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Abwehr von Wühlmausschäden im ökologischen Obstbau Organic Eprints
Walther, B.; Pelz, H.-J..
Wühlmausschäden sind weit verbreitet und gehören zu den nur schwer lösbaren Pflanzenschutzproblemen im ökologischen Landbau. Nach einer Umfrage des Institutes für Nematologie und Wirbeltierkunde der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft (BBA), im Jahre 2002 waren 90 % der befragten Obstbaubetriebe von Wühlmausschäden betroffen. Als Hauptschadensverursacher treten vor allem die Schermaus (Arvicola terrestris ), auch große Wühlmaus genannt, und die Feldmaus ( Microtus arvalis) auf. Mit den wenigen zur Verfügung stehenden Mitteln erreicht aber nur ein Bruchteil der ökologisch wirtschaftenden Betriebe einen akzeptablen Bekämpfungserfolg. Von Wissenschaft und Industrie werden viele Anstrengungen unternommen, um bekannte Abwehrmaßnahmen zu...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/15261/1/Walther_und_Pelz%2D2006%2DWuehlmausmerkblatt%2DBLE.pdf
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Abwehr von Wühlmausschäden im ökologischen Obstbau Organic Eprints
Walther, Bernd; Pelz, Hans-Joachim.
Wühlmausschäden gehören zu den am schwierigsten lösbaren Pflanzenschutzproblemen im ökologischen Obstbau. Nach einer Umfrage waren im Jahr 2002 79 % der deutschen Apfelanbaubetriebe von solchen Schäden betroffen. Auf 80 % der Flächen war die Schermaus (A. terrestris) der Hauptschadensverursacher. 61 % der Obstbauern sahen einen hohen Bedarf an der Entwicklung neuer Präventiv- und Bekämpfungsmaßnahmen. Um die Einwanderung von Wühlmäusen in Obstbauflächen zu verhindern, wurde ein mechanisches Barrieresystem entwickelt und an je einem Standort in Baden-Württemberg und Rheinland-Pfalz getestet. An jedem Standort wurden zwei ca. 0,7 ha große Parzellen mit Barrieren aus Drahtgitter (Maschenweite 10 mm) bzw. Polyolefin-Folie umgeben. Zwei ungeschützte...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/4555/1/4555%2D02OE108%2Dble%2Dbba%2D2003%2Dwuehlmaus.pdf
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Abwehr von Wühlmausschäden im ökologischen Obstbau mit Hilfe von Migrationsbarrieren Organic Eprints
Walther, B.; Pelz, H.-J..
Sowohl im integrierten als auch im ökologischen Obstbau gelingt eine dauerhafte Abwehr von Wühlmausschäden mit den zur Verfügung stehenden Mitteln nur unzureichend. Nach den Ergebnissen einer Umfrage, für die 279 Rückmeldungen ausgewertet wurden, sind 90 % der deutschen Obstbaubetriebe von Wühlmausschäden betroffen. Hauptschadensverursacher ist die Schermaus (Arvicola terrestris), die für Schäden auf 80 % der Flächen verantwortlich gemacht wird.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/15262/1/Walther_und_Pelz%2D2004%2DBBA%2DMitt.%2DMigrationsbarrieren.pdf
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Abwehrmassnahmen gegen Krähenfrass im Mais 2012 Organic Eprints
Dierauer, Hansueli; Böhler, Daniel; Kupferschmid, Cornelia.
Krähenschäden nehmen insbesondere auf Biomaisäckern zu. Durch die Beizung mit «Mesurol» sind konventionelle Maissaaten vor Krähenfrass geschützt. Das erhöht den Druck auf die Biosaaten. Für die Biobauern entstehen teilweise hohe Mehrkosten für Nachsaaten und verspätetes Ernten. Einzelne Landwirte haben sogar ganz mit dem Maisanbau aufhören müssen. Im Jahr 2012 wurde die Wirkung der Ballone und der Maiskörnerbeizung gegen Krähenfrass weiter erforscht. Das Ziel der über dem Feld schwebenden Ballone ist, die Krähen abzuschrecken, indem sie Raubvögel simulieren. Mit der Beizung will man eine Geruch oder Geschmack abschreckende Wirkung erreichen. Das soll das Auspicken der Körner verhindern. Die letztjährigen Versuche mit der Ballon Methode haben unter...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Root crops.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/22246/1/dierauer-etal-2012-Zwischenbericht-Kraehen.pdf
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Ackerkratzdistel. Wie regulieren im Biobetrieb? Organic Eprints
Dierauer, Hansueli; Kranzler, Andreas; Uehlinger, Gabriela; Lindenthal, Thomas.
