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Registros recuperados: 24
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
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The role of engineering in organic farming – case energy crops Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Energy self-reliance and a closed nutrient cycle are basic principles of organic farming ever since. Engineering sciences methods in energy accounting may support efforts to introduce these principles into praxis. A method to calculate efficiency of energy crop production including sun energy, direct and indirect energy for cultivation, processing, and conversion into fuel is demonstrated using rape and derived fuels as an example. Every production and conversion step is a process and calculated separately. The overall efficiency includes energy input and output of all processes. The process effi-ciency of rape cultivation reaches in Finland up to 1100%. However, the overall en-ergy efficiency of rape methyl ester (RME) is 1 to 2 ‰ only. The production of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects Specific methods Crop husbandry Recycling; Balancing and resource management Technology assessment.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/9462/1/9462_Sch%C3%A4fer_Vortrag.pdf
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Lebensmittel und Energiepflanzen aus biologischem Anbau - unerwünschte oder nachhaltige Möglichkeiten? Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Crop production is a conversion process of sun energy into biomass. Consequently, both the cultivation area and the insolation stroking this area limit the agroenergy output of the globe. Cultivation measures support the photosynthetic conversion process. Although organic cultivation measures require less energy than mainstream agriculture, the overall efficiency remains below 1%. Nevertheless, agroenergy production is captivating with many win-win situations: environmentally neutral bio-fuels replace polluting fossil fuels, farmers get better prices for energy crops, and turnover of power industry grows due to increasing energy consumption to process biomass into fuel. As a following, the state tax income improves too. However, better prices for energy...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects Indicators and other value-laden measures Farm nutrient management Buildings and machinery Recycling; Balancing and resource management Technology assessment.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/15430/1/Sch%C3%A4fer_Lednice.pdf
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Energy crops and renewable energy: overall and process efficiency Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Here are compared efficiencies of energy crops with technical alternatives of renewable energy production. Production of rape as energy crop is presented.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Post harvest management and techniques.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/10630/1/fnytt406_11%2D13.pdf
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Fibre crops for energy production and energy saving Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
The photosynthesis process generates beside carbon hydrates also complex chemical compounds. The artificial synthesis of such compounds is often impossible or may require high energy input compared with their heating value. In other words, the entropy of energy crops is low compared with that of fossil fuels. This fact is usually neglected in energy analysis of bio fuels resulting in questionable political decisions concerning renewable energy. This paper demonstrates that the energy saving and the GHG mitigation potential of fibre crops may be enhanced using them first used as raw material for commercial products before processing to fuel at the end of their lifetime. For example reed canary grass may be used for paper production and after recycling the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Technology assessment Recycling; Balancing and resource management Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/21040/1/Fibre_crops_Jelgava_2012_s.pdf
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Entropy of energy crops and GHG mitigation Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
The photosynthesis process generates beside carbon hydrates also complex chemical compounds. The artificial synthesis of such compounds is often impossible or may require high energy input compared to their heat value. In other words, the entropy of energy crops is low compared to fossil fuels. This fact is usually neglected in energy analysis of bio fuels resulting in questionable political decisions concerning renewable energy. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the GHG mitigation potential of e.g. fibre crops may be enhanced using them first as raw material for commercial products before processing to fuel at the end of their lifetime. For example, reed canary grass may be used for paper production and after recycling, the used paper can...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Technology assessment; Crop husbandry; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19458/1/Entropy_of_energy_crops_and_GHG_mitigation_s.pdf
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Spelt - a pilot crop to strengthen co-operation between farmers, food processors, distributors and consumers Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
In the beginning of the 1990's, spelt cultivation in Finland was rather unknown. First cultivation experiments at the organic research farm of MTT/Agricultural Engineering Research (Vakola) were done in co-operation with some farmers since 1993. Many farmers showed interest in cultivating spelt because of curiosity about crops suitable for organic farming, competition leadership by marketing new niche products, and consumers demand for healthy and high quality food produced pro-environmentally. Constraints like lack of certified organic seeds, missing national legislation for propagation of spelt seeds, unsuitable drilling machines, inappropriate dehusking machinery, and lack of marketing infrastructure are compensated by a wide product range made of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Markets and trade Community development Processing; Packaging and transportation Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://orgprints.org/618/1/NJF%2DSeminar_327_Copenhagen_6%2D3%2D2002.PDF
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Idea and practice of inclusive farming Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Inclusive farming (INCLUFAR) - Transfer of concepts, experiences, skills, and training tools for social farming and eco-social inclusion is an innovation transfer project within the Lifelong Learning Leonardo da Vinci funding scheme of the EU. The results were gathered during the project period from October 2013 until September 2015.Why INCLUFAR? First, Finland signed the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and is presently adjusting the legislation accordingly. Second, the results of the public consultation on the review of the EU-policy on organic agriculture conducted by the directorate general for agriculture and rural development in 2013 shows that economic and social dimension have the highest priority.Third, social farming and...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Social aspects; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Landscape and recreation; Quality and evaluation of inputs.
