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Biomass components and structure of massai grass fertilized with nitrogen and grazed by sheep Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Lopes,M.N.; Cândido,M.J.D.; Pompeu,R.C.F.F.; Silva,R.G.; Carneiro,M.S.S.; Morais Neto,L.B.; Peixoto,M.J.A.; Carvalho,T.C.F..
ABSTRACT To evaluate the biomass components of massai grass subjected to nitrogen (N) fertilization levels (control - 0; 400; 800 and 1200 kg ha-1 year-1 of N) and under rotational stocking with sheep, this study was undertaken using a completely randomized design with measurements repeated in time. A quadratic response was observed reaching maximum values as the levels of nitrogen fertilization increased for green forage biomass, green leaf biomass, green stem biomass (5,172.9; 4,146.3; 1,033.9 kg ha-1 cycle-1, respectively), forage total density (179.1 kg ha-1 cm-1), canopy height (36.8 cm) and live material/dead material ratio (4.0) at levels 896; 934; 797; 879.2; 751.4 and 1,161 kg ha-1 year-1 of N, respectively. For all variables, oscillation was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Forage production; Green leaf biomass; Nitrogen fertilization; Panicum maximum.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352019000401411
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Canopy characteristics, animal behavior and forage intake by goats grazing on Tanzania-grass pasture with different heights - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i4.14544 Animal Sciences
Ribeiro, Aline Mendes; Universidade Federal do Piauí; Oliveira, Maria Elizabete de; Universidade Federal do Piauí; Silva, Patrícia Carvalho da; Universidade Federal do Piauí; Rufino, Marcelo de Oliveira Alves; Universidade Federal do Piauí; Rodrigues, Marcônio Martins; Universidade Federal do Piauí; Santos, Maurílio Souza dos; Universidade Federal do Piauí.
This study evaluated the influence of Tanzania-grass sward height (30, 50, 70 and 90 cm) on the morphological characteristics of the canopy, grazing behavior and forage intake by adult Anglo Nubian female goats. A completely randomized experimental design was employed, with two replicates in space and two replicates in time. Six animals were used to assess the grazing behavior, and four, the ingestion process. The rise in sward height increased the forage and leaf mass, the percentages of stem and dead material, and reduced the leaf stem-1 ratio. Above 50 cm there was an increase in grazing time and a decrease in leisure time. A positive linear correlation was detected between sward height and bite depth. The consumed forage mass, ingestion rate and daily...
Tipo: Pesquisa de campo Palavras-chave: 5.04.04.00-8 consumption; Forage production; Bite rate; Ingestion rate; Grazing time.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/14544
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Caracterização e seleção de genótipos de Megathyrsus maximus de porte baixo com potencial de uso na região semiárida brasileira. Infoteca-e
BUENO, L. G.; GALVANI, D. B.; DINIZ, F. M.; JANK, L.; BEZERRA, J. W. T.; JESUS, A. A. de.
Resumo: Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de selecionar genótipos de Panicum maximum (sin. Megathyrsus maximus) de porte baixo com potencial de adaptação e uso no Semiárido brasileiro. Foram avaliados 24 genótipos, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições quanto à produção de biomassa, densidade populacional de perfilhos e altura de plantas. A altura do dossel no período chuvoso variou entre 29,62 cm e 99,78 cm, sendo possível classificar 9 genótipos como sendo de porte baixo para as condições ambientais e experimentais avaliadas na região (até 50 cm de altura). O genótipo PM22 apresentou elevada densidade populacional de perfilhos (3216 perfilhos/m2 ) e relação folha:colmo (6,33) no período...
Tipo: Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Capim Massai; Semiárido; Brasil; Produção de biomassa; Forragem; Gramínea Forrageira; Forage production; Forage grasses; Semiarid soils; Brazil.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/1117067
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Case Studies on the Use of Crop Insurance in Managing Risk AgEcon
Gloy, Brent A.; Staehr, A. Edward.
