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Business Rationale for Investment on Power Operated Maize Sheller in Bangladesh CIGR Journal
Swapan K Roy; Mike Albu; Abdur Rob.
A study was carried out to investigate the investment of a selected agro-machinery power operated Maize Sheller in the course of mechanization of Bangladesh. The analysis considers different types of Maize Sheller, and inter-regional differences in agro-economic factors that influence the business rationale for investment. Maize Shellers are increasingly needed to serve demand from poultry sector because manual shelling is very laborious. Comparing with manual shelling, results indicate that power operated Maize Shellers look like a wise investment (5 – 8 acres for 25% internal rate of return or IRR). However, it makes economic sense to operate shellers at higher capacities, and along with the high capital cost (Tk1 18,000 – 22,000) to save large numbers...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/958
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A Review of Fixed Bed Gasification Systems for Biomass CIGR Journal
Sangeeta Chopra; Anil K Jain.
The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. The fixed bed gasification systems are classified as updraft, Imbert downdraft, throatless downdraft, crossdraft and two stage gasifiers. Updraft gasifiers are suitable for gasification of biomass containing high ash (up to 15 %) and high moisture content (up to 50 %) and generate producer gas having high tar content (50–100 g/Nm3). The high temperature (830 oC) air gasification of biomass in updraft gasifiers increase the lower calorific value of producer gas and reduce the tar content. The updraft gasifiers have been used for gasification of bark, wood blocks, chips and pellets, straw, maize cobs, refuse derived fuel (RDF), and waste pellets with air and...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/960
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Unmanned Rice-Transplanting Operation Using a GPS-Guided Rice Transplanter with Long Mat-Type Hydroponic Seedlings CIGR Journal
Y. Nagasaka; H. Kitagawa; A. Mizushima; N. Noguchi; H. Saito; K. Kobayashi.
A low-cost guidance system was developed for a global positioning system (GPS)-guided automated rice transplanter. In 2005, the already available GPS-guided automated rice transplanter was modified to carry long mat-type hydroponic rice seedlings and attached an herbicide-dripping machine. The use of long mat-type hydroponic rice seedlings allows ricetransplanting operations to be carried out on a 0.3 ha standard-size Japanese field without the need to supply additional seedlings. Fully automated rice transplantation was achieved with the modified transplanter. To reduce the costs of the transplanter, the expensive fiber-optic posture sensor was replaced by a low-cost posture sensor, developed at Hokkaido University, for measuring the heading angle and...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/939
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Experimental and Numerical Modeling of VersaTrap Type G CIGR Journal
M. Ismail; H. Nikraz.
This paper presents the processes and results of experiments carried out on the solids separation performance of a vortex combination. The vortex is generated in a cylindrical chamber above the level of a cylindrical screen. Rocla VersaTrap type G (VTG) which is designed to treat stormwater pollutants from commercial and residential developments was used in this research. Experimental and numerical analysis were conducted on the scale model to establish the hydraulic characteristics and pollutant removal efficiencies (PRE). To replicate typical in situ conditions, the VTG with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% blocked screen conditions, were experimentally tested at Curtin University of Technology. Comparing Computational Fluid Dynamic simulation and experimental...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1283
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Latest Trends In Automotive Electronic Systems - Highway Meets Off-Highway? CIGR Journal
S. Rathmann; R. Fischerkeller.
The rapid development of electronic systems in automotive vehicles has been driven for decades by constantly growing requirements of legislation for environmental protection, as well as rising demands of the end-user to improve fuel economy, safety, driving comfort and driving excitement. The manufacturers of mobile work machines also see themselves increasingly confronted with these requirements. Can Robert Bosch GmbH use the technical experiences from automobiles also in this area to efficiently develop high-quality electronic systems, which are future-oriented and be able to flexibly adapt the systems to different platforms? The number of calibration parameters for example in an engine management system has risen within the last 20 years from a few...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/943
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X-By-Wire via ISOBUS Communication Network CIGR Journal
