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Aflatoxin removal of peanut meals with aqueous ethanol Scientia Agricola
Fonseca,H.; Regitano-d'Arce,M.A.B..
A preliminary approach to achieve compatible simultaneous extraction of aflatoxin and residual oil from pressed oil meals was conducted to determine the minimum amount of water to be added to ethanol versus necessary time to achieve complete removal of aflatoxin. Commercial anhydrous, 96, 93 and 90°GL ethanol were utilized in trials with Soxhlet extractors. Commercial anhydrous ethanol did not remove aflatoxin completely and the extraction efficiency in minutes was directly proportional to the amount of water present in the ethanol, as expected. Although 96°GL ethanol was efficient, alcoholic strengths between 96 and 99°GL need be evaluated to improve oil extraction, provided they do not decrease aflatoxin removal efficiency.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aflatoxin; Peanut meal; Oil meals; Removal; Extraction; Aqueous ethanol; Ethanol.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90161993000100021
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AFLP and SRAP markers linked to the mj gene for root-knot nematode resistance in cucumber Scientia Agricola
Devran,Zübeyir; Firat,Ahmet Fikret; Tör,Mahmut; Mutlu,Nedim; Elekçioğlu,Ibrahim Halil.
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are an important worldwide pest of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Molecular markers linked to the Javanese root-knot nematode (M. javanica) resistance gene mj in cucumber may aid marker assisted selection. One-hundred AFLP (EcoRI-MseI) and 112 SRAP were used to screen resistant and susceptible parents for polymorphisms to develop molecular markers linked to the mj gene. Of the 100 AFLP primers, 92 produced bands and two yielded candidate markers (E-ATT/M-CAA and E-AAC/M-CTG). These two bands were cut off from polyacrylamide gel, cloned and sequenced. Primers designed from the sequences did not yield polymorphic bands between the parents. In addition, the sequences did not contain any restriction site or indel to be...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Meloidogyne javanica; Resistance; Molecular breeding.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162011000100017
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Aggregate breakdown and dispersion of soil samples amended with sugarcane vinasse Scientia Agricola
Ribeiro,Bruno Teixeira; Lima,José Maria de; Curi,Nilton; Oliveira,Geraldo César de.
Soil aggregation is a very complex issue related to important soil attributes and processes. The aggregate breakdown and dispersion of soil samples amended with sugarcane vinasse were evaluated using ultrasonic energy. Vinasse is an important byproduct of sugarcane industries, intensively applied to soils in Brazil as liquid fertilizer. Samples of two Oxisols and one Ultisol were used in this study. The physical and chemical characterization of soils was performed, and the 1 to 2 mm size aggregates (200 g) were packed in PVC columns (6.0 cm high and 4.0 cm internal diameter) and incubated with sugarcane vinasse under lab conditions for 1, 30 and 60 days. After incubation, aggregates were submitted to levels of ultrasonic energy, and the particle size...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Soil-aggregate hierarchy; Soil structure; Aggregate stability; Dispersive energy.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162013000600009
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Aggregate distribution, stability and release of water dispersible clay for two subtropical Oxisols Scientia Agricola
Azevedo,Antonio Carlos de; Schulze,Darrel Gene.
The behavior of a soil regarding the dispersion and aggregation of its particles is very important for the development of environmental and agricultural soil functions. This study was conducted to determine how aggregate distribution and stability are impacted by land uses and how the release of Water Dispersible Clay (WDC) relates to disaggregation in Oxisols from subtropical Brazil. Samples from two Oxisols, collected at three depths from sites under no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and native vegetation (NV) land uses were shaken in 250 mL plastic bottles for intervals up to 27 hours. The mass of aggregates was measured in five size classes ranging from 53 to 2000 µm. Most aggregates larger than 500 mm disappeared during the first 7.5 hours of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Land use; Disaggregation; Soil tillage; Soil management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162007000100006
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Aggregation agents and structural stability in soils with different texture and organic carbon contents Scientia Agricola
Carrizo,María Eugenia; Alesso,Carlos Agustín; Cosentino,Diego; Imhoff,Silvia.