Die Ackerkratzdistel ist auf Biobetrieben zunehmend ein Problem geworden. Das Merkblatt zeigt wirksame Möglichkeiten auf, das Wurzelunkraut zu regulieren. Empfohlen wird ein mehrstufiges Verfahren, das sich an der Ausbreitung der Disteln im Acker orientiert.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Weed management.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/1387/1/dierauer%2Det%2Dal%2D2004%2Dackerkratzdistel.pdf
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Adaptation de la pomme de terre au mode de production biologique en relation avec le compost et l’aspect variétal Organic Eprints
JAOUADI, Imen.
Dans cette étude relative à l’adaptation de la pomme de terre en agriculture biologique, deux essais ont été réalisés. Le premier essai consiste à étudier l’adaptation variétale. Vingt variétés ont été testées sur la base de paramètres agronomiques tels que le rendement, la hauteur des plantes, le nombre et le diamètre des tiges, la vigueur végétative, la couverture végétale et l’état sanitaire.Les résultats obtenus au cours du cycle végétatif de la pomme de terre ont permis de caractériser les variétés les plus adaptées à la production biologique. Les variétés Arinda, Safrane, Obélix en particulier Atlas ont donné des rendements assez satisfaisants. Le rendement a été en général bien corrélé avec les critères agronomiques tels que la rapidité de la...
Tipo: Thesis Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Vegetables Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/6532/1/JaouadiIman02.pdf
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Adding value to vegetable waste: Oil press cakes as substrates for microbial decalactone production Organic Eprints
Laufenberg, Günther; Rosato, Pietro; Kunz, Benno.
In this study several oil press cakes were investigated as exclusive substrates for different moulds and yeasts for the production of flavor-active decalactones via solidstate fermentation (SSF). Experiments are focused on pre-treatment methods for olive cake to remove antimicrobial phenolic substances contained in the oil cake disturbing or even inhibiting microbial growth. Choosing Ceratocystis moniliformis as the reference microorganism best results were obtained by a combination of hot water flushes and enzymatic treatment of the cake. Fermentation with sunflower, olive and linseed cake did not lead to lactone formation in detectable amounts although all of these substrates provided good microbial growth. On castor cake, however, five microorganisms...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/15292/1/laufenberg%2Detal%2D2004%2DEJLS_106_p207%2D217.pdf
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Adler, S. & Å.S. Randby. 2005. Effekt av ulike konserveringsmetoder for bygg på melkekvalitet i økologisk landbruk. Grønn kunnskap e 9(115H):1-6 Organic Eprints
Adler, Steffen.A.; Randby, Åshild.T..
Effekten av tre ulike konserveringsmetoder for bygg på fôropptak og melkekvalitet i økologisk landbruk ble testet i et fôringsforsøk med cross over design med tre perioder á en uke. Kyrne ble tildelt 6,0 kg TS (førstekalvskyr 5,0 kg TS) av enten tørket bygg (Arve), valset bygg ensilert med melasse, eller valset bygg ensilert med syrer. I tillegg til bygg ble kyrne tildelt grassurfôr ad libitum og en mineral/vitamin-blanding. Forsøket ble gjennomført i Bodø i mars 2004. Alle de tre metodene konserverte bygget godt. Konserveringsmetoden hadde ingen innvirkning på det totale fôropptaket. Kyrne var i sen laktasjon og melkeproduksjonen var lav, men det var ingen forskjell i ytelse mellom konserveringsmetodene for bygg. Innholdet av råprotein var lavt i...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Feeding and growth.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/6421/1/GKe_9_115H_Adler.pdf
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Advance automation technologies for sustainable agricultural production Organic Eprints
To advance the generic science of advanced automation in agriculture with a view to providing the underlying science necessary for increasing productivity, lowering inputs and reducing environmental impact. To solve the generic scientific problems associated with precision vision guidance spanning multiple drill/planter bouts. To verify our hypothesis that the proposed sensing and tracking technologies will when developed and integrated form a robust basis for crop protection based on mechanical and chemical precision-banded treatments. It is our ambition to make vision guided banded treatment the preferred technique for most post emergence crop protection operations. Objective 1. To develop generic integrated image analysis and Kalman...