Ano: 2016
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Methodical Problems in Organic Farming Research Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Workshop presentation with particular focus on values, transferability and praxis relevance of organic farming research. Examples from agricultural engineering lead to the conclusion, that prototype farming, goal oriented project management, participative decision making and funding, coaching of co-operation, and coaching of conflict management may enhance long term, holistic and interdisciplinary research.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Research methodology and philosophy; Indicators and other value-laden measures; Systems research and participatory research; Specific methods.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/4559/1/Seminar_12%2D12%2D02.pdf
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Sustainability, overall and process efficiency of energy crops Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
A method to calculate efficiency of energy crop production including sun energy, direct and indirect energy for cultivation, processing, and conversion into fuel is demonstrated using rape and derived fuels as an example. Every production and conversion step is a process and calculated separately. The overall efficiency includes energy input and output of all processes. The process efficiency of rape cultivation reaches in Finland up to 1100 %. However, the overall energy efficiency of rape methyl ester (RME) is 1 to 2 ‰ only. The production of biogas from manure of dairy fed by rape meal results in a process energy efficiency of 33 to 41 %, but the overall energy efficiency of RME and biogas together is only 1.2 to 2.5 ‰. In contrast, thermal or...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Recycling; Balancing and resource management.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/15164/1/ECOMIT_Sch%C3%A4fer_2008.pdf
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Two phase automatic digestion of solid dairy manure Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Agrifood Research Finland completed a feasibility study concerning on-farm dry fermentation. The study included the documentation of a prototype plant of a dairy farm at Järna about 50 km south of Stockholm. Interesting features of the plant are amongst others the recycling of a second-hand smokestack as reactor material, the inclined first reactor for mixing the solid manure by gravity force, the bottomless drawer technique for discharging, the fixed film technique for rapid methane generation, and a manure compost produced with low nitrogen losses. The recently developed technology is in the process of testing and refinement. The local association of farms, horticulture enterprises, food processing units, food stores, and consumers in Järna aims to...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farm nutrient management Buildings and machinery Recycling; Balancing and resource management.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/15165/1/Sch%C3%A4fer_26.11.2008.pdf
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Energy efficiency of fossil and renewable fuels Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Assessment results of renewable energy supply in agriculture and forestry are often questionable because 1. the methodology does not describe the nature dependent conditions of agricultural production, 2. there is no standard system boundary, 3. thermodynamic laws are violated and/or ignored, 4. direct and embodied energy is mixed, 5. the mainstream life cycle analysis (LCA) takes downstream and upstream inputs arbitrarily into consideration, depending on the research objectives and the research-funding agency. Thus, the calculation results neglect a wide range of specific energy input figures of upstream and downstream factors outside farm level resulting in non-comparable figures. The EROI describes the ratio between energy output and...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2016
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Technique of pneumatic pest control Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Objectives: Pest control in organic production of berries, potatoes and vegetables usually employs spreading technique of registered phytopharmaceutical agents. This technique may be supported or even replaced by pneumatic pest control. Up to now there is no evaluation of pneumatic pest control available from agricultural engineering point of view. This paper concerns the following questions: Which techniques of pneumatic pest control are available and how may these techniques be improved in terms of technical and physical parameters? Hypothesis: Analysis of pneumatic pest control techniques supports improvement of present available implements. Method: Literature review, process analysis, and evaluation in respect of agricultural engineering parameters...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/880/1/Pneumatic_pest_control.PDF
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Technique of pneumatic pest control – analyses and a new device Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Pest control in organic production of berries, potatoes and vegetables usually employs spreading technique of registered phytopharmaceutical agents. This technique may be supported or even replaced by pneumatic pest control. Pneumatic pest control means suction of pest using a vacuum device similar to a home vacuum cleaner. Up to now there is no evaluation of pneumatic pest control available from an agricultural engineering point of view. This paper concerns the following questions: Which techniques of pneumatic pest control are available and how may these techniques be improved in terms of technical and physical parameters? Based on the answers a new device design is presented.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/4667/1/4667.pdf
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Biogas on-farm: energy and material flow Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Objectives: European countries are committed to reduce CO2 emission originating from fossil fuels. On-farm produced biogas may replace energy produced from fossil fuels and so contribute to achieve the target. Up to now only in Germany a greater number of on-farm biogas plants has been established. The data of these plants can be used to evaluate cost and benefit of on-farm biogas production in other European countries. This paper concerns the following questions: Which parameters of biogas plant construction and operation have an influence on profit and sustainability of biogas production on-farm? Hypothesis: A biogas plant integrated within a self-contained farm organism is economically more competitive and more sustainable than an industrial...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Buildings and machinery Greenhouses and coverings Farm economics Recycling; Balancing and resource management.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/1299/1/Schaefer_2003_Biogas_on%2Dfarm.pdf
