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Adaptation of batch experiment data to the design of anaerobic continuous digesters CIGR Journal
Igoni, Asinyetogha H..
The design of a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the processing of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas required an investigation of the kinetic parameters of the substrate relevant to the determination of reactor dimensions. The determination of these parameters is usually complicated with an experimental CSTR set-up. Therefore, it is preferred to use a batch-scale experimentation to determine the parameters. However, because of the differences between the batch and continuous processing, the batch experimentation parameters cannot be directly applied to the design of the CSTR. Some previous researchers had made a comparative evaluation of the batch and continuous processing systems, and developed a procedure for adapting batch...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Farm Power Engineering; Renewable Energy batch experiment data anaerobic continuous digester biogas production municipal solid waste.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3322
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Adaptation of high-temperature storage for multiplier bulb sets under Philippine condition CIGR Journal
Dela Cruz, Renita Sta. Maria; Flores, Edgar D..
The study addressed the problem of inadequate technologies that could be utilized for the storage of multiplier bulb sets considering the limited on-farm resources and practices of the farmers producing multiplier onions.  The application of high temperature storage which was found to be technically and financially viable under certain conditions by several researchers (Tripathi and Lawande, 2006; Jallorina, 2012; Idago, Dela Cruz and Miranda, 2015) was evaluated in comparison with the existing storage practices.  The storage study was done for two cropping seasons, 2016-2017, with a total of six farmer-cooperators from Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur and Nueva Ecija.  Comparison of the quality and quantity indicators as affected by the high temperature storage...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Postharvest technology; Storage multiplier onion bulb sets high-temperature storage storage loss.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5383
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Adaptation Of Integrated Irrigation System To Mitigate Climate Change With Respect To Gender-Sensitive CIGR Journal
Dawit, Meseret; Dinka, Megersa Olumana.
Water shortages due to climate change are becoming a global concern. Hence, improved irrigation technology resulted in water saving and reduce workload of women by ensuring investment returns. This study aims at investigating the effects of the adoption of drip irrigation combined with hand-dug wells on crop water productivity and crop yield of smallholder farmers and their perception of the scheme over two cropping seasons at Haramaya districts, Ethiopia. It was observed that the integrated irrigation system is an efficient and cost-effective method to improve crop productivity. Consequently, the drip irrigation system with water supply from hand-dug wells is recommended as a flexible system that can accommodate a variety of farm sizes and particularly...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Climate change mitigation and adaptation; Crop yield; Gender sensitive; Integrated drip irrigation; Water use; Water-efficiency.
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/6509
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Adaption of Modified Brush Cutter for Rice Harvesting CIGR Journal
DIXIT, JAGVIR.
An existing 1.5kW brush cutter was modified and evaluated with the view to adapt a low-cost rice harvesting machine.  The modifications included replacing existing blade with circular saw blade, incorporating a guider and a driver to lay down the harvested crop in swath and attachment of a harness belt for easy and comfortable operation. The machine was evaluated keeping in view major influencing factors i.e., crop establishment (conventional transplanting, system of rice intensification (SRI), and mechanical transplanting), blade type (B1: 40 teeth, pitch 1.92 and B2: 80 teeth, pitch 0.96) and straw moisture content (38-42, 33-37 and  28-32%, w.b). The results showed that the height of cut was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the crop...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Brush cutter; Rice harvesting; Crop establishment; Straw moisture content; Blade type; Height of cut; Fuel consumption; Grain loss; Cutting efficiency.
Ano: 2022 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/7103
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Adsorption of p-cresol on Granular Activated Carbon CIGR Journal
Lalitendu Das; North Carolina State University Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Praveen Kolar; North Carolina State University; Jason Osborne; North Carolina State University Department of Statistics; John Classen; North Carolina State University Biological and Agricultural Engineering.
Swine farming emit several odorous volatile organic compounds, one of which is p-cresol. Considering the layout of a swine barn, adsorption is one of the most suitable technologies for mitigating organic pollutants. In this study, commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) was tested as an adsorbent for removing p-cresol from aqueous solution. The objectives were to: 1) determine the combined effect of temperature, pH, and adsorbent dose on adsorption, (2) investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids and aldehydes on adsorption of p-cresol, (3) determine adsorption kinetics and isotherms, (4) study the effect of solvent on adsorption, (5) propose a possible mechanism of adsorption, and (6) discuss practical implications and design calculations for...
Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering Adsorption; P-cresol; Activated carbon; Kinetics; Isotherms; RSM.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2171
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Aerial Spray Deposition on Corn Silks Applied at High and Low Spray Rates CIGR Journal
Bradley K Fritz; USDA-ARS.
