olivier
Boudet, Dagne
Box, J. E.
Boyer, Tim
Braathen, Geir O.
Brimelow, Julian
Bromwich, David H.
Brown, R.
Buehler, S.
Bulygina, Olga N.
Burgess, D.
Calderon, Blanca
Camargo, Suzana J.
Campbell, Jayaka D.
Cappelen, J.
Caroff, P.
Carrea, Laura
Carter, Brendan R.
Chambers, Don P.
Chandler, Elise
Cheng, Ming-dean
Christiansen, Hanne H.
Christy, John R.
Chung, Daniel
Chung, E. -s.
Clem, Kyle R.
Coelho, Caio A. S.
Coldewey-egbers, Melanie
Colwell, Steve
Cooper, Owen R.
Copland, L.
Cross, J. N.
Crouch, Jake
Cutie, Virgen
Davis, Sean M.
De Eyto, Elvira
De Jeu, Richard A. M.
De Laat, Jos
Degasperi, Curtis L.
Degenstein, Doug
Demircan, M.
Derksen, C.
Di Girolamo, Larry
Diamond, Howard J.
Dindyal, S.
Dlugokencky, Ed J.
Dohan, Kathleen
Dokulil, Martin T.
Dolman, A. Johannes
Domingues, Catia M.
Donat, Markus G.
Dong, Shenfu
Dorigo, Wouter A.
Drozdov, D. S.
Dunn, Robert J. H.
Duran-quesada, Ana M.
Dutton, Geoff S.
Elkharrim, M.
Elkins, James W.
Epstein, H. E.
Espinoza, Jhan C.
Etienne-leblanc, Sheryl
Famiglietti, James S.
Farrell, S.
Fateh, S.
Fausto, R. S.
Feely, Richard A.
Feng, Z.
Fenimore, Chris
Fettweis, X.
Fioletov, Vitali E.
Flannigan, Mike
Flemming, Johannes
Fogt, Ryan L.
Folland, Chris
Fonseca, C.
Forbes, B. C.
Foster, Michael J.
Francis, S. D.
Franz, Bryan A.
Frey, Richard A.
Frith, Stacey M.
Froidevaux, Lucien
Ganter, Catherine
Gerland, S.
Gilson, John
Gobron, Nadine
Goldenberg, Stanley B.
Goni, Gustavo
Gonzalez, Idelmis T.
Goto, A.
Greenhough, Marianna D.
Grooss, J. -u.
Gruber, Alexander
Guard, Charles
Gupta, S. K.
Gutierrez, J. M.
Haas, C.
Hagos, S.
Hahn, Sebastian
Haimberger, Leo
Hall, Brad D.
Halpert, Michael S.
Hamlington, Benjamin D.
Hanna, E.
Hanssen-bauer, I
Hare, Jon
Harris, Ian
Heidinger, Andrew K.
Heim, Richard R., Jr.
Hendricks, S.
Hernandez, Marieta
Hernandez, Rafael
Hidalgo, Hugo G.
Ho, Shu-peng
Hobbs, William R.
Huang, Boyin
Huelsing, Hannah K.
Hurst, Dale F.
Ialongo, I.
Ijampy, J. A.
Inness, Antje
Isaksen, K.
Ishii, Masayoshi
Jevrejeva, Svetlana
Jimenez, C.
Jin Xiangze,
John, Viju
Johns, William E.
Johnsen, B.
Johnson, Bryan
Johnson, Gregory C.
Johnson, Kenneth S.
Jones, Philip D.
Jumaux, Guillaume
Kabidi, Khadija
Kaiser, J. W.
Kass, David
Kato, Seiji
Kazemi, A.
Kelem, G.
Keller, Linda M.
Kelly, B. P.
Kendon, Mike
Kennedy, John
Kerr, Kenneth
Kholodov, A. L.
Khoshkam, Mahbobeh
Killick, Rachel
Kim, Hyungjun
Kim, S. -j.
Kimberlain, Todd B.
Klotzbach, Philip J.
Knaff, John A.
Kochtubajda, Bob
Kohler, J.
Korhonen, Johanna
Korshunova, Natalia N.
Kramarova, Natalya
Kratz, D. P.
Kruger, Andries
Kruk, Michael C.
Krumpen, T.
Lakatos, M.
Lakkala, K.
Lanckmann, J. -p.
Lander, Mark A.
Landschuetzer, Peter
Landsea, Chris W.
Lankhorst, Matthias
Lantz, Kathleen
Lazzara, Matthew A.
Leuliette, Eric
Lewis, Stephen R.
L'Heureux, Michelle
Lieser, Jan L.
Lin, I-i
Liu, Hongxing
Liu, Yinghui
Locarnini, Ricardo
Loeb, Norman G.
Long, Craig S.
Loranty, M.
Lorrey, Andrew M.
Loyola, Diego
Lu, Mong-ming
Lumpkin, Rick
Luo, Jing-jia
Luojus, K.
Lyman, John M.
Macara, Gregor
Macdonald, Alison M.
Macias-fauria, M.
Malkova, G. V.
Manney, G.
Marchenko, S. S.
Marengo, Jose A.
Marra, John J.
Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz
Martens, B.
Martinez-gueingla, Rodney
Massom, Robert A.
Mathis, Jeremy T.
May, Linda
Mayer, Michael
Mazloff, Matthew
Mcbride, Charlotte
Mccabe, M. F.
Mccarthy, Gerard
Mccarthy, M.
Mcdonagh, Elaine L.
Mcgree, Simon
Mcvicar, Tim R.
Mears, Carl A.
Meier, W.
Mekonnen, A.
Menezes, V. V.
Mengistu Tsidu, G.
Menzel, W. Paul
Merchant, Christopher J.
Meredith, Michael P.
Merrifield, Mark A.
Minnis, Patrick
Miralles, Diego G.
Mistelbauer, T.
Mitchum, Gary T.
Mitro, Srkani
Monselesan, Didier
Montzka, Stephen A.
Mora, Natalie
Morice, Colin
Morrow, Blair
Mote, T.
Mudryk, L.
Muehle, Jens
Mullan, A. Brett
Mueller, R.
Nash, Eric R.
Nerem, R. Steven
Newman, Louise
Newman, Paul A.
Nieto, Juan Jose
Noetzli, Jeannette
O'Neel, S.
Osborn, Tim J.
Overland, J.
Oyunjargal, Lamjav
Parinussa, Robert M.
Park, E-hyung
Pasch, Richard J.
Pascual-ramirez, Reynaldo
Paterson, Andrew M.
Pearce, Petra R.
Pellichero, Violaine