Tipo: Project description Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Weed management.
Ano: 2022
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Advances in the knowledge of quinoa pests Organic Eprints
Rasmussen, Claus; Lagnaoui, Aziz; Esbjerg, Peter.
A wide range of quinoa pests are known throughout the world. The most serious of the Andean pests are Eurysacca melanocampta (Meyrick) and E. quinoae Povolny´ (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), found mainly in Peru and Bolivia, which cause considerable yield losses. Insects found elsewhere in the world are polyphagous pests constituting a wide range of potential pests if quinoa is implemented as a crop in those regions. Other major pests include a group of cutworms (Noctuidae). Apart from insects birds cause a major loss through foraging, damaging cotyledonous plants and inflorescences, with yield losses of up to 60%. Cultural practices and host plant resistances will be important components of integrated pest management (IPM). Biological control of the main...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/28718/7/28718.pdf
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Advantages and disadvantages of different break crops in organic grass/arable rotations (OF0143) Organic Eprints
Anon,.
This is the final report of Defra project OF0143. Choice of break crops to grow in addition to cereals and the fertility building phase is crucial to the agronomic and economic success of organic arable rotations. There are four specific functions that a break crop may perform, namely: addition, conservation and cycling of nutrients; pest and/or disease control; weed control and improvement in soil physical characteristics. Individual break crops may perform one or several of these functions. A good break crop must also produce satisfactory yields, be of marketable quality and produce an economic return for the farmer. This project analysed the overall suitability of new break crops by simultaneous assessment of key agronomic, economic and environmental...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Nutrient turnover Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Crop combinations and interactions.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/8083/1/OF0143_2144_FRP.pdf
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Aggressivität von Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium solani f. sp pisi und Mycosphaerella pinodes auf Wintererbsen (Pisum sativum L.) unter kontrollierten Bedingungen Organic Eprints
Šišić, Adnan; Bacanovic, Jelena; Bruns, Christian; Finckh, Maria R..
Climate change scenarios exhibit a definite warming trend (Schröter et al. 2005), and it will have an impact on crop management strategies. Increase in winter precipitation and higher temperatures favour soil borne pathogens and can lead to an increase in survival rate and to more rapid population buildup (Chakraborty et al. 2000). In recent years, one of the main reasons for declining production of summer pea in organic farming in Germany are foot and root rot pathogens (Pflughöft 2008). On the other hand, predicted increase in winter temperatures is expected to favour winter pea over summer pea varieties. The hope is also, that winter peas are less susceptible to root rot as summer peas. However, few data are available. The present study was carried out...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/21418/1/Sisic_etal_Wintererbsen.pdf
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Agroforestry systems can mitigate the severity of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease Organic Eprints
Andres, Christian; Blaser, Wilma J.; Dzahini-Obiatey, Henry K.; Ameyaw, George A.; Domfeh, Owusu K.; Awiagah, Moses A.; Gattinger, Andreas; Schneider, Monika; Offei, Samuel K.; Six, Johan.
Currently, the only effective treatment for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) infected with the cocoa swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD) is to cut and replant infected trees. Hence, the development of preventive control measures and strategies to mitigate the severity of the disease are of utmost importance. While past research has mainly focused on resistance breeding, mild strain cross protection and vector control, diversification measures such as agroforestry have received relatively less attention, despite their potential to mitigate CSSVD severity. Therefore, we studied the effects of shade on CSSVD symptom severity, capsid damage and cocoa yield along a gradient of increasing shade tree abundance in smallholder cocoa farms in Ghana. Furthermore, we...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Africa.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/32272/1/andres_etal_2018_AgriEcosysEnviron_Vol252_p83-92.pdf
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Agrometeo: decision support tool for pest prognosis and risk assessment Organic Eprints
Agrometeo is a platform offering information material and decision support tools for an optimized use of plant protection measures in conventional viticulture, orchards and arable cropping based on microclimatic data from over 150 weather stations in Switzerland generating forecast models of pest and disease risk. An interactive map enables to click on a specific weather station which gives the user the latest meteorological data, as well as prognosis of infection risks in viticulture and apple production. Information material and control thresholds for cultivators of wheat (fusarium fungi), barley, potato (virus, late blight) and insect monitoring for European corn borer and pea moth is free for use. Control methods based on counting of infested main...