 Corn earworm is a major pest of sweet corn, especially when grown organically. Aerial application of insecticides is important for both conventionally- and organically-grown sweet corn production as sweet corn is frequently irrigated to assure return on investment given the high production costs. Aerial insecticide application costs can be minimized through use of reduced spray rates if insecticide efficacy can be maintained at the lower spray rates. The objectives of the study were to characterize deposition on field corn silks when applied at 47.9 L/ha (with VMDs at 230 and 400 μm) and 86.2 L/ha (with VMD at 400 μm) spray rates. Applications of the bioinsecticide, Gemstar®, and the insecticide, Entrust®, which are both approved for use in organic...
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1360
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Aerodynamic and some physical properties of sunflower seeds as affected by moisture content CIGR Journal
chavoshgoli, esmaeil khalil; abdollahpour, shamsollah; abdi, reza; babaie, aziz; ,.
Abstract: The physical and aerodynamic characteristics of seeds can strongly influence their movements in the agricultural machine as well as in the air.  The knowledge of the physical characteristics of particles is essential for the constructors and operators of agricultural machines.  In this research some physical and aerodynamic properties of two Iranian edible seeds of sunflower cultivars (Badami and Doursefid) were studied in the moisture content range from 7% to 30% wet basis (w.b.).  With decrease in moisture content the true density of Badami and Doursefid decreased from 561.02 to 457.29 kg/m3 and 509.35 to 440.50 kg/m3, respectively.  For studying aerodynamic properties (terminal velocity and drag coefficient) the ratio of mass (g) to projected...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Sunflower seed; Physical properties; Aerodynamic properties.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2662
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Agarwood manufacturing: a multidisciplinary opportunity for economy of Bangladesh - a review CIGR Journal
Chowdhury, Milon; Hussain, Md. Daulat; Chung, Sun-Ok; Kabir, Ehsanul; Rahman, Afroja.
A variety of methods, ranging from natural to artificial, which have been practiced for producing agarwood and the economic opportunity related with this field in Bangladesh were reviewed. The anatomy of agar tree was also described. Agarwood is the fragrant resin-infused wood derived from the wounded trees of Aquilaria species. It is a valuable non-timber forest product used in fragrances and medicine. Artificial agarwood inducing methods serve as a way to supply agarwood and conserve the wild Aquilaria stock. The existing artificial methods are Nailing, Drilling, Aeration, Agar-wit, Partly-Trunk-Pruning, Burning-Chisel-Drilling, Fungi-Inoculation, etc. The quality of agar mostly depends on the plant species and the fungal species, as well as certain...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aquilaria; Anatomy of Aquilaria; Agarwood induction; Economy.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3293
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Agricultural Engineering Profession; The Perspective of Employers of Labour in Ilorin, Nigeria CIGR Journal
Oyebode, Oyetayo Olukorede; Ogunlela, Ayodele Olarewaju.
An appraisal was carried out on the level of awareness of the Agricultural Engineering profession by employers of labour in Ilorin, Nigeria, to evaluate who they (employers of labour) think an Agricultural Engineer is, how relevant they think he is to their organizations and how well they have been able to make use of his (Agricultural Engineer’s) expertise in their respective organizations. This was done using structured questionnaires and personal communication. The questionnaires were distributed to the target groups and persons (these include Research Institutes, Production and Manufacturing Industries, Government Ministries, Agencies and Parastatals). The results showed that 79.8% of the respondents were of the opinion that Agricultural Engineers can...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Profession; Employers of Labour; Ilorin.
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5362
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Agriculture Land Development Using Shell Husk as Recycle Aggregate CIGR Journal
Rachmawati, Siti Hanggita; Hossain, Zakaria; Shiau, Jim.
Effective ground improvement technique is normally needed in improving agriculture land condition. This is to accommodate agriculture activities which have operational loadings due to tractor or rice transplanter. The use of soil - shell husk - cement combination is considered as one of the possible ground improvement techniques and it is environmental friendly. In this study, several combinations of waste shell husk and cement are investigated for its effect on soil shear strength and bearing capacity. Specimens containing 10% and 20% of waste shell husk along with 2%, 4%, 6% cement were tested using California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Direct Shear Test and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS). Test results show that the addition of shell husk and cement...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Sub discipline (farm structural) waste shell husk ground improvement; CBR; Direct shear test; UCS.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4875
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Agroindustry for Drying Pink Pepper (Aroeira) CIGR Journal
de Carvalho, Ricardo Oliano; Machado, Miguel Borges; Lopes, Raquel Soares; Scherer, Vinícius Saldanha; Cruz, Wagner Alexandre; da Luz, Maria Laura G. Silva; da Luz, Carlos Alberto Silveira; Gadotti, Gisele Ingrid; Gomes, Mário Conill.
The pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) is a tree native to Atlantic whose planting is seen as an alternative to agricultural diversification. Besides being suitable for reforestation, its fruit, known as pink pepper, pepper or brazilia-poivre rose, is widely used in European cuisine. This paper aimed to design an agribusiness for processing the fruits of 100 trees planted in planting planned or consortium, as well as restore degraded areas, this needs a small area for planting. Lining surveyed the procedures used for drying of pink pepper as well as those required for the marketing of this spice patterns. The starting process is the manual collection and pre-cleaning stage where pepper is separated from branches and leaves, the product follows after...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pepper; Agro industry..
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3109
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Air and Spray Mixture Temperature Effects on Atomization of Agricultural Sprays CIGR Journal
Wesley Clint Hoffmann; USDA-ARS; Bradley K Fritz; USDA-ARS; Daniel E Martin; USDA-ARS.
spray drift associated with agrochemical operations is highly dependent upon the physical properties of the spray solution with respect to how they influence atomization.  This study examined two spray solutions across a wide range of solution temperatures for two nozzles spraying into two high speed airstreams.  The dynamic surface tension and viscosity of the spray solutions were also measured across the range of temperatures.  Generally as the solution temperature increased, the dynamic surface tension and viscosity both decreased.  This decrease in physical properties was directly related to the decrease in spray droplet size for all nozzles and airspeeds tested.  Monitoring of spray solution temperature throughout the spray system of a typical...
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1730
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Air drying kinetics and quality characteristics of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) influenced by osmotic dehydration CIGR Journal
Kaur, Kulwinder; Kumar, Satish; Alam, Mohammad Shafiq.
The study on osmotic pretreatment of oyster mushrooms was carried out in order to remove the moisture prior to further mechanical drying.  Three salt concentration level (10, 15 and 20 g/100 g), two temperature levels of osmotic solution (30 and 45°C) and constant solution to mushroom ratio of 10 (w/v) were selected and the observations on water loss and solid gain were taken at an interval of 30 min up to 300 min.  The osmotically pretreated samples were further dried up to its equilibrium moisture content in a tray drier at 60°C and experimental data were fitted successfully using Page and Henderson & Pabis model.  The osmo-convective dehydrated samples were evaluated for its quality parameters i.e. color (L, a, b, ∆E, C* and h°), rehydration ratio...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Oyster mushrooms; Osmotic dehydration; Water loss; Solid gain; Drying; Quality.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2831
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Air temperature and final grain moisture effects on drying time and milling quality in two types of fluidized bed dryer CIGR Journal
Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Rahmati, Mohammad Hashem; Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza.
Drying process is one of the important stages in paddy milling process and plays a key role in the product quality.  In this modified the effects of air temperature (40°C, 50°C and 60°C) and final paddy grain moisture content (8-9%, 9-10% and 10-11% d.b.) were examined on the drying time and milling properties in fluidized bed dryer with two heating sources (infrared radiation and heater types).  The experimental design was randomized complete design with factorial layout in which three levels of final paddy grain moisture content, three levels of air temperature and two types of dryers with three replications in each treatment.  The results indicated that the lowest cracked grain (8.01%) was related to the air temperature of 40°C and the moisture content...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Paddy drying; Milling recovery; Fluidized bed dryer; Infrared radiation.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3733
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Air-assisted velocity profiles and perceptive canopy interactions of commercial airblast sprayers used in Pacific Northwest perennial specialty crop production CIGR Journal
Khot, Lav R.
This study aimed at providing a data-driven understanding of air velocity profiles for four commercial airblast sprayers widely used in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. The Rear’s Powerblast (S1) and Pakblast (S2), Turbomist 30P (S3), and Columbia Accutec (S4) were evaluated using the Smart Spray Analytical System (Bahlol et al., 2020). Air velocity contour profiles and geometrical attributes (symmetry and uniformity) were characterized on two sides as well as at three horizontal distances from the outlet (0.6, 1.5, and 2.1 m) of each sprayer. The air velocity profiles were matched to vertical canopy zones of three typical perennial specialty crops (cherry, apple, and grapevine) to identify their suitability. Air velocity...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Perennial specialty crops; Airblast sprayers; Smart spray analytical system; Air velocity patterns; Symmetry; Uniformity; Sprayer adjustments..
