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Assessing varietal resistances to control common wheat bunt under organic cereal production and soft wheat, in particular Organic Eprints
FONTAINE, L.; du CHEYRON, P.; MORAND, P.; SKIKERS, S..
Common wheat bunt (caused by the fungus Tilletia caries or Tilletia foetida) is a disease whose incidence is clearly on the rise in organic farming, jeopardising the balance of the French organic cereal sector. Control methods adapted to organic farming must be found, especially since we know that no seed treatment is 100% effective. The use of varietal resistance appears particularly promising for limiting the spread of the disease. Since 2000, an experiment whose purpose is to assess the resistance of soft wheat varieties to Tilletia caries is conducted each year by the French plant institute, ARVALIS. These experiments make it possible to identify the existence of a wide behavioural variability with respect to this pathogen among the different varieties...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/15472/1/18%2DFontaine.pdf
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Assessment of disease in low-input cereal cropping systems and variety trials Organic Eprints
Hovmøller, M.S.; Pinnschmidt, H.; Willas, J.; Østergård, H..
Disease assessment is the basis for describing disease resistance characteristics of commercial varieties in national variety lists for all crops where disease is considered a problem. It is well known that ‘disease’ in a specific situation depends on a whole range of interacting hosts, pathogens and environmental conditions. However, the biological complexity conflicts with the wish to express disease resistance characteristics of a variety as a single score per disease. This problem will be illustrated by basic dynamics of growth and senescence of both host and pathogen over time. Disease expressed in terms of absolute diseased leaf area, disease relative to total leaf area or green leaf area will be discussed in general. Two particular problems in...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/8229/1/8229.pdf
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Assessment of Farmers’ Plant Disease Knowledge in Organic Cacao Cultivation Organic Eprints
Heuschekel, Zoe; Home, Robert; Schneider, Monika; Pohlan, Jürgen.
The Alto Beni region on the eastern foothills of the Andes accounts for 90% of certified organic cacao production in Bolivia and other tropical products for the city of La Paz. In the region more than 2200 households strongly depend on the cultivation of cacao. Cacao is cultivated on small holder farms mostly in diversified agroforestry systems. These systems contribute to both the conservation of biodiversity and the food security of the farmers. An outbreak of the frosty pod disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri in 2011 is now threatening these relatively sustainable production systems. Examples all over Latin America showed the abandonment and elimination of cocoa systems and the loss of biodiversity and local revenues after its attack. Frosty pod...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Education; Extension and communication Bolivia.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/24785/1/Heuschkel-etal-2013-Tropentag-vortrag.pdf
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Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impact of Late Blight and State of the Art of Management in European Organic Potato Production Systems Organic Eprints
Tamm, L.; Smit, A.B.; Hospers, M.; Janssens, S.R.M.; Buurma, J.S.; Molgaard, J.-P.; Laerke, P.E.; Hansen, H.H.; Hermans, A.; Boedker, L.; Bertrand, C.; Lambion, J.; Finckh, M.R.; Schüler, Chr.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.; Ruissen, T.; Nielsen, B.J.; Solberg, S.; Speiser, B.; Wolfe, M.S.; Phillips, S.; Wilcoxon, S.J.; Leifert, C..
In Europe, late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease affecting organic (and conventional) potato production. Under suitable environmental conditions the disease can spread rapidly and it can cause complete crop loss. The extent of damage due to late blight depends on several factors: in organic production systems these factors include climate, choice of variety, soil management and use of crop protection agents such as copper. Therefore, the extent of economic damage varies between European regions. Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91, amended by Commission Regulation (EC) No 473/2002 of 15 March 2002 regulates the use of copper in organic agriculture. Copper has been the single most important control agent in...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Root crops.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/2936/1/tamm%2Det%2Dal%2D2004%2Dblight%2Dmop%2Doe.pdf
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Ätherische Öle als Repellentien gegen den Rapsglanzkäfer Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia.
Laborscreening von verschiedenen ätherischen Ölen gegen den Rapsglanzkäfer
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/32300/1/2015_DgaaE_AbstarctMeligethes.pdf
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Atlas of agricultural entomology - a knowledge base of pest insects Organic Eprints
It is an atlas of insects and mites relevant in agriculture (as pest or as predators or other). It allows to search by picture of the order and by common name (in Italian). Each insect is described together with the damage it may cause, its biological cycle and the tools to keep it under control, being them ecological, agronomic or direct and in the last case including active substances allowed in conventional and in organic. It may be used to identify an insect that a farmer finds in its crops and to have a first information on the causes of its presence and how to manage it. This tool provide very good pictures of insects so it can be used with a really practical approach. This can be used to develop a strategy for control.
