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Registros recuperados: 55
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Equity, quality and relevance in higher education in Brazil Anais da ABC (AABC)
Schwartzman,Simon.
Brazilian higher education has doubled its size in the 1990s, going from 1.5 million to more than 3 million students in the period. This expansion was mostly due to the growth of private education, which, in 2002, accounted for about two thirds of the enrollment. Is expansion making higher education more accessible to persons coming from the poorer segments of society? Is the quality of higher education suffering by the speed of this expansion? Is Brazil educating enough qualified persons to attend to the country's needs to participate in the new, knowledge-intensive and global economy? What public policies should be implemented, in order to foster the values of social equity and relevance? What are the policy implications of these developments? This...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Higher education; Human capital; Equity; Labor market; Education policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652004000100015
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Livelihood capitals on income inequality among rural households: evidence from China Ciência Rural
Yang,Fan; Jiang,Yao; Zeng,Weizhong.
ABSTRACT: We used the data of the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey 2014 to examine the effects of livelihood capitals which include natural, material, human, financial, and social capitals on total household income, per capita income, agricultural income, wage income, operational income, and property income inequality among rural households in China. Results showed that different kinds of livelihood capitals have different effects on different types of rural households’ income. Specifically; (1) although, the area of cultivated land reduces agricultural income inequality, it increases per capita income inequality. (2) Forest land area enlarges per capita income inequality and total household income inequality. (3) Tractor variable reduces inequality in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Human capital; Social capital; Gini coefficient; Poverty alleviation; China..
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782020000200932
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Análisis del impacto del crecimiento económico en función del capital humano, internet y empleo en México. Colegio de Postgraduados
Jiménez García, Martha.
Tomando como referencia al Banco Mundial que indica la necesidad de fomentar las habilidades de las Tecnologías de la Información y la comunicación (TIC) en todos los sectores, especialmente porque un aumento de las conexiones de internet impulsa el crecimiento del PIB. El propósito de esta investigación es impulsar el crecimiento económico en función del capital humano, del internet y del empleo. Se trabajó con la serie de datos de los años 1991 – 2010, con un modelo econométrico que se resolvió con ecuaciones simultáneas, con el método de mínimos cuadrados en tres etapas. Dicho modelo se basó en la función Cobb-Douglas bajo el modelo Solow. Como resultado se encontró un impacto positivo en el crecimiento económico con las variables estudiadas (capital...
Palavras-chave: Crecimiento económico; Capital humano; Internet; Empleo; Tecnologías de la información y la comunicación; Economic growth; Human capital; Labor; Information and communication technologies; Economía; Doctorado.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/2280
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Collapse and Reorganization in Social-Ecological Systems: Questions, Some Ideas, and Policy Implications Ecology and Society
Abel, Nick; CSIRO; nick.abel@csiro.au; Cumming, David H. M.; University of Zimbabwe; dcumming@science.uz.ac.zw; Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Key words: resilience collapse; Recovery; Social-ecological systems; Adaptive cycle; Natural capital; Social capital; Human capital; Zimbabwe; Australia.
Ano: 2006
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Is Education a Key to Reducing Vulnerability to Natural Disasters and hence Unavoidable Climate Change? Ecology and Society
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive capacity; Climate change; Differential vulnerability; Education; Human capital; Natural disasters.
Ano: 2014
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Educating for resilience in the North: building a toolbox for teachers Ecology and Society
Spellman, Katie V.; Resilience and Adaptation Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks; katie.spellman@alaska.edu.
Communities at far northern latitudes must respond rapidly to the many complex problems that are arising from changing climate. An emerging body of theoretical and empirical work has explored the role that education plays in enhancing the resilience and adaptability of social-ecological systems. To foster effective, local, and timely responses of high-latitude communities to climate-driven social-ecological change, educators need access to successful and efficient teaching tools to foster resilience-promoting feedbacks. The potential for existing teaching practices to address this need, however, must be investigated and communicated to teachers. Here, I review the education and sustainability science literature for attributes of resilience to which formal...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Alaska; Citizen science; Human capital; Metacognition; Pedagogy; Scenarios thinking; Sense of place; Social capital; Social-ecological resilience; Systems thinking.
Ano: 2015
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Biotechnology research in Venezuela: Five case studies Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Morales,Rosa.