The flat pampas in the state of Santa Fe in Argentina have soils with high silt content, variable carbon content, and diverse degrees of structural degradation. Aggregate stability has been used as an indicator of the structural condition of the soil. This study aimed to quantify the effect of the addition of crop residues and root activity on the agents of aggregation and mechanisms of aggregate breakdown in soils with different carbon contents and textures cultivated under no-till. An experimental trial was conducted on a loamy soil (Typic Hapludoll, Santa Isabel series) and a silty soil (Typic Argiudoll, Esperanza series) under controlled conditions for 112 days with the following treatments: (i) with and without wheat plant growth and (ii) with and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Glomalin; Carbohydrates; Crop residues; Active roots.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162015000100075
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Aggressiveness and physiological specialization of Septoria tritici Rob. isolates Scientia Agricola
Gieco,Jorge Omar; Dubcovsky,Jorge; Camargo,Luis Eduardo Aranha.
Pathogenicity tests verifying the behavior of Septoria tritici isolates should be considered as a priority in the selection of resistant wheat materials to this pathogen, since the aggressiveness of each isolate can vary significantly, causing problems in the evaluation and selection of resistant genotypes. The objective of this work was to determine whether physiologic specialization exists among Argentinean and American Septoria tritici isolates, through the analysis of their pathogenicity on cultivars and lines of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiments were carried out in Castelar-Argentina and in Davis-USA. In Castelar, a split plot design (n = 4) was used. The cultivars or lines were randomized in the plots and the isolates in the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Mycosphaerella graminicola; Triticum aestivum; Leaf blotch; Vertical resistance; Horizontal resistance.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162004000400010
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Aggressiveness between genetic groups I and II of isolates of Cercospora zeae-maydis Scientia Agricola
Mathioni,Sandra Marisa; Carvalho,; Brunelli,Kátia Regiane; Beló,André; Camargo,Luis Eduardo Aranha.
For many years, the gray leaf spot disease (GLS) caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis Tehon & Daniels, was not considered an important pathogen of maize (Zea mays, L.) in Brazil. However, the recent adoption of agronomical practices such as no-tillage and cultivation under central pivot irrigation systems increased the incidence and severity to the extent that GLS is now one of the most important diseases of maize. Isolates of C. zeae-maydis can be distinguished by two genetic groups (I and II) based on AFLP markers and on polymorphisms of the ITS and 5.8S rDNA regions. Until now, however, the biological implications of this distinction remain unclear. This study investigated whether isolates from the two genetic groups differ in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Disease resistance; Gray leaf spot; Genetic variability; Pathogenicity.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162006000600006
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Agricultural use of treated sewage effluents: agronomic and environmental implications and perspectives for Brazil Scientia Agricola
Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Herpin,Uwe; Paula,Alessandra Monteiro de; Victória,Reynaldo Luiz; Melfi,Adolpho José.
In many studies worldwide the use of treated sewage effluents (TSE) as water and nutrient sources in agricultural irrigation have been introduced as a viable alternative for wastewater destination in the environment. Considering agronomic and environmental aspects the objectives of this review were: (i) to present an overview of TSE irrigation on different agro-systems (annual crops, orchards, forests and forages); and (ii) to show the principal changes on chemical, physical and microbiological soil characteristics after TSE application. Various studies have revealed that the nutrient supply only by TSE irrigation was not sufficient to meet plant nutrient requirements resulting in yield decreases. The problem could be solved by an adapted...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Wastewater; Water reuse; Nutrient source; Agriculture; Environmental impact.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162007000200014
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Agriculture and food security challenge of climate change: a dynamic analysis for policy selection Scientia Agricola
Ahmed,Ferdous; Al-Amin,Abul Quasem; Mohamad,Zeeda Fatimah; Chenayah,Santha.
ABSTRACT This study presents an empirical examination of climate change related to vulnerability impacts on food security and remedial adaptation options as a suitable strategy by prioritizing needs over a 50-year period. An Empirical Dynamic Commutable General Equilibrium Model for Climate and the Economy (EDCGECE) is applied using future strategies for Malaysia against a baseline scenario of existing conditions, following the top-down options. The model takes into account various climatic variables, including climatic damage, carbon cycle, temperature and rainfall fluctuation, carbon emissions, vulnerability and carbon concentrations, which were adapted from national observational predictions of climatic changes caused by global warming from 2015 to...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: CGE; Policy development; Strategies; Agricultural sustainability.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162016000400311
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Agriculture, habitat loss and spatial patterns of human occupation in a biodiversity hotspot Scientia Agricola
Diniz-Filho,José Alexandre Felizola; Oliveira,Guilherme de; Lobo,Fábio; Ferreira,Laerte Guimarães; Bini,Luis Mauricio; Rangel,Thiago Fernando Lopes Valle Brito.