Tipo: Practice tool Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2022 URL: http://orgprints.org/30589/1/30589.png
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Attaques en rase-mottes dans les cultures maraîchères biologiques suisses Organic Eprints
Wyss, Eric; Daniel, Claudia.
De nombreux ravageurs des légumes, comme p. ex. la mouche de la carotte, la mouche du chou ou la cécidomyie du chou, font vraiment du rase-mottes: ils se déplacent dans la végétation ou très bas au-dessus d’elle. Des filets verticaux, véritables clôtures anti-insectes, permettent de les stopper à leur entrée dans les cultures.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Vegetables.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/7170/1/daniel%2D2004_02InsektennetzeBioactualites.pdf
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'Attract & Kill' - ein innovatives Konzept zur biologischen Bekämpfung von bodenlebenden Schädlingen Organic Eprints
Vidal, Stefan; Mävers, Frauke; Brandl, Michael; Przyklenk, Michael; Schumann, Mario; Patel, Anant.
Soil dwelling pest species are difficult to control because of their cryptic life style and their unpredictable distribution belowground. The efficacy of biological control agents is limited, mainly because of low rhizosphere competence. Here we propose to use a strategy where pest are attracted to killing agents instead of bringing killing agents to the pest. We developed capsules emitting carbon-dioxide which are combined with an specific isolate of an entomopathogenic fungus or Neem. The principle of an attract & kill strategy takes advantage of the behaviour of soil dwelling larvae which use CO2 for locating their host plants. Components used for the production of the capsules are just contain biologically derived substances and therefore do not...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/27202/1/27202_vidal.pdf
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Attractive plant volatiles as a control method against apple fruit moth (Argyresthia conjugella Zell.)? Organic Eprints
Jaastad, Gunnhild; Knudsen, Geir K.; Kobro, Sverre; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Witzgall, Peter; Bengtsson, Marie.
Apple fruit moth, Argyresthia conjugella Zell. (Lepidoptera: Argyresthiidae), is the most important pest of apples in Scandinavia. In years when its primary host, rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.), has little or no berries for egglaying, female A. conjugella fly into apple orchards to lay their eggs. In some years the entire apple crop can be destroyed. Volatiles from apples and rowan have been collected and identified. In GC-EAD tests females have responded to several compounds found in both rowan and apple. Some of these compounds were used in field trapping tests during 2002, and a mixture of two compounds trapped significantly more females and males compared to control traps. However, field trapping results from 2003 indicate that the two-compound...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/14025/1/6_Jaastad_29_34.pdf
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Attraktivität verschiedener Köder auf die Kirschfruchtfliege Rhagoletis cerasi in biologischen Kirschenanlagen Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric.
Fragestellung: Prüfung verschiedener Köder in Frutect-Fallen gegen Rhagoletis cerasi in biologischen Kirschenanlagen Verfahren: Spinosad GF120 (Köder), Israelischer Köder, Nulur 1:3, Nulur 1:10, Leere Falle
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/8501/1/daniel%2Dwyss%2D2002_07e_Kifli_Fallenversuch.pdf
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Aufwertung der Kulturlandschaft durch Nützlingsförderung im Gemüse- und Ackerbau Organic Eprints
Nützlingsförderung durch Habitatmanagement Kurzbeschreibung: - Habitat-Management: Verbesserung der natürlichen Schädlingsregulation mittels indirekten Pflanzenschutz Massnahmen (naturnahe Flächen wie Brachen, Säume) - Faunistische Erfolgskontrolle des ökologischen Ausgleichs mittels Bioindikatoren (Laufkäfer und Spinnen) mit Einbezug der Produktionsflächen als Referenz - Entwicklung und Testen von lokal angepassten Saatgutmischungen (Wildkrautstreifen, Ackerkrautsaum) - Auswirkungen unterschiedlicher Pflegemassnahmen auf epigäische Nutzarthropoden - Biotopverbund Grosses Moos
Tipo: Project description Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2022
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Ausbreitung des Rapsglanzkäfers innerhalb eines Feldes und in der Landschaft Organic Eprints
Géneau, Céline; Schlatter, Christian; Daniel, Claudia.