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Zur Bewertung der Nachhaltigkeit von Biokraftstoffen Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Crop production is a conversion process of sun energy into biomass. Both the cultiva-tion area and the insolation stroking this area limit the energy output of the globe. Thus, food and energy crop production compete for insolation and area. LCA (ISO 14040) was developed for industrial products. Use of LCA in the field of organic farm-ing neglects usually input of sun energy, cultivation area and other basic inputs like precipitation, wind, the geochemical cycle, genetic information and propagation. In well to wheel analysis of biofuels the well corresponds to sun energy and the wheel to draught. A suitable tool for environmental accounting of organic bio fuel production is the emergy analysis. As a measure for sustainability of renewable fuel production,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Research methodology and philosophy Indicators and other value-laden measures Knowledge management Recycling; Balancing and resource management.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14115/2/0801_Sch%C3%A4fer_14115_e.doc
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LIVING ON FARM – A NEW APPROACH OF COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE (CSA) Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
The development of living on farm is described from an agricultural engineer's point of view focussing on opportunities for elderly in Finland. There are three main groups: Anthroposophical social farms, farms governed by a strict ecological philosophy of life, and farms looking for diversifi­cation concerning ecology, business and on-farm living communities. However, the boundaries between these groups are fluid. The farms may create additional income by offering accommodation, janitorial and transport services, basic and other services to people, who want to live on the farm. Thus, the traditional target of community supported farms - processing and selling the farm products to a community of customers - is considerably extended. In the long run, the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Recycling; Balancing and resource management Social aspects Education; Extension and communication Landscape and recreation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23601/1/63601%20Sch%C3%A4fer%20Living%20on%20farm.pdf
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Two phase continuous digestion of solid manure on-farm: design, mass and nutrient balance Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Evers, Lars; Lehto, Marja; Sorvala, Sanna; Teye, Frederick; Granstedt, Artur.
During the last decade some so called ‘dry fermentation’ prototype plants were developed for anaerobic digestion of organic material containing 15-50 % total solids. These plants show added advantages com-pared to slurry digestion plants: Less reactor volume, less process energy, less transport capacity, less odour emissions. However on-farm dry fermentation plants are not common and rarely commercially available. This paper reports about an innovative two phase prototype biogas plant designed for continuous digestion of solid dairy cattle manure.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farm nutrient management; Buildings and machinery; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/6592/1/rapport2005.pdf
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Biogas aus Festmist – eine neue Technologie zu Schließung des Nährstoff- und Energiekreislaufes auf dem landwirtschaftlichen Betrieb Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Evers, Lars; Lehto, Marja; Sorvala, Sanna; Teye, Frederick; Granstedt, Artur.
The Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna developed at the farm Yttereneby a two phase biogas plant. The plant digests manure of dairy cattle and organic residues originating from the farm and the surrounding food processing units containing 17,7 - 19,6 % dry matter. A new technology for continuously filling and discharging the biogas reactor was developed and implemented. Digestion residues are separated into a solid fraction for composting and into a liquid fraction. The solid fraction is suitable for aerobic composting. Initial results show that anaerobic digestion and following aerobic composting of the solid fraction improves the nitrogen balance of the farm compared to mere aerobic composting. Composted biogas plant residues and effluent together...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general Dairy cattle Recycling; Balancing and resource management Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/3459/1/3459.pdf
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Nutrient balance of a two-phase solid manure biogas plant Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Evers, Lars; Lehto, Marja; Sorvala, Sanna; Teye, Frederick; Granstedt, Artur.
So called "dry fermentation" prototype plants for anaerobic digestion of organic material containing 15-50 % total solids show added advantages compared to slurry digestion plants (Hoffman 2001): Less reactor volume, less process energy, less transport capacity, less odour emissions. However on-farm dry fermentation plants are not common and rarely commercially available. Recent on-farm research (Kusch & Oechsner 2004) and prototype research (Linke 2004) show promising technical solutions for dry fermentation batch reactors on-farm. The Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna developed a two-phase on-farm biogas plant. The plant digests manure of dairy cattle and organic residues originating from the farm and the surrounding food processing units...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farm nutrient management; Buildings and machinery; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/6542/1/nj372.pdf
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Biogas plant in Järna Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Granstedt, Artur; Evers, Lars.
The Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna developed an on-farm biogas plant integrated within the highly self-supporting farm organism, Skilleby-Yttereneby, one of the farms studied in the BERAS project. The biogas plant digests dairy cattle manure and organic residues originating from the farm and the surrounding food processing units.
Tipo: Report chapter Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects; Animal husbandry.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/7041/1/ekolantbruk46.pdf
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