M. Ehrl; H. Auernhammer.
Satellite based guidance technology is a very challenging principle for future automation of agricultural machinery. The first generation types of systems are primarily self-contained solutions and added to the existing system set-up of the tractor. As being an important step towards robotics in agricultural machines, a better integration of this technology into the mechanical, hydraulic and especially the electronic architecture is a major issue. In principle, there are two main strategies for the integration. One is a concept based on a proprietary, manufacturer specific approach. The other one is to map as many functions as possible into the just state of the art becoming open and standardized ISOBUS. Within this paper, the capabilities of ISOBUS to be...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/933
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Path Planning Algorithms for Agricultural Machines CIGR Journal
T. Oksanen; A. Visala.
If the field plot shape is not rectangular and if it contains obstacles, the coverage path planning problem is hard to solve for a non-omnidirectional machine. Scientists have developed several algorithms to solve this coverage path planning problem, but all of them have pros and cons. If the machines were omnidirectional and turning times were decreased to insignificant, the problem would be quite easy to solve using known robotic path planning methods. Traditional agricultural machines, like tractors, tractor-trailer combinations, self-propelled harvesters and other man-driven machines are slow to turn at headlands. This is the most differentiating property of the problem formulation compared to traditional robotic coverage path planning, which has dealt...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/940
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Farmers’ Perception of Factors Affecting Productivity in Yau Irrigation Scheme, Nigeria. CIGR Journal
C. J. Ejieji; M F. Amodu.
A survey of the farmers in the Yau irrigation scheme, Borno State, Nigeria was conducted in the 2005/2006 irrigation season on their views concerning the factors contributing to the declining productivity of the scheme. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 256 randomly selected farmers to obtain information on demography, cropping and farmers’ scoring of six categories of factors on a 0 to 3 Likert-type scale denoting no effect, small, big, and very big effect respectively. The factors were grouped into climatic/ecological, sociocultural, economic, competition, management/administrative and technological categories. The frequencies of the scores were subjected to chi-square analysis. The factors in the management/administrative category; high...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1035
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Entrepreneurship Development in Agriculture through Agro Processing Centre: a Case Study of Almora District in NW Himalaya CIGR Journal
K. P Singh; A. K Srivastva; K. Srinivas; S. R. K Singh; H. S Gupta.
This study was conducted by Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture, Almora (India) to enhance entrepreneurship in the unemployed educated youths in North-Western Himalayas, who otherwise are migrating from hills in search of employment and livelihood. An agro-processing centre (APC) was established with the institutional support and was operational through an entrepreneur. The establishment cost of INR 2,19,000 was borne by the institute. The entrepreneur invested INR 1,66,255 for purchasing raw food grains. Total annual cost (Operational cost + Rental value of APC and storage building) was INR 27956. Annual income of INR 95,145/- was generated from sale of the processed products in brand name of “HIMRAJ” apart from generating income of INR 27,867 by...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/957
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Recycling and Assessment of Struvite Phosphorus from Sewage Sludge CIGR Journal
Juergen Kern; ATB; Bernd Heinzmann; BWB; Bennar Markus; HU Berlin; Anne Catherine Kaufmann; HU Berlin; Nathalie Soethe; HU Berlin; Christof Engels; HU Berlin.
AbstractThis study presents an integrated approach for the recovery of P from the wastewater path. Since natural P sources are limited, recycling processes are making an increasingly important contribution to meeting the nutritional requirements of plant production. The groundwork for developing a new fertilizer from upgraded sewage sludge includes an evaluation of nutrients and heavy metal contents. Struvite (NH4MgPO4 • 6 H2O) derived from sewage sludge had a total P content of 6.1% with 3.5% being water-soluble. Plant availability was tested in pot experiments with wheat and maize. P uptake rates were 66.7% and 85.9%, respectively. In terms of heavy metal contents, struvite showed contaminant levels at least three times below the limiting values of the...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1071
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Disposal of Sea Bottom Sediments by Use as Raw Material for Concrete Elements CIGR Journal