Pollen beetles (Meligethes sp.) are important pests in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). In our study we wanted to determine which landscape structures have an influence on pollen beetle population in early spring. The dynamics of pollen beetle population and the damages on rape were studied on field scale level with 100 sampling points per field and on landscape scale level with 18 organic oilseed rape fields which differed by the complexity of the surrounding landscapes. The number of pollen beetle was strongly correlated with the distance to a forest. At the beginning of the flight period more pollen beetles were found close to the forest, later they migrated to the rest of the field. In addition, agricultural practices appeared to be determinant for...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/13966/1/Geneau_13966.pdf
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Ausdünnung von Elstar mit Schwefelkalk in Norddeutschland Organic Eprints
Clever, Michael.
Thinning trials with lime sulphur in comparison to other products were carried out for 4 years in an ‘Elstar orchard’ at the OVB Jork in Northern Germany. Beside the yield, the influence on fruit size, colour, russet-ting and return bloom of treated trees were observed. Mechanic thinning was too strong and had other negative effects. Thinning with potato meal and coconut soap had no effect. Organic oil (Telmion) reduced the yield between 0 and 20%. Lime sulphur reduced the yield 0 – 40% in comparison of the concentration and the number of applications. There were great fluctuations from year to year. In conclusion lime sulphur gives the best results, but the variation from year to year is not acceptable for a practical advising in the northern area of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/9023/1/ecofruit_12th_37.pdf
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Aussichten des Einsatzes von Migrationsbarrieren zur Abwehr von Wühlmausschäden im ökologischen Obstbau Organic Eprints
Walther, Bernd; Pelz, Dr. Hans-Joachim.
Cyclic vole species, particularly the Water vole (Arvicola terrestris), cause substantial agricultural damage throughout their wide geographical range. In organic pomiculture synthetic pesticides are not allowed. Trapping and fumigation remain the only applicable measures for managing voles but require a lot of time and personal skills. The success of using these methods is reduced by the fast recolonisation of the empty areas. To stop the permanent overground immigration of voles a mechanical barrier system was developed and tested in enclosures and at two study sites in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate between October 2002 and October 2003. The barrier, consisting of a low fence of whire mesh or polyolefin foil, reached 20 cm below and 30 cm...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/3594/1/3594.pdf
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Auswirkungen der Sortenmischungsstrategie auf Backqualität,Ertrag und Krankheitsbefall im Winterweizen Organic Eprints
Finckh, Maria R.; Schulze-Schilddorf, Georg; Pawelzik, Elke.
Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die Auswirkungen von Sortenmischungen bei unterschiedlicher Nährstoffversorgung auf Backqualität, Ertrag und Krankheitsbefall im Ökologischen Landbau zu überprüfen. Die Ergebnisse der Versuche legen nahe, daß Interaktionen zwischen Standortbedingungen, Jahr und Sorte sehr groß sind aber insgesamt die Mischungen die Backqualität nicht beeinträchtigen. Die Datenbasis ist aber für die Formulierung von Empfehlungen nicht breit genug. Um den Einfluß von Standortfaktoren und Mischungen auf Krankheitsbefall, v.a. Fusariosen, Backqualität und Mykotoxin-belastung zu quantifizieren wurden für 2002/2003 Praxisversuche an 12 Standorten mit Reinbeständen und Mischungen angelegt.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/1042/1/1042%2Dfinckh%2Det%2Dal%2D2003%2Dsortenmischungsstrategien%2Dwien.pdf
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Auswirkungen einer Behandlung mit Chitosan sowie der Wasser- und Nährstoffversorgung auf den Ertrag und den Befall mit Phytophthora infestans von Kartoffeln (Solanum tuberosum L.) Organic Eprints
Almohamad, Waed; Böhm, Herwart; Dittmann, Lisa.