Pelto, Mauri S.
Peng, Liang
Perkins-kirkpatrick, Sarah E.
Perovich, D.
Petropavlovskikh, Irina
Pezza, Alexandre B.
Phillips, C.
Phillips, David
Phoenix, G.
Pinty, Bernard
Pitts, Michael C.
Pons, M. R.
Porter, Avalon O.
Quintana, Juan
Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh
Rajeevan, Madhavan
Rayner, Darren
Raynolds, M. K.
Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.
Read, Peter
Reagan, James
Reid, Phillip
Reimer, Christoph
Remy, Samuel
Renwick, James A.
Revadekar, Jayashree V.
Richter-menge, J.
Rimmer, Alon
Robinson, David A.
Rodell, Matthew
Rollenbeck, Ruetger
Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
Ronchail, Josyane
Roquet, F.
Rosenlof, Karen H.
Roth, Chris
Rusak, James A.
Sallee, Jean-bapiste
Sanchez-lugo, Ahira
Santee, Michelle L.
Sarmiento, Jorge L.
Sawaengphokhai, P.
Sayouri, Amal
Scambos, Ted A.
Schemm, Jae
Schladow, S. Geoffrey
Schmid, Claudia
Schmid, Martin
Schoeneich, P.
Schreck, Carl J., Iii
Schuur, Ted
Selkirk, H. B.
Send, Uwe
Sensoy, Serhat
Sharp, M.
Shi, Lei
Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.
Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.
Siegel, David A.
Signorini, Sergio R.
Silov, Eugene
Sima, Fatou
Simmons, Adrian J.
Smeed, David A.
Smeets, C. J. P. P.
Smith, Adam
Smith, Sharon L.
Soden, B.
Spence, Jaqueline M.
Srivastava, A. K.
Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.
Stammerjohn, Sharon
Steinbrecht, Wolfgang
Stella, Jose L.
Stennett-brown, Roxann
Stephenson, Tannecia S.
Strahan, Susan
Streletskiy, Dimitri A.
Sun-mack, Sunny
Swart, Sebastiaan
Sweet, William
Tamar, Gerard
Taylor, Michael A.
Tedesco, M.
Thoman, R. L.
Thompson, L.
Thompson, Philip R.
Timmermans, M. -l.
Timofeev, Maxim A.
Tirnanes, Joaquin A.
Tobin, Skie
Trachte, Katja
Trewin, Blair C.
Trotman, Adrian R.
Tschudi, M.
Tweedy, Olga
Van As, D.
Van De Wal, R. S. W.
Van Der Schalie, Robin
Van Der Schrier, Gerard
Van Der Werf, Guido R.
Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.
Velicogna, I.
Verburg, Piet
Vieira, G.
Vincent, Lucie A.
Voemel, Holger
Vose, Russell S.
Wagner, Wolfgang
Wahlin, Anna
Walker, D. A.
Walsh, J.
Wang, Bin
Wang, Chunzai
Wang, Junhong
Wang, Lei
Wang, M.
Wang, Sheng-hung
Wanninkhof, Rik
Watanabe, Shohei
Weber, Mark
Weller, Robert A.
Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
Whitewood, Robert
Wiese, David N.
Wijffels, Susan E.
Wilber, Anne C.
Wild, Jeanette D.
Willett, Kate M.
Willie, Shem
Willis, Josh K.
Wolken, G.
Wong, Takmeng
Wood, E. F.
Woolway, R. Iestyn
Wouters, B.
Xue, Yan
Yim, So-young
Yin, Xungang
Yu, Lisan
Zambrano, Eduardo
Zhang, Huai-min
Zhang, Peiqun
Zhao, Guanguo
Zhao, Lin
Ziemke, Jerry R.
Zilberman, Nathalie
Data:  2017-08
Ano:  2017
Resumo:  In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44 degrees C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0 degrees C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8 degrees C, representing a 3.5 degrees C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute similar to 7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01 degrees C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st century-to-date of +0.162 degrees C decade(-1) is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100 degrees C decade(-1). Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Nino at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Nina contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.
Tipo:  Text
Idioma:  Inglês
Identificador:  https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78500/80851.pdf

https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78500/80852.pdf

https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78500/80859.pdf

DOI:10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78500/
Editor:  Amer Meteorological Soc
Formato:  application/pdf
Fonte:  Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society (0003-0007) (Amer Meteorological Soc), 2017-08 , Vol. 98 , N. 8 , P. S1-S277
Direitos:  info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess

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