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Registros recuperados: 55
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Collapse and Reorganization in Social-Ecological Systems: Questions, Some Ideas, and Policy Implications Ecology and Society
Abel, Nick; CSIRO; nick.abel@csiro.au; Cumming, David H. M.; University of Zimbabwe; dcumming@science.uz.ac.zw; Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Key words: resilience collapse; Recovery; Social-ecological systems; Adaptive cycle; Natural capital; Social capital; Human capital; Zimbabwe; Australia.
Ano: 2006
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LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DEL CAPITAL HUMANO EN LAS ORGANIZACIONES DEL SECTOR RURAL: CASO DE PROCESADORA DE LÁCTEOS “TRES MARÍAS” S. DE R.L. MI, DE MEOQUI, CHIH. AgEcon
Anchondo Aguilar, Addy; Durán López, Emilia; Basurto Sotelo, Moisés; Perez Leal, Ramona; Rodriguez Andujo, Aida; Araiza Romero, Laura.
The human capital of all company, is the most valuable asset, to operate and to achieve the success of all organization, this work has the purpose of obtain a diagnosis of the human capital in a company of the agritechnological sector denominated Dairy Processor of “Three Marias” S. of R.L. MI, founded in the information, that allow to identify the opportunities for the improvement of the company, development, growth and innovation. The personnel of the company is integrated by simple and humble personnel, compromised with they work and their family. The present work allowed to demonstrate that the agritechnological companies are developed in an integral way, and also that they need to technify their activities, to organize in order to obtain majors...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Human capital; Dairy processor; Agritechnological.; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114476
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EDUCATING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCHERS: A REVIEW OF THE ROLE OF AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES AgEcon
Beintema, Nienke M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Roseboom, Johannes.
The number of higher-education institutions and the students enrolled in them has grown rapidly throughout Africa since the early 1960s. The number of universities increased from less than 20 in 1960 to nearly 160 by 1996; student numbers grew from 119,000 to almost two million over the same period, yet enrollment ratios in Africa continue to lag well behind developed and other-developing country norms. Funding for higher-education in Africa kept pace with the expanding institutional base during the 1960s and 1970s, but has fallen well behind the growth in student numbers since 1980. The pattern of the development of the agricultural sciences has matched the general pattern of development of the higher-education sector. Three quarters of the countries in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: University education; Agriculture; R&D; Human capital; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; Africa.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16046
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HUMAN CAPITAL AND LABOR FLOWS OUT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Dries, Liesbeth; Swinnen, Johan F.M..
This paper analyses of determinants of agricultural labor flows and the role of human capital in this process on the basis of the Slovenian Labor Force Surveys for the years 1993 to 1999. The household heads living in larger households, having a larger farm size, and working full-time (more hours per week) in permanent jobs are more likely to stay in agricultural employment. The empirical evidence clearly suggests that human capital plays a crucial role for labor mobility and labor adjustment. Young, female and educated individuals are more likely to enter into employment in non-agricultural, particularly service activities. There are remarkable circular flows of elderly and less educated persons between being employed in agriculture, unemployment and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Slovenia; Human capital; Labor adjustment; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25803
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THE INFLUENCE OF THE LOCAL ECONOMY AND THE WILLINGNESS TO MOVE ON HUMAN CAPITAL ACCUMULATION IN CENTRAL APPALACHIA AgEcon
Broomhall, David.
This study uses logit analysis to examine the influence of the perception of local economic opportunities and the willingness to move on the educational aspirations of rural high-school-aged youths. Those youths who are more willing to move have a greater career opportunity set and a string incentive to achieve in school, since education allows them to compete for jobs elsewhere. A low willingness to move, coupled with a low perception of local job opportunities, translates into a low expected return to education, which reduces the incentive to achieve in school.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Economic opportunity; Educational aspirations; Human capital; Logit analysis; Mobility; Rural development; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15266
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Human Capital, Innovation, and Climate Policy: An Integrated Assessment AgEcon
Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Tavoni, Massimo.