The organization of biotechnology differs across countries. The structure of the industry, the academia, and the links between these two sectors vary according to which country is studied. Biotechnology is organized in Venezuela mainly around the research done by special research and development units at national universities. The paper describes some of these units in order to shed light about their performance. Two economic approaches are used to explain the academic production of these biotech research organizations: the technological and organizational approaches. A case study methodology is used in this research. The results can be summarized as: The percentage of researchers who are doctors is less than seventy percent in each research and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Human capital; Latin American biotechnology; Research and development units; Organization of biotechnology.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582006000500001
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Per Capita Income, Human Capital, and Inequality Convergence: A Latent-Variable Approach AgEcon
Deepak, Sri Devi; Seale, James L., Jr.; Moss, Charles B..
The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze determinants of income-level convergence. Specifically, the effect of human capital on per capita income is estimated for 22 countries of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Additionally, the effects of openness in international trade and investment and government expenditures on per capita income are estimated and evaluated. Human capital is modeled as a latent variable, and results indicate that it is a significant factor in explaining the variation of per capita income levels among the OECD countries. Further, the entire time path of human capital is utilized to explain deviations in per capita income.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Convergence; Human capital; Inequality; Latent variable; OECD.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43299
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Families, Human Capital, and Small Business: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey AgEcon
Fairlie, Robert W.; Robb, Alicia.
Using data from the confidential and restricted-access Characteristics of Business Owners (CBO) Survey, we provide some suggestive evidence on the causes of intergenerational links in business ownership and the related issue of how having a family business background affects small business outcomes. Estimates from the CBO indicate that more than half of all business owners had a self-employed family member prior to starting their business. Conditional on having a self-employed family member, less than 50 percent of small business owners worked in that family member's business. In contrast, estimates from regression models conditioning on business ownership indicate that having a self-employed family member plays only a minor role in determining small...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Business outcomes; Self-employment; Entrepreneurship; Families; Human capital; Labor and Human Capital; M13; J24.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28446
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AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE AgEcon
Davis, Carlton George; Langham, Max R..
Agricultural industrialization and sustainable development issues are important contemporary areas of debate. This paper argues that the two processes are a consequence of a set of forces operating in our global system. It outlines a number of conceptual interactions between the two phenomena and examines economic development and sustainable development policy implications that appear to be logical extensions of the arguments presented.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural industrialization; Sustainable agricultural development; Development assistance; Human capital; Market and policy failures; Public policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15341
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L’IMPACT DU CAPITAL HUMAIN SUR LA PRODUCTIVITE AGRICOLE AU BURKINA FASO AgEcon
Theophile, Kabore.
Contributed Paper presented at the International Conference on Agriculture Of Ouagadougou (BURKINA FASO), December 4-6, 2010.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Capital humain; Rendements; Productivité; Parcelle; Matching; Human capital; Productivity; Farm; Matching; Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis; E24; N54; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102275
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HUMAN CAPITAL AND LABOR FLOWS OUT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Dries, Liesbeth; Swinnen, Johan F.M..
This paper analyses of determinants of agricultural labor flows and the role of human capital in this process on the basis of the Slovenian Labor Force Surveys for the years 1993 to 1999. The household heads living in larger households, having a larger farm size, and working full-time (more hours per week) in permanent jobs are more likely to stay in agricultural employment. The empirical evidence clearly suggests that human capital plays a crucial role for labor mobility and labor adjustment. Young, female and educated individuals are more likely to enter into employment in non-agricultural, particularly service activities. There are remarkable circular flows of elderly and less educated persons between being employed in agriculture, unemployment and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Slovenia; Human capital; Labor adjustment; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25803
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Comparing the evolution of spatial inequality in China and India: a fifty-year perspective AgEcon
Gajwani, Kiran; Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
In the second half of the last century, both India and China have undergone major transitions and have moved to more liberalized economies. This paper relates the observed patterns in regional inequality to major events during this period. Because of China’s institutional barriers to migration, regional inequality is much higher than in India. Also, China’s decentralization and opening up are closely related to the observed regional inequality - particularly the inland-coastal disparity - since the reform period. From the Green Revolution age to the period of economic liberalization in India, the evolution of regional comparative advantage has shifted from the quality of land to the level of human capital as India integrates with the international market....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Liberalized economics; Regional inequality; Migration; Decentralization; Green revolution; Economic conditions; International economic relations; Human capital; Spatial inequality; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55409
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Corruption and economic growth in Lebanon AgEcon
Farida, Moe; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z..