Im Rahmen eines integrierten Konzepts zur Regulierung der Kraut- und Knollenfäule (Phytophthora infestans) gewinnt der Einsatz von Pflanzenstärkungsmitteln nicht nur im ökologischen Kartoffelbau an Bedeutung. Das Pflanzenstärkungsmittel ChitoPlant® (Inhaltsstoff: Chitosan 99,9 %) wurde in einem zweijährigen Parzellenversuch bezüglich seiner Wirkung auf Pflanzengesundheit und Ertrag der Kartoffelsorte Agria geprüft. Unter Freilandbedingungen beeinflussten neben den Prüffaktoren des Versuches exogene Faktoren wie Witterung bzw. Wasser- sowie Nährstoffversorgung die Versuchsergebnisse erheblich. Chitosan (ChitoPlant®) wurde im Versuch sowohl zur Krautbehandlung separat (1 g l-1) oder in Kombination mit chemischen Fungiziden (Acrobat®, Shirlan®) als auch zur...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Root crops.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/29604/1/Almohamad-etal_2011_Landbauforsch_Chitosan-Kartoffel-Phytophthora.pdf
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Auswirkungen unterschiedlicher Haupt- und Zwischenfrucht-Kombinationen auf Ertrag und den Schaderregerbefall der Folgefrucht Kartoffel Organic Eprints
Surböck, Andreas; Schiessendoppler, Elisabeth; Ledermüller, Johann; Friedel, Jürgen; Freyer, Bernhard.
Infections with diseases like black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and common scab (Strep-tomyces scabies) cause tuber blemishes. In addition, black scurf has an adverse impact on tuber yield, size and shape. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of combinations of main and catch crops on tuber yield, quality and sanitary status. The tested variants were: var. 1: pea without a catch crop apart from volunteer peas, var. 2: pea with a catch crop consisting of white mustard, California bluebell and volunteer peas, var. 3: oat without a catch crop, var. 4: oat with an underseed of white clover. Although in the variants tested no significant difference was achieved for tuber yield, disease occurrence and degree of infection with black scurf and common scab,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Crop combinations and interactions Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/9593/1/9593_Surb%C3%B6ck_Poster.pdf
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Auswirkungen von Fusarium solani f. sp pisi, Fusarium avenaceum und Mycosphaerella pinodes auf Sommererbsen im Topfversuch Organic Eprints
Bacanovic, Jelena; Šišić, Adnan; Bruns, Christian; Finckh, Maria R..
Foot rot is an important limiting factor in pea production in Germany (Pflughöft, 2008). The disease is caused by a pathogen complex consisting of Ascochyta complex pathogens (Mycospharella pinodes, Phoma medicaginis and Ascochyta pisi) and Fusarium spp. However, little is known about the specificity of single pathogens of the complex and their impact on plant performance. In order to address this problem pot experiments with five isolates each of Fusarium solani f.sp pisi, Fusarium avenaceum and Mycosphaerella pinodes were carried out in controlled conditions. Three weeks after sowing and inoculation disease symptoms were assessed and plant growth parameters measured. All pathogens caused root discoloration and development of disease symptoms on pea...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/21417/1/Bacanovic_etal_Sommererbsen.pdf
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Auswirkungen von Komposten und Gärgut auf die Umwelt, die Bodenfruchtbarkeit sowie die Pflanzengesundheit. Zusammenfassende Übersicht der aktuellen Literatur Organic Eprints
Die vorliegende Literaturstudie bietet eine Übersicht zu den Forschungsergebnissen zu Grüngutverwertung und zeigt Wissenslücken auf. Folgende Themen werden in der Studie abgedeckt: • Pflanzengesundheit • Pflanzenernährung • bodenphysikalische und bodenchemische Eigenschaften der Böden • Beeinflussung der Bodenfauna und -flora sowie das biologische Gleichgewicht der Böden Die Arbeit stellt auch den Stand der Technik in der Kompostierung und Vergärung auch im internationalen Vergleich dar.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/2631/1/fuchs-et-al-2004-compost-oe.pdf
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Auswirkungen von Komposten und von Gärgut auf die Umwelt, Bodenfruchtbarkeit, sowie die Pflanzengesundheit Organic Eprints
In der Schweiz werden zurzeit rund 600 000 t Trockensubstanz biogene Abfälle recycelt. Längerfristig werden jedoch nur Komposte und Gärgut von einwandfreier Qualität abgesetzt werden können, welche möglichst eine Wertsteigerung der Böden bewirken. Ziel des vorliegenden Projektes ist es, die Qualitätsparameter gezielt in diese Richtung zu erweitern und die Auswirkungen von Kompost- und Gärgutapplikationen auf Pflanzenwachstum und -gesundheit, die Bodenparameter und die Umwelt zu evaluieren. Das vorliegende Projekt ist mit dem Projekt "Organische Schadstoffe in Komposten" der EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) und der Agroscope FAL (Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau, Zürich Reckenholz) koordiniert. Das Projekt dient gleichzeitig...
Tipo: Project description Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Soil.
Ano: 2022
Registros recuperados: 1.933
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