Managing the risk associated with farming is challenging. Fortunately, farmers have a variety of risk management tools at their disposal. This series of case studies examines how crop insurance can be used to manage some of the risks faced by farmers. The examples illustrate how crop insurance purchases would impact the returns generated to a farming enterprise. While the examples cover a variety of commodities and insurance products, they do not consider every possible risk that might arise. Likewise, they do not consider all of the possible financial situations that might be experienced by a farmer. Instead, they focus on highlighting how crop insurance impacts the profitability of the farm. Companion spreadsheets are available for all of the examples so...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Managing Risk; Crop insurance; Apple production; Grape production; Soybeans; Forage production; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49004
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Cattle production supplemented on signal grass pastures during the rainy season Animal Sciences
Santos, Manoel Eduardo Rozalino; Santos, Anselmo de Deus; Fonseca, Dilermando Miranda da; Sousa, Braulio Maia de Lana; Gomes, Virgilio Mesquita; Sousa, Diogo Olímpio Chaves de.
The effects of four supplement doses (0, 1, 2 and 3 kg animal-1 day-1) on pasture characteristics and on cattle production on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures in continuous stocking with variable stocking rate were assessed. Experimental design comprised completely randomized blocks with two replications. Concentrate supplementation did not influence mass (4141 kg ha-1 of DM) and production rate of forage (97.6 kg ha-1 day-1 of DM), morphological components and nutrition value in hand-plucked forage. Similarly, the number of live (1.607 tillers m-²) and dead (636 tillers m-²) tillers was not affected by concentrate supplementation. There were linear increases in animal performance (from 0.70 to 1.13 kg animal-1 day-1), stocking rate (1.9 to 3.8...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: 5.04.04.00-8 Brachiaria decumbens; Sward height; Continuous stocking; Forage production; Animal selectivity.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/29104
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Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation R. Bras. Zootec.
Silva,Edilane Aparecida da; Silva,Wilson Jesus da; Barreto,Antônio Carlos; Oliveira Junior,Antonio Barbosa de; Paes,José Mauro Valente; Ruas,José Reinaldo Mendes; Queiroz,Domingos Sávio.
The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk), Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu), Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes), Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça), Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania) and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85). The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Forage production; Growth; Seasonality; Vegetation dynamics; Weather.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000300015
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Comportamiento productivo del pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L.) en respuesta al pastoreo Colegio de Postgraduados
Hernández Guzmán, Filogonio Jesús.
El pasto ovillo es una de las gramíneas mas usadas en la producción animal, en la zona templada de México. Sin embargo, la gran variación en los resultados encontrados en praderas de pasto ovillo hacen necesario generar información acerca del manejo mas apropiado tanto de la frecuencia como intensidad de defoliación. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia e intensidad de pastoreo que proporcione mayor rendimiento de forraje en una pradera de pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L.). La investigación se llevó a cabo en el Colegio de Posgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Edo de México de junio 2005 a junio 2006. Los tratamientos fueron la combinación de tres frecuencias (21, 28 y 35 días) y dos intensidades (5-7 y 9-11 cm) de pastoreo, que se...
Tipo: Tesis Palavras-chave: Dactylis glomerata L.; Frecuencia e intensidad de pastoreo; Rendimiento de forraje; Tasa de crecimiento; Composición botánica; Densidad de tallos; Maestría; Ganadería; Grazing intensity and frequency; Forage production; Growth rate; Botanical composition; Stem density.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1564
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CULTIVO SEMI-HIDROPÔNICO COMO FERRAMENTA DE SELEÇÃO PARA TOLERÂNCIA AO ALUMÍNIO EM GRAMÍNEAS FORRAGEIRAS Engenharia na Agricultura
Colombo, Gustavo André; Vaz-de-Melo, Aurélio; Machado Filho, Gilberto Coutinho; Sousa, André Silva de.