Ano: 2022 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/7039
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Alcohols as a Means to Inhibit the Formation of Precipitates in Blends of Biodiesel and Fossil Diesel Fuel CIGR Journal
Munack, Axel; Schmidt, Lasse; Schröder, Olaf; Schaper, Kevin; Pabst, Christoph; Krahl, Jürgen; ,.
The European diesel fuel specification limits the biodiesel content to 7 %. It is, however, desirable to increase the amount of renewables in the transport sector; therefore blending with a higher biogenic fuel content is of interest. Blending of fuels can lead to chemical reactions between fuel components and may result in undesired products. In detail, aged biodiesel from unsaturated FAME and fossil diesel fuels can form oligomers and precipitations with a maximum in the range of B10 to B20. Precursors are oligomers that can be separated from the biodiesel or the blends in an amount of up to 20 %. These oligomers seem to have potency for chemical reactions with fuel components or the engine oil. To prevent tentative problems in the fuel filter, the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Alcohol; Biodiesel; Emission; Oligomer; Precipitate; Germany.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3082
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ALMOND OIL: POWERHOUSE OF NUTRIENTS CIGR Journal
Akubude, VIVIAN Chimezie; Maduako, Josaphat; Egwuonwu, Celestine; Ajala, Elijah Olawale; Olaniyan, Adesoji Matthew; Ozumba, Isaac Chinedu; Nwosu, Caesar.
The relative abundance of almond seed in several tropical regions of the world coupled with the little knowledge of its utilization in vegetable oil production prompted the need for this review. The aim is to review almond oil expression through different extraction/expression approach, the economic and health benefits of almond oil, and the challenges and prospects of almond oil extraction in Nigeria. This review covers the recent significant materials found in the literature on almond seed and oil extraction/expression. Almond oil is an essential oil packed with a lot of nutrients that are beneficial to human health. Therefore, it is important to devise better approach for maximum oil extraction/ expression.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Almond seed; Vegetable oil; Oil expression methods; Nutritional content..
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5593
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Alternative biomass furnace wall material from biomass furnace ash CIGR Journal
Flores, Edgar Dulay.
Biomass furnace ash (BFA) generated from drying of grains in mechanical dryers were blended with cement in varying ratio of 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7 and 1:8 by volume.  Each composition was cured in an ambient condition for 7, 14 and    28 days and determined their properties such as density, porosity, compressive strength and thermal shock resistance.  Cold crushing strength increased with increasing cement content and curing time.  Likewise, density increased with increasing cement content and curing time while porosity showed the other way.  All the sample compositions exceeded 30 cycles without any crack when subjected to thermal shock resistant cycles of heating and cooling using a firing temperature of 1000oC in an electric muffle furnace.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biomass; Rice husk; Ash; Furnace; Mechanical dryer.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3944
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Alternative fuels and their potentials for tractor engines CIGR Journal
Akande, Fatai Bukola; Oniya, Oluawatoyin Oluwole; Adgidzi, Donald.
The entire world is aware of the adverse effect of global warming as a result of depletion of the ozone layer and the greenhouse gas (GHG) effect.  This study takes a critical look on the review of already existing alternative fuels that produce less emission or no emission at all.  The advantages of the alternative fuels are highlighted and exhaustively discussed.  The types of fuel engine systems are also discussed.  The possibility of using compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel in tractor engines and other agricultural machines is investigated in terms of power generation, fuel economic indices and engine system dynamics.  Based on the study, CNG is more economical and can be used to power tractor engine with a reduced frequency of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Keywords: alternative fuels; Compressed natural gas engine; Tractor diesel engine; Fuel-engine systems; Vehicle performance characteristics; Vehicle emission characteristics.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1088
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An active role of systemic fungicides to curb wheat powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici CIGR Journal
Esmail, Samar Mohamed; Draz, Ibrahim Sobhy.
Efficacy of five systemic fungicides (flusilazole, propiconazole, diniconazole, cyproconazole and tetraconazol) in curbing powdery mildew disease of wheat (Sakha93) and its impact on yield components were evaluated under field condition during two successive season. Both fungicides, propiconazole and diniconazole exhibited the highest value of efficacy (88.80% each) recording the lowest rate of disease infection (1 each). The contrast was noticed with tetraconazol (55.50% efficacy, 4 disease infection) with significant differences to untreated control during both seasons. The results of fungicide application reflected on yield components where 1000-kernel and 1000-ml weights recorded the highest values with propiconazole (49.03 g and 742.65 g) followed by...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Wheat; Powdery mildew; Fungicide activity; Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; SEM examination.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4716
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