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Registros recuperados: 15
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The Political Economy Of Systematic Government Intervention In Agriculture AgEcon
Sarker, Rakhal; Meilke, Karl D.; Hoy, Michael.
The systematic subsidization and exploitation of agriculture by developed and developing countries respectively, has generated a policy paradox for which there is no satisfactory explanation. This paper attempts to provide an explanation of this policy paradox. It first develops a simple political economy model which treats an interest group's relative political weight as endogenous. Interest groups compete in the political market to improve their relative political weight. This relative political weight appears as a parameter in the government's political preference function. The government maximizes the value of this function subject to the constraints imposed by the economic market to determine the level of a policy. The model is then estimated for...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123574
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National Administered Protection Agencies: Their Role in the Post-Uruguay Round World AgEcon
Meilke, Karl D.; Sarker, Rakhal.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50714
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ANALYZING THE POTENTIAL FOR INCREASED TRADE IN DAIRY PRODUCTS: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE AgEcon
Meilke, Karl D.; Sarker, Rakhal; Le Roy, Danny G..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16959
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NATIONAL ADMINISTERED PROTECTION AGENCIES: THEIR ROLE IN THE POST-URUGUAY ROUND WORLD AgEcon
Meilke, Karl D.; Sarker, Rakhal.
This paper reviews the role of national administered protection agencies, whose responsibility is the enforcement of national trade remedy laws. After reviewing four recent trade remedy cases we argue that the role of the national administered protection agencies should be changed. Given the additional responsibilities the WTO has assumed in administering the Agreement on Agriculture, the growth of regional integration agreements and the increasing use of anti-dumping and countervailing duty actions against fairly traded imports, we argue that all trade actions should be taken to the WTO for settlement. The role of the national administered protection agencies should be changed to make them agents for trade liberalization. This would involve them taking on...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51212
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REGIONALISM AND TRADE IN AGRIFOOD PRODUCTS AgEcon
Dell'Aquila, Crescenzo; Sarker, Rakhal; Meilke, Karl D..
The objective of this paper is to provide quantitative information on the degree of regionalism in raw and processed agrifood trade and the trends in regional trading patterns between 1965 and 1994. The analysis shows that world agrifood trade is currently more regionalized than it was in the second half of the 1960's and is moving towards even more regional concentration. However, for processed agrifood products, increasing regionalism is a dimension of growing openness and multilateral interdependence. Conversely, for raw products the pattern of regionalism has been significantly affected by domestic and trade policies, with welfare losses borne mainly by the European Union and other exporting regions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14591
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The Fast Decay Process in Recreational Demand Activities and the use of Alternative Count Data Models AgEcon
Sarker, Rakhal; Surry, Yves R..
Since the early 1990s, researchers have routinely used count data models (such as the Poisson and negative binomial) to estimate the demand for recreational activities. Along with the success and popularity of count data models in recreational demand analysis during the last decade, a number of shortcomings of standard count data models became obvious to researchers. This had led to the development of new and more sophisticated model specifications. Furthermore, semi-parametric and non-parametric approaches have also made their way into count data models. Despite these advances, however, one interesting issue has received little research attention in this area. This is related to the fast decay process of the dependent variable and the associated long...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fast decay process; Recreational demand; Count data models; Borel; Yule; Logarithmic and generalised Poisson regression models; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24808
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THE FAST DECAY PROCESS IN RECREATIONAL DEMAND ACTIVITIES AND THE USE OF ALTERNATIVE COUNT DATA MODELS AgEcon
Sarker, Rakhal; Surry, Yves R..
Since the early 1990s, researchers have routinely used count data models (such as the Poisson and negative binomial) to estimate the demand for recreational activities. Along with the success and popularity of count data models in recreational demand analysis during the last decade, a number of shortcomings of standard count data models became obvious to researchers. This had led to the development of new and more sophisticated model specifications. Furthermore, semi-parametric and non-parametric approaches have also made their way into count data models. Despite these advances, however, one interesting issue has received little research attention in this area. This is related to the fast decay process of the dependent variable and the associated long...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fast Decay Process; Recreational Demand; Count Data Models; Borel; Yule; Logarithmic and generalised Poisson regression models; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34147
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Effects of Regional Trade Agreements on Trade in Agrifood Products: Evidence from Gravity Modeling Using Disaggregated Data AgEcon
Sarker, Rakhal; Jayasinghe, Sampath.
The recent proliferation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has intensified the debate on their merits. A growing literature has addressed this policy debate, focusing on the welfare and trade effects of RTAs and their likely impacts on the multilateral trading system. Some view them as stepping-stones toward multilateral trade liberalization while others see them as stumbling blocks against free trade. The existing literature has neglected some important aspects of RTAs dealing with trade in agrifood products. This study analyzes trade creation and diversion effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on trade of six selected agrifood products from 1985 to 2000. The investigation estimates an extended gravity model using pooled...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agrifood products; Gravity model; NAFTA; North American Free Trade Agreement; Regional trade agreements; Trade creation; Trade diversion; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18605
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Exchange Rate Sensitivity of Mexican Maize Imports from the United States AgEcon
Sarker, Rakhal; Jaramillo-Villanueva, Jose Luis.