This paper seeks to examine the impact of corruption on economic growth in Lebanon. Using a neoclassical model, we hypothesise that corruption reduces the country's standard of living as measured by real per capita GDP. We show that corruption deters growth indirectly through reducing the factor input productivity in a Cobb-Douglas production function. We provide empirical evidence suggesting that corruption increases inefficiencies in government expenditure and reduces investment and human capital productivity, leading to a negative impact on output. The implications of the analysis are explored.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Corruption; Economic growth; Investment; Human capital; Government expenditure; Foreign aid; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Public Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6043
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LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DEL CAPITAL HUMANO EN LAS ORGANIZACIONES DEL SECTOR RURAL: CASO DE PROCESADORA DE LÁCTEOS “TRES MARÍAS” S. DE R.L. MI, DE MEOQUI, CHIH. AgEcon
Anchondo Aguilar, Addy; Durán López, Emilia; Basurto Sotelo, Moisés; Perez Leal, Ramona; Rodriguez Andujo, Aida; Araiza Romero, Laura.
The human capital of all company, is the most valuable asset, to operate and to achieve the success of all organization, this work has the purpose of obtain a diagnosis of the human capital in a company of the agritechnological sector denominated Dairy Processor of “Three Marias” S. of R.L. MI, founded in the information, that allow to identify the opportunities for the improvement of the company, development, growth and innovation. The personnel of the company is integrated by simple and humble personnel, compromised with they work and their family. The present work allowed to demonstrate that the agritechnological companies are developed in an integral way, and also that they need to technify their activities, to organize in order to obtain majors...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Human capital; Dairy processor; Agritechnological.; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114476
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The Impact of Human Capital on Farm Operator Household Income AgEcon
El-Osta, Hisham S..
Data from the 2006 Agricultural Resource Management Survey and multivariate regression procedures are used to examine the role of human capital in impacting the incomes of farm households. The paper uses an “adjusted” concept of income where government payments are subtracted from total household income thus allowing for the utilization of government payments as a potential control variable in the regression models. Findings indicate a significant and positive role for higher education except for farm households at the very lower and upper ends of the income distribution.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farm households; ARMS data; Quantile regression; Government payments; Human capital; Off-farm wages and salaries; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/106062
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Human Capital, Innovation, and Climate Policy: An Integrated Assessment AgEcon
Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Tavoni, Massimo.
This paper looks at the interplay between human capital and innovation in the presence of climate and educational policies. Using recent empirical estimates, human capital and general purpose R&D are introduced in an integrated assessment model that has been extensively applied to study climate change mitigation. Our results suggest that climate policy stimulates general purpose as well as clean energy R&D but reduces the incentive to invest in human capital formation. Human capital increases the productivity of labour and the complementarity between labour and energy drives its pollution-using effect (direct effect). When human capital is an essential input in the production of generic and energy dedicated knowledge, the crowding out induced by...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Policy; Innovation; Human capital; Environmental Economics and Policy; O33; O41; Q43.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122861
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Human Capital, Schooling and Health Returns AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population’s child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Health; Productivity; Human capital; Schooling; Returns; Labor and Human Capital; J24; I12; I21.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28475
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HEALTH, BINGE DRINKING, AND LABOR MARKET SUCCESS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY ON YOUNG PEOPLE AgEcon
Keng, Shao-Hsun; Huffman, Wallace E..
Health, like schooling, is a form of human capital and can be expected to be positively related to labor productivity and labor supply. The production of good health and labor productivity, however, sometimes competes with an individual's lifestyle, e.g., binge drinking. In this study, an individual's health has three dimensions: current health status, binge drinking which is an unhealthy lifestyle, and stature or mature height which is a young adult's health endowment. This study presents and fits a dynamic model of an individual's demand for health, demand for binge drinking, labor supply, and wage or demand for labor equations to NLSY 1979 cohort panel data of young people. We find that binge drinking has a negative but insignificant effect on the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Health; Labor productivity; Labor supply; Binge drinking; Youth; Panel data; Rational addiction; Human capital; Health Economics and Policy; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18252
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Rural Gaps in Participation in Early Childhood Education AgEcon
Temple, Judy A..
While state government spending on early education has grown in recent years, accessibility of preschool programs for rural children remains a problem. Using census-tract data from a nationally-representative data set on U.S. children, multinomial logit estimation reveals significant differences in early education experiences between rural and nonrural children. Both rural children and children of less-educated mothers are less likely to participate in preschool. This paper concludes by discussing the appropriate role of local, state, or federal governments in funding rural preschool programs. While early educational investments are being touted as effective economic development tools, the nature of the positive externalities associated with preschool...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Early education; Human capital; Preschool; Rural education; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; I2; R0; H4.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53085
Registros recuperados: 55
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