O aprimoramento constante das ferramentas de seleção se faz necessário, no sentido de otimizar a eficiência de um programa de melhoramento para tolerância ao alumínio. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um volume de vaso ideal ao cultivo semi-hidropônico de gramíneas forrageiras submetidas ao estresse por alumínio em solução nutritiva. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo cada repetição constituída por uma planta por vaso. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 4x5, sendo o primeiro fator constituído por quatro genótipos de gramíneas forrageiras (Brachiaria Humidicola; Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piatã; Panicum maximum cv. Massai e Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça) e o...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Toxic aluminum; Abiotic stress; Nutrient solution; Forage production.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.seer.ufv.br/seer/index.php/reveng/article/view/654
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Desempenho de forrageiras em caatinga manipulada em região semiárida. Infoteca-e
GUEDES, F. L.; SILVA, N. L. da; SOUZA, H. A. de; POMPEU, R. C. F. F.; FERNANDES, F. E. P..
A produção de alimentos para os rebanhos constitui, provavelmente, o maior desafio que enfrenta a pecuária nas regiões semiáridas. Isto porque a variabilidade e incertezas climáticas tornam as culturas das forrageiras uma operação de alto risco, além de ser competitiva com a agricultura tradicional. Assim, as pastagens nativas dessas regiões tornam-se a fonte de alimentação mais importante para os animais. Nos sertões nordestino, as condições adversas do meio, fazem com que a oferta de forragem fique, muitas vezes, aquém das necessidades dos rebanhos, tanto do ponto de vista quantitativo, quanto qualitativo. Pesquisas têm mostrado que o enriquecimento da caatinga com gramíneas e leguminosas exóticas, adaptadas às condições de semiaridez, eleva a produção...
Tipo: Circular Técnica (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Produção de forragem; Época seca; ILP; Cultivar Aridus; Cultivar Planaltina; Capim Mombaça; Capim Marandu; Megathyrsus maximum; Capim Massai; Pennisetum ciliare; Semiárido; Região Nordeste; Brasil; Feed crops; Feed grasses; Integrated rural development; Leguminosa Forrageira; Sistema de Produção; Produção Integrada; Alimento Para Animal; Andropogon Gayanus; Alimentação Na Seca; Caatinga; Forage production; Forage grasses; Urochloa brizantha; Semiarid soils; Brazil.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/1101511
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DETERMINATION OF XARAÉS GRASS QUALITY SUBMITTED TO IRRIGATION WATER LEVELS AND NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM DOSES REA
Oliveira,Ednaldo M. de; Oliveira Filho,Jair da C.; Oliveira,Rubens A. de; Oliveira,Reginaldo M. de; Cecon,Paulo R..
ABSTRACT In the correct pasture management, nutritional factors such as nitrogen and potassium fertilization play an important role in the forage production and quality. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the application of water levels, nitrogen and potassium doses in the Xaraés grass in the south of the State of Tocantins. For this, Xaraés grass was cultivated in the experimental field of the Federal University of Tocantins, municipality of Gurupi, TO. We used a mixture of fertilizer, combinations of N and K2O following the 1 N: 0.8 K2O ratio. To evaluate the effect of irrigation water levels and combinations of N and K2O doses in Xaraés grass, the plant height, the crude protein content and neutral detergent fiber were determined. The greatest...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Irrigated pasture; Brachiaria brizantha; Forage production.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162017000100064
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Dynamic of a papuã pasture under two grazing intensities and two nitrogen levels R. Bras. Zootec.
Adami,Paulo Fernando; Soares,André Brugnara; Assmann,Tangriani Simione; Assmann,Alceu Luiz; Sartor,Laércio Ricardo; Pitta,Christiano Santos Rocha; Franchin,Marcia Fernanda; Migliorini,Francisco.
This work aimed to evaluate the effects of grazing intensities and nitrogen fertilization levels on the dynamics of a Brachiaria plantaginea pasture. The experiment was laid out as a random block design, in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme, composed of three nitrogen levels (0, 200 and 400 kg/ha nitrogen in urea form) and two grazing intensities termed low mass (LM; forage mass of 1500 kg of DM/ha) and high mass (HM; forage mass of 3000 kg of DM/ha) in a continuously stocked swards with two replications. Animals used were half-blood Boer goats averaging five months old and 21 kg body weight (BW) for adjustment of the target forage mass. Real forage mass, average height of the plants and animal stocking rates were of 2,567 and 3,862 kg DM/ha; 23.6 and 31.2 cm and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Brachiaria plantaginea; Forage production; Forage nutritive value; Forage sward; Reseeding; Stocking rate.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982010001200003
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Efeito do diferimento sobre a producao de forragem e composicao quimica do Capim-elefante cv. Mott. Infoteca-e
COSTA, N. de L.; OLIVEIRA, J.R. da C.; TOWNSEND, C.R..