D. Imai; A.H.A. Dabwan; S. Kaneco; H. Katsumata; T. Suzuki; M.Z. Hossain; K. Nakashima; T. Kato; K. Ohta.
The possibility of using sea bottom sediments as a substitute for fine sand aggregate was investigated for the fabrication of concrete solids and marine reefs. The proportions of raw materials in the concrete mixture were optimized, and the materials were evaluated with by testing their slump, air content, mass change, total shrinkage and compressive strength. In the short term, i.e. a curing age of 3 to 28 days, the compressive strengths of the concrete materials made with the sediments were better than those of the normal concrete blocks. Furthermore, after 187 days of curing, the compressive strengths were 44, 31 and 12 MPa respectively for the concrete products with a water-cement ratio (w/c) by weight of 0.47, 0.69 and 1.15 using the sediments. When...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1200
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Remote Assisted Task Management for ISOBUS Equipped Tractor- Implement Combination CIGR Journal
L. Pesonen; J. Kaivosoja; V. Virolainen; J. Oittinen; J. Kivipelto.
Efficient task management is a key to profitable use of an automated tractor-implement combination in the field. The information management system which is used to operate automation of the tractor-implement combination can be used to manage the external information such as to the task or surrounded environment related information, as well. User-friendly open operation environment that provides possibilities for intelligent on-line functions in the field and remote support via internet connections is introduced. The system utilizes open system interfaces and ICT standards, such as ISOBUS, to enable compatibility between different system parts. Wireless communication enables information exchange between off-road automation machines and external operators...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/942
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A Table Mounted Device for Cracking Dika Nut (Irvingia gabonensis) CIGR Journal
B. S. Ogusina; Obafemi Awolowo University,; O. A. Koya; Obafemi Awolowo University,; O. O. Adeosun; Obafemi Awolowo University.
A simply designed machine for cracking dika nut was fabricated. The nut is fed by hand inbetween a toggle mechanism comprising of the slider and a fixed block. Fracture mechanism was based on the deformation characteristics of dried dika nut under uni-axial compression. When actuated, the slider compresses the nutshell to failure along its line of symmetry. The experimental machine gave 100% cracking efficiency but with 24% kernel breakage in cracking sun-dried dika nut at 6.6% moisture content (w.b). The machine provides a viable and effective technique for safe dika kernel extraction.
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1096
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A Serial Domain Decomposition Method for Discrete Element Method Simulation of Soil–Wheel Interactions CIGR Journal
Hiroshi Nakashima; Kyoto University.
We applied a serial domain decomposition method (DDM) to our two-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) program and investigated the effectiveness of DDM in terms of computer hardware. The developed program could obtain sufficiently accurate results for wheel slip, traction, and gross traction, comparable to DEM without serial DDM. We also confirmed that the soil deformation field under the wheel for DEM with serial DDM was similar to that for DEM without DDM. Moreover, the increased sub-domain loop was effective in reducing computational time in the case of serial DDM. Since each sub-domain loop contains the time integration and coordinate update routine, further optimization of memory usage in our serial DDM may be possible, which would allow...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1239
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Data Points and Duration for Estimating Fuel Consumption of a Diesel Engine CIGR Journal
Dennis G. Watson; Tony V. Harrison; Richard W. Steffen.