Tipo: Practice tool Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2022 URL: http://orgprints.org/30592/1/30592.png
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Agronomy as a manipulative tool Organic Eprints
Brandt, Kirsten.
The general ecological mechanisms that determine the interactions between availability of re-sources (nutrients, water) and synthesis of defence related secondary metabolites in the plants will be presented. In short, under normal conditions in nature, where growth is limited by a relatively constant availability of nitrogen at a moderate level, plants strike a balance between defence and growth. They use a fraction of resources such as carbohydrate, N and S to reach a genetically determined normal level of defence mechanisms, which will prevent or quickly overcome most types of infections. If the local availability of nitrogen happens to increase (e.g. from decomposition of animal faeces), the growth rate increases, and the balance shifts. The...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/6194/1/6194.pdf
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Aktuelle Ergebnisse zur Flugbrandresistenz von Nackthafer Organic Eprints
Herrmann, Dr. Matthias; Leithold, B..
This report describes the resistance of some naked oats to Ustilago avenae. For inoculation a vacuum-aided method was used. Kernels were inoculated with a mixture of two German isolates as well as one Canadian smut sample. There was no resistant German cultivar among the naked oats tested, but two genebank accessions with resistance to smut were found.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/3541/1/3541.pdf
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Aktuelle Sortenerfahrungen bei Rhabarber Organic Eprints
Regnat, Rudolf.
Am Kompetenzzentrum für den ökologischen Gemüsebau in Bamberg (Bayr. Landesanstalt f. Wein- u. Gartenbau) wurde 2004 ein Rhabarber-Sortiment mit neun Sorten (ökologische Vermehrung) gepflanzt, ergänzt in 2005 durch drei kanadische Sorten (konventionelle Vermehrung). Es werden die Ergebnisse aus der 3. bzw. 2. Erntesaison beschrieben.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Breeding; Genetics and propagation Vegetables.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/16182/1/SortenerfahrungenRhabarber_Ausgabe_02%2D08.pdf
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Aktueller Projektbericht: Bessere Regelungen für die Zulassung von Betriebsmitteln Organic Eprints
Speiser, Bernhard.
Die Zulassung neuer Hilfsstoffe ist derzeit schwierig, das System droht zu erstarren. Im Rahmen des EU-Projektes "Organic Inputs Evaluation" werden Vorschläge zur Verbesserung der heutigen Regelungen auf EU-Ebene erarbeitet.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/8578/1/Speiser%2DOe%26L%2D135%2D41%2D42.pdf
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Alarm system for insect migration using weather radars Organic Eprints
Pylkkö, Pirkko; Koistinen, Jarmo; Markkula, Irmeli; Ojanen, Hannu; Tiilikkala, Kari; Raiskio, Sakari; Leskinen, Matti; Ooperi, Sini.
The pilot system for forecasting insect migrations to next two days will be operated during May and June 2008. Forecasts are concentrating on two major pests; namely diamond-back moth and bird cherry aphid. Five to ten pilot users will get automatic SMS warning messages and are able to study the situation more thoroughly via specific web pages. The pilot users report to the study team about their findings and the usefulness of the service. The validity of the service will be tested using field traps.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/14714/1/pylkko.pdf
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Allelobios och bladluskontroll i ekologisk odling Organic Eprints
Projektet bygger på upptäckten att allelobiotisk kommunikation mellan växter inducerar resistens mot skadedjur (bladlöss) och gynnar sökbeteendet hos deras naturliga fiender(nyckelpigor). Med särskild inriktning på förhållandena i ekologisk odling ska växtmaterial (sorter och arter) som kan användas för att utveckla odlingssystem som tillvaratar denna växtskyddsresurs identifieras. Särskild uppmärksamhet ska ägnas vårstråsäd (korn). För att kunna optimera funktionen av det allelobiotiska systemet ska undersökningar även göras av den inducerade resistensens mekanismer, t.ex. lokalisering av barriärer i cellvävnad och aktiva substanser. Likaså ska förhållandet mellan konstitutionellt försvar och inducerad (allelobiotiskt) resistens undersökas med avseende på...
Tipo: Project description Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2022
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