Procurou-se avaliar o efeito do diferimento sobre a producao e composicao quimica da forragem do capim-elefante anao (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott) nas condicoes ecologicas de Porto Velho, Rondonia. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a viabilidade do diferimento de pastagens de capim-elefante cv. Mott, no final do periodo chuvoso, de modo a acumular forragem para a suplementacao dos rebanhos durante o periodo seco; Diferimento e abril com utilizacoes em junho e julho proporcionou forragem com maiores teores de proteina bruta; Maiores coeficientes de DIVMS foram registrados com o diferimento em abril e utilizacao em junho; Visando conciliar rendimento e qualidade de forragem, recomenda-se o seguinte esquema:diferimento em marco para utilizacoes em junho e julho...
Tipo: Comunicado Técnico (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Capim-elefante; Pennisetum purpureum; Composicao quimica; Efeito do diferimento; Producao de forragem; Brasil; Rondonia; Porto Velho; Chemical composition; Forage production.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/699917
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Effects of biofertilizer rates on the structural, morphogenetic and productive characteristics of Piatã grass R. Bras. Zootec.
Orrico Junior,Marco Antonio Previdelli; Centurion,Stanley Ribeiro; Orrico,Ana Carolina Amorim; Sunada,Natália da Silva.
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different levels of biofertilizers from cattle and swine manure on the structural, morphogenetic and productive characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piatã. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized factorial design with split plots. The plots were defined by eight treatments: two biofertilizers (cattle and swine), four levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg N.ha-1) and subplots by four different cutting periods. The cutting for plant uniformity was performed at 45 days after sowing at 15 cm above the soil surface. The biofertilizeres were applied in a single level, after the cutting of plants, in rates of 0, 0.23 and 0.19, 0.45 and 0.38, 0.68 and 0.57 liters pot-1 for the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Brachiaria brizantha; Forage production; Organic fertilizer; Phyllochron.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000600009
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Environmental controls of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) growth across a climatic and edaphic gradient Agriscientia (Córdoba)
Druille,M.; Deregibus,V.; Garbulsky,M. F..
Lucerne is one of the most valuable forage species because of its high productivity and nutritional traits. However, the knowledge of spatio-temporal variability and environmental controls of its growth generated from the simultaneous study of several sites and throughout several years is extremely scarce. Five-year biomass data were analyzed from four rain fed sites located across a climatic and edaphic gradient in Argentina. The aims proposed were to characterize annual and seasonal lucerne growth, to analyze environmental controls of spatial and temporal growth, and to compare water use efficiency (WUE) among sites. Annual growth differed significantly among sites, ranging between 7,514 and 14,262 kg DM/ha. This range at the spatial scale was mainly...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Soil properties; Water use efficiency; Forage production; Climate.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-298X2017000200002
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Espécies do gênero paspalum com potencial forrageiro. Infoteca-e
BATISTA, L. A. R.; REGITANO NETO, A..
2000
Tipo: Documentos (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Planta forrageira; Paspalum; Produção de forragem; Forage plant; Forage production.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/45323
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Forage potential of Urochloa genotypes by using leaf anatomy Ciência Rural
Mauri,Janaína; Pereira,Daniele Laís; Silva,Gabrielle Avelar; Davide,Lisete Chamma; Techio,Vânia Helena; Souza Sobrinho,Fausto; Pereira,Fabricio José.