Accurate measurement of fuel consumption is required to quantify the efficiency of an engine orpredict emissions. As part of a larger project, accurate instantaneous fuel consumption data was required for a John Deere 4045T diesel engine. While establishing test criteria, it became evident that literature did not provide clear recommendations on the number of data points or time duration for data collection, for a diesel engine. Fuel consumption tests were conducted using up to 15 data points of percent fuel rate and up to 15 min of data collection. ased on statistical analysis of test results, at least 2 data points (0% and 100% of fuel rate) and 2 min of data collection are recommended for similar fuel-injected, diesel engine fuel rate tests. When a...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1238
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The Mechanics of Fluid - Particle Systems CIGR Journal
R. H. Macmillan; University of Melbourne.
The study of the interaction of particles moving relative to fluids has had a long history and has led to many useful operations particularly in modern agriculture. Of special interest is the trajectory of particles and crop components but, until recently, it has not been possible to easily determine these. However with the recent publication of a trajectory plotting system and an associated monograph giving examples of its application, this need has now been met.Both should find ready application in education, research and design in the agricultural engineering industries. Copies of the trajectory plotting program and the associated monograph can be obtained at the addresses given in Section 4 below.
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1248
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Greenhouse Robot Navigation Using KLT Feature Tracking for Visual Odometry CIGR Journal
P. J Younse; T. F Burks.
A visual odometer was developed for an autonomous greenhouse sprayer to estimate vehicle translation and rotation relative to the world coordinate system during navigation. Digital images were taken from a CCD camera mounted on the robot. 7 x 7 pixel features were selected in the image using the KLT algorithm (Csetverikov, 2004). Features were tracked from image to image by finding the best 7 x 7 pixel match of the feature within a 25 x 25 pixel search box. By analyzing the movement of these features, vehicle rotation and translation were estimated. Five features were tracked with the odometer. Tests were run to verify the visual odometer’s accuracy during translation, rotation, and on various surfaces. The visual odometer ran at an average of 10 Hz during...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/946
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A Theoretical Approach for Determining Irregularities of the Bottom of the Tillage Layer Caused by Horizontal Axis Rotary Tillers CIGR Journal
Ahmed Celik; Ismail Ozturk; Thomas R. Way.
Horizontal axis rotary tillers produce irregularities in the tillage depth when they are inappropriately operated and constructed. In such cases, mixing and breaking of soil throughout the tillage layer is not uniform and some untilled ridges will remain at the bottom determining the effect of design and operational characteristics on the height of the resultant ridges at the bottom of the tillage layer. In this study, a method based on the derived geometrical relationships between the rotary tiller operational parameters was developed to determine heights of ridges occurring at the bottom of the tillage layer. The ridge heights can be calculated for various combinations of blade peripheral speed, forward travel speed, rotor radius, and the number of...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1168
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Low-Altitude Remote Sensing with Unmanned Radio-Controlled Helicopter Platforms: A Potential Substitution to Satellite-based Systems for Precision Agriculture Adoption under Farming Conditions in Developing Countries CIGR Journal
Kishore C Swain; H. P. W Jayasuriya; V. M Salokhe.
In developing countries with small and medium farm holdings, satellite-based remote sensing is found unsuitable for precision agriculture technology adoption, due to low spatial and high temporal resolution of imagery. Image acquisition system mounted on unmanned helicopter platforms can provide user-specified and near-real time images for quick assessment of the crop and soil status giving enough time for preventive measures. Use of appropriate sensor combinations to acquire geo-referenced images being corrected for orientation information, will make the system more flexible in terms of system integration, specific applications and total costs. Reflectance indices and band ratios obtained through Low-Altitude Remote Sensing (LARS) systems can precisely...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/967
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Atmospheric Effects on Fate of Aerially Applied Agricultural Sprays CIGR Journal
B. K. Fritz; USDA-ARS, College Station,; W. C. Hoffmann.
The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a numberof factors including equipment setup and operational parameters, spray material, and meteorological conditions. This work focuses on evaluating the meteorological influences on the transport and ultimate fate of aerially applied sprays. There was no single meteorological factor that dominated the downwind transport of the spray treatments replicated in this study. Generally, lower relative humidity decreased downwind deposition and the amount of spray unaccounted for due to evaporative effects. Increasing wind speeds decreased both in-swath deposition and downwind deposition, and increased the amount of mass unaccounted for.Increases in stability were only...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1241
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