The Cerrado biome, the second largest biome in Neotropical region, consists of a mosaic of different habitat types, ranging from open grasslands to dense woodlands and dry forests. An intensive recent occupation process has transformed it into the most important region for cattle ranching and intensive commodity crops in Brazil. In this study, a macroecological approach was used to evaluate broad-scale spatial patterns of habitat loss in the Brazilian Cerrado, applying a series of spatial autocorrelation and partial regression analyses to understand how the proportion of remaining natural habitats is correlated with socio-economic variables, expressing different dimensions of human occupation and climatic variation. On average, 59% of the area is occupied...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: MODIS; Brazilian Cerrado; Spatial autocorrelation.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162009000600007
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Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments Scientia Agricola
Almeida,Weliton Antonio Bastos de; Mourão Filho,Francisco de Assis Alves; Mendes,Beatriz Madalena Januzzi; Pavan,Alexandra; Rodriguez,Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli.
Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck). Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod) were used as explants. These were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA-105 and different experiments were done to evaluate the transformation efficiency: explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for one, three or five days; explants were incubated with...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Genetic transformation; Organogenesis; Micrografting; Improvement.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162003000100005
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Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude Scientia Agricola
Notaro,Krystal de Alcantara; Medeiros,Erika Valente de; Duda,Gustavo Pereira; Silva,Aline Oliveira; Moura,Patrícia Maia de.
Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) from areas each subject to one of the following...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162014000200001
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Agrometeorological models for 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges to estimate the number of fruits per plant Scientia Agricola
Paulino,Silvia Elisandra Pasqua; Mourão Filho,Francisco de Assis Alves; Maia,Aline de Holanda Nunes; Avilés,Tatiana Eugenia Cantuarias; Dourado Neto,Durval.
The development of models that allow forecasting yield tendencies is important to all sectors of the citrus industry. This work evaluated the influence of meteorological variables in different phases of the crop cycle in order to propose empirical models to estimate the number of fruits per plant (NFP) of 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges. NFP sampling data from the citrus juice industry of the State of São Paulo, on the total of 15 harvests (1990/91 to 2004/05), classified into three age classes, and meteorological data of maximum and minimum air temperature and rainfall of Limeira, SP, Brazil, were utilized. Correlation coefficients were initially computed between the number of fruits per plant and each meteorological variable used for water balance...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Citrus; Harvest; Modeling; Yield.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162007000100001
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Agrometeorology and plant disease management: a happy marriage Scientia Agricola
Gillespie,Terry James; Sentelhas,Paulo Cesar.
Many plant disease outbreaks are triggered by suitably warm temperatures during periods of leaf wetness. Measurements or estimations of leaf wetness duration provided by Agrometeorologists have allowed Plant Pathologists to devise weather timed spray schemes which often reduce the number of sprays required to control plant diseases, thus lowering costs and benefitting the environment. In the near future, tools such as numerical weather models with small grid spacings, and improved weather radar, are expected to reduce the need for tight networks of surface observations. The weather models will also provide growers with forecast warnings of potential upcoming disease outbreaks, which will further enhance the contribution of agrometeorology to plant disease...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leaf wetness duration; Temperature; Disease warning systems.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162008000700012
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Agro-morphological characterization of upland rice accessions Scientia Agricola
Nascimento,Wellington Ferreira do; Silva,Edson Ferreira da; Veasey,Elizabeth Ann.
The agro-morphological characterization is fundamental in order to provide information for plant breeding programs. The aim of the present study was to characterize 146 accessions of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.), based on qualitative and quantitative agro-morphological descriptors. The experiment was conducted in Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replicates. Polymorphism was observed among 12 of 14 qualitative characters evaluated, whereas significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for 11 of the 14 analysed quantitative traits. Genetic variance was higher than environmental variance and the average inheritability coefficients were above 80 % for all characters, which ensures the predominance of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Genetic variability; Germplasm; Ex-situ conservation; Pre-breeding.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162011000600008
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Agronomic and environmental implications of using a By-Product of the Intermediate Tanning Processes as Nitrogen Fertilizer Scientia Agricola
Oliveira-Longatti,Silvia Maria de; Cannata,Marcele Gabriel; Ferrazani,Júlia Costa; Carvalho,Teotonio Soares de; Ciavatta,Claudio; Guilherme,Luiz Roberto Guimarães.
ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient for agriculture, and Brazil is heavily dependent on N imports. A by-product of the intermediate processes of tanning (BPIPT) may be used as an N fertilizer which will reduce this dependency, but its chromium (Cr) content is a matter of concern. This work assessed Cr (III, VI) and N (total, inorganic) contents in four soil samples with contrasting characteristics (especially with respect to their content of manganese (Mn), a potential Cr(III) oxidant), following the addition of the BPIPT. Chemical and microbiological indicators of soil quality were measured to assess the agronomic and environmental implications of the BPIPT addition in Brazilian soils. Our results indicate that the BPIPT is a promising source...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: High-Mn soils; Agronomic efficiency; Trivalent chromium; Hexavalent chromium; Microbiological parameters.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162017000300250
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Agronomic and molecular characterization of wild germplasm Saccharum spontaneum for sugarcane and energycane breeding purposes Scientia Agricola
Silva,Jorge Alberto Gonçalves da; Costa,Paulo Mafra de Almeida; Marconi,Thiago Gibbin; Barreto,Everton Jean da Silva; Solís-Gracia,Nora; Park,Jon-Won; Glynn,Neil Charles.
ABSTRACT: Among the species related to sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum (L.) is a wild species with the greatest potential as a source of genetic variation to cope with biomass production in harsh environments. Due to its high yield, early vigor, ratooning ability, low input requirements and tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, sugarcane breeders have shown interest in its contribution, as a donor of genes, to the development of high biomass energy canes. The conservation, evaluation and utilization of the genetic variability of S. spontaneum available in germplasm collections are critical for breeding, but, given the aggressive rhizomatous growth habit and the ability to propagate via seed dispersal, S. spontaneum is classified as a noxious...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Molecular markers; Yield; Bioenergy; Abiotic stress; Core collection.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162018000400329
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Agronomic evaluation of 'Bordô' grapevine (Ives) clones Scientia Agricola
Miotto,Lidiane Carla Vilanova; Mota,Renata Vieira da; Souza,Claudia Rita de; França,Danilo Vieira Cardozo; Dias,Frederico Alcântara Novelli; Pimentel,Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Dal'Osto,Marite Carlin; Regina,Murillo de Albuquerque.
'Bordô' grapevines (Vitis labrusca) have great relevance to viticulture due to the quality they can impart to wines and juices. However, this cultivar has high variation in yield, ranging from 6 to 11 t ha-1. The use of clones with superior genetic potential related to scions currently marketed may increase crop profitability and revitalize its cultivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomical responses of twelve clones of the Bordô cultivar selected over a period of 15 years according to yield and quality. The vineyard was planted in 2008. Grape plants were grafted onto '1103 Paulsen' rootstock and trained on vertical shoot positioning. The agronomical evaluations, performed in the 2011, 2012 and 2013 seasons, covered the duration of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Vitis labrusca; Productivity; Quality; Composition; Anthocyanins.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162014000600003
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Agronomic potential of genebank landrace elite accessions for common bean genetic breeding Scientia Agricola
Bertoldo,Juliano Garcia; Coimbra,Jefferson Luís Meirelles; Guidolin,Altamir Frederico; Andrade,Luciano Rogério Braatz de; Nodari,Rubens Onofre.
Plant breeding efficiency relies mainly on genetic diversity and selection to release new cultivars. This study aimed to identify landraces with favorable characteristics that can be used as parents of segregating populations in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding programs. Firstly, ten bean genotypes were selected because they showed promising agronomic performance, and the following seven adaptive traits of four commercial bean cultivars were evaluated: i) plant height; ii) diameter of the stem; iii) height of the insertion of the first pod; iv) pod number per plant; v) grain number per pod; vi) weight of a thousand grains and vii) grain yield. The accessions BAF 07, BAF 44, and BAF 45 are promising in terms of increasing plant height, and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162014000200005
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Air-assisted boom sprayer and spray deposition on bean plants Scientia Agricola
Bauer,Fernando Cesar; Raetano,Carlos Gilberto.
The development of safe pesticide application techniques with low volume rates, frequency and spray drift, along with the need to obtain better control level of crop pest control levels, justify the air-assistance in boom sprayers. The aim of this research was to evaluate the spray deposition on bean plants with different nozzles and volume rates by air-assisted and non-assisted sprayers. A completely randomized experiment was carried out using copper oxide as a tracer (50% metalic copper) for deposit evaluation. The artificial targets were fixed on the upper and under-side of the leaflets, at the top and lower third of the same plants under the spray boom. After application, targets were washed individually with an extracting solution of nitric acid (1.0...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Phaseolus vulgaris; Application technique; Tracer; Boom sprayer.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162003000200002
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