Since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994 agri-food trade between Mexico and the United States grew substantially. While some analysts argue that NAFTA has contributed the most, others have emphasized the role played by exchange rate in this process. An attempt is made in this paper to address this issue by determining the extent to which NAFTA, expansion of the livestock sector, exchange rate and exchange rate variability have contributed to the expansion of Mexican maize imports from the United States from January 1989 to December 2004.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Maize trade; Exchange rate; Volatility of exchange rate; Livestock inventory; Cointegration analysis; Error-correction model; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9864
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An Error Corrected Almost Ideal Demand System for Major Cereals in Kenya AgEcon
Nzuma, Jonathan M.; Sarker, Rakhal.
Despite significant progress in theory and empirical methods, the analysis of food consumption patterns in developing countries, particularly those in Sub Saharan Africa has received very limited attention. An attempt is made in this article to estimate an Error Corrected Almost Ideal Demand System for four major cereals consumed in Kenya employing annual data from 1963 to 2005. The model performs well both on theoretical and empirical grounds. All own-price elasticities are negative and statistically significant and all cereals are necessities both in the short-run and in the long-run in Kenya.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Error Correction Model; AIDS; Cereal Consumption; Kenya; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6443
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Exchange Rate Sensitivity of Fresh Tomatoes Imports from Mexico to the United States AgEcon
Jaramillo-Villanueva, Jose Luis; Sarker, Rakhal.
The agri-food trade between Mexico and the United States grew substantially after the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. While some analysts argue that NAFTA has contributed the most to the dramatic expansion of this trade, others have emphasized the role played by the exchange rate in this process. An attempt is made in this paper to address this issue by quantifying the effects of NAFTA, the Mexico-US exchange rate changes and its volatility on the fresh tomato imports into the United States from Mexico using the maximum likelihood cointegration analysis. The results from the cointegration analysis show that while changes in exchange rate have a positive effect on trade flows, volatility of the exchange rate has a significant negative effect on trade...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Exchange rate; Exchange rate volatility; Fresh tomatoes trade; NAFTA; Cointegration analysis and error-correction modelling; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51459
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Volatility Spill-over in a Customs Union: The Case of South Africa Sheep Import from Namibia AgEcon
Oyewumi, Olubukola Ayodeju; Sarker, Rakhal.
Prices guide economic agents’ resource allocation and output mix decisions. The extent of price transmission determines the nature of market integration. Volatility spill-over in spatially linked agricultural markets has been investigated, but not across borders. We developed an E-GARCH model which enabled us to explore various properties of price volatility – volatility persistence, asymmetric interference and volatility spill-over. We found the existence of significant volatility spill-over within the South African Customs Union (SACU) using sheep price data in Namibia and South Africa, especially with the introduction of Small Livestock Marketing Scheme (SLMS) in namibia. The results show more stickiness in the retail market than the wholesale market in...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96196
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Economic Performance of Bt Cotton Varieties in Pakistan AgEcon
Nazli, Hina; Sarker, Rakhal; Meilke, Karl D.; Orden, David.
Farmers in Pakistan have been growing cotton that contains the first generation of Bt gene since 2002. The cultivation of these varieties, although formally unapproved and unregulated, increased rapidly after 2005. In 2007, nearly 60 percent of the cotton area was under BT varieties. This paper examines the economic performance of Bt cotton in Pakistan based on data collected through a structured questionnaire survey in January-February 2009 in two districts (Bahawalpur and Mirpur Khas). The extent of the impact of Bt cotton on costs of production and yield gains are different across the two districts with their diverse agro-climatic conditions and pest pressures. Seed expenditures increase in both districts, but a decline in the number of bollworm sprays...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bt cotton; Economic performance; Pakistan; Bahawalpur; Mirpur Khas; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61181
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Distribution of Benefits and Adoption of Bt Cotton in Pakistan: Ex-ante Analysis AgEcon
Nazli, Hina; Sarker, Rakhal; Meilke, Karl D.; Orden, David.
This poster presents the potential impact of Bt cotton adoption in Pakistan. The size and distribution of economic benefits from the commercial adoption of Bt cotton in Pakistan are examined under four hypothetical scenarios. The adjusted economic surplus model is used to measure total benefits and their distribution between producers, consumers and technology innovators. To account for uncertainty in key parameters, the stochastic simulation techniques is applied. The results show that the total net benefits of adopting Bt cotton in Pakistan are large. As a result of increase in production, farmers get considerable benefits despite a decline in price. The share of benefits to innovators is small. The results indicate that the total cost of adopting latest...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bt cotton; Economic surplus model; Pakistan; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61180
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Who are the Real Gainers of Trade Liberalization in Kenya's Maize Sector? AgEcon
Nzuma, Jonathan M.; Sarker, Rakhal.
In Kenya, trade policy reforms in the cereals sector were initiated as a key component of the economy-wide structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) during the mid 1980s. The SAPs were later strengthened and made irreversible by Kenya’s commitments at the multilateral trade negotiations. However, the welfare effects of these trade policy reforms remain controversial. This paper to quantifies the market and welfare impacts of trade liberalization in Kenya’s maize sector using a partial equilibrium model with market interrelationships at the farm, wholesale and retail levels. The model is calibrated to simulate a 24 percent reduction in maize import tariffs and a complete abolition of tariffs. The simulations results suggest that tariff reductions yield price...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Trade liberalization; Maize; Partial equilibrium analysis; Welfare effects; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade; F14; F16; I32; C68; O24; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95972
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