ABSTRACT: The digestibility potential of leaves from forages depends on the amount of nutrition in their tissues, with low lignin deposition in the cell wall, mainly parenchyma and phloem. This research evaluated the leaf structure of different Urochloa genotypes and discussed its potential for evaluating digestibility. The cultivars U. brizantha, U. decumbens, U. ruziziensis and three clones of U. ruziziensis (1, 95 and 97), which are under development in breeding programs, were evaluated. Plants were grown under the recommended culture conditions for the Urochloa species. Plants were cut 60 days after sowing, and leaves were collected at 15 days of regrowth. Leaves were fixed in FAA 70 and further stored in 70% ethanol until being submitted to the usual...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Digestibility; Forage production; Leaf anatomy; Sclerenchyma; Lignin.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782019000400401
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Forage production and quality of tropical forage legumes submitted to shading Ciência Rural
Lista,Fábio Nunes; Deminicis,Bruno Borges; Almeida,João Carlos de Carvalho; Araujo,Saulo Alberto do Carmo; Zanella,Pablo Giliard.
ABSTRACT: Find shade-tolerant species is essential to the success of silvopastoral systems, increasingly frequent in recent years. In legumes, which have potential of biological nitrogen fixation, there is a great lack of knowledge when in shaded environments.The cultivation of four tropical forage (Neonotonia wightii, Pueraria phaseoloides, Macrotyloma axilare and Arachis pintoi) was evaluated when submitted to artificial shade levels (30, 50 and 70% shade) and in full sun during water and drought seasons. The design used was in randomized complete blocks in a sub-divided plot scheme with four replications. In the Water-season the Forage Peanuts had higher forage production in full sun (11 ton ha-1 DM), and under shade did not differ from Perennial...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Fabaceae; Forage production; Chemical composition.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782019000700651
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Forage production dynamics of winter annual grasses sown on different dates R. Bras. Zootec.
Pin,Edison Antonio; Soares,André Brugnara; Possenti,Jean Carlo; Ferrazza,Jussara Maria.
This experiment was carried out from April to September 2008 with the objective of evaluating the forage production dynamics of winter annual grasses (Avena strigosa Schereb cv. IAPAR-61; Lolium multiflorum Lam cv. Comum; Avena strigosa cv. Comum; Avena sativa cv. IPR 126; and Triticum aestivum L cv. BRS Tarumã) on four sowing dates (April 4th, April 24th, May 14th and June 3rd). A completely randomized blocks with four replications was used. It was evaluated number of days and production at the first cutting, total production, number of cuts and density of plants and tillers. There is a strong interaction among cultivars and sowing dates for all analyzed variables and this indicates opportunities of choosing multiple combinations among cultivar and sowing...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Annual-ryegrass; Black oat; Forage budget; Forage production; White oat.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982011000300007
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Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems Animal Sciences
Araújo, Saulo Alberto do Carmo; Silva, Tatiana Oliveira da; Rocha, Norberto Silva; Ortêncio, Marluci Olício.
Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP) and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata), tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth) and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java)) x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL) between cultivation systems, evidencing...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: 5.00.00.00-4; 5.04.00.00-2 Fabaceae; Shading; Forage production; Chemical composition.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/32537
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Growth and productive responses of tropical grass Panicum maximum to nitrate and ammonium supply R. Bras. Zootec.
Santos,Jorge Henrique da Silva; Bona,Fabiano Daniel De; Monteiro,Francisco Antonio.
This study was conducted to investigate growth response parameters and forage yield of Panicum maximum Jacq. plants supplied with nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) as N source in a nutrient solution. Six NO3- and NH4+ combinations were tested at the following proportions: 100-0, 85-15, 70-30, 55-45, 40-60 and 25-75%. Grass shoot (number of tillers and leaves and leaf surface area) and root (length and surface area) growth parameters and dry matter production exhibited highest values in P. maximum plants growing in the nutrient solution supplied with NO3-:NH4+ at the proportions ranging between approximately 70-30 and 55-45%. The use of NO3-:NH4+ mixture at the ratio of 55-45% instead of the NO3- solely as N source in the nutrient solution enhanced the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Forage production; Nitrogen nutrition; Nitrogen-use efficiency; Plant development; Tillering.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982013000900003
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