This paper looks at the interplay between human capital and innovation in the presence of climate and educational policies. Using recent empirical estimates, human capital and general purpose R&D are introduced in an integrated assessment model that has been extensively applied to study climate change mitigation. Our results suggest that climate policy stimulates general purpose as well as clean energy R&D but reduces the incentive to invest in human capital formation. Human capital increases the productivity of labour and the complementarity between labour and energy drives its pollution-using effect (direct effect). When human capital is an essential input in the production of generic and energy dedicated knowledge, the crowding out induced by...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Policy; Innovation; Human capital; Environmental Economics and Policy; O33; O41; Q43.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122861
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Evaluating the Cost of Poverty Alleviation Transfer Programs: An Illustration Based on PROGRESA in Mexico AgEcon
Coady, David P.; Perez, Raul; Vera-Illamas, Hadid.
One of the common criticisms of poverty alleviation programs is that the high share of administrative (nontransfer) costs substantially reduces the programs’ impact on poverty. But very little empirical evidence exists on program costs. For example, a recent extensive international review of targeted poverty alleviation programs in developing countries could find data on costs for only 32 out of the 111 program reviewed. Even then, the numbers available were not always comparable. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the cost structure of a program recently introduced in Mexico, called PROGRESA. Our analysis shows how cost data can be used as the basis for an evaluation of the cost efficiency of anti-poverty programs. It cautions, however, that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cost efficiency; Poverty alleviation; Human capital; Mexico; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59284
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AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE AgEcon
Davis, Carlton George; Langham, Max R..
Agricultural industrialization and sustainable development issues are important contemporary areas of debate. This paper argues that the two processes are a consequence of a set of forces operating in our global system. It outlines a number of conceptual interactions between the two phenomena and examines economic development and sustainable development policy implications that appear to be logical extensions of the arguments presented.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural industrialization; Sustainable agricultural development; Development assistance; Human capital; Market and policy failures; Public policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15341
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Per Capita Income, Human Capital, and Inequality Convergence: A Latent-Variable Approach AgEcon
Deepak, Sri Devi; Seale, James L., Jr.; Moss, Charles B..
The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze determinants of income-level convergence. Specifically, the effect of human capital on per capita income is estimated for 22 countries of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Additionally, the effects of openness in international trade and investment and government expenditures on per capita income are estimated and evaluated. Human capital is modeled as a latent variable, and results indicate that it is a significant factor in explaining the variation of per capita income levels among the OECD countries. Further, the entire time path of human capital is utilized to explain deviations in per capita income.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Convergence; Human capital; Inequality; Latent variable; OECD.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43299
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Changes in Returns to Education in India, 1983-94: By Gender, Age-Cohort and Location AgEcon
Duraisamy, P..
There is hardly any estimate of the returns to schooling in India based on a national level representative data for the recent period. This paper provides estimates of the returns to education in India by gender, age cohort and location (by rural-urban) for the most recent period 1993/4, and also evaluates the changes in returns over a period of time from 1983-94 using a large national level household survey data. The data show that the returns to education increases up to the secondary level and declines thereafter. There is evidence of substantial gender and rural-urban differences in the returns to schooling. The returns to women's education for the primary and middle levels have declined while those for secondary and college levels have increased...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rate of return; Human capital; India; Labor and Human Capital; J31; I21.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28505
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The Impact of Human Capital on Farm Operator Household Income AgEcon
El-Osta, Hisham S..
Data from the 2006 Agricultural Resource Management Survey and multivariate regression procedures are used to examine the role of human capital in impacting the incomes of farm households. The paper uses an “adjusted” concept of income where government payments are subtracted from total household income thus allowing for the utilization of government payments as a potential control variable in the regression models. Findings indicate a significant and positive role for higher education except for farm households at the very lower and upper ends of the income distribution.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farm households; ARMS data; Quantile regression; Government payments; Human capital; Off-farm wages and salaries; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/106062
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Los activos de los pobres en el Perú AgEcon
Escobal D'Angelo, Javier; Saavedra, Jaime; Torero, Maximo.
Tanto la distribución del ingreso como los niveles de pobreza han registrado importantes modificaciones a lo largo de las últimas cuatro décadas en el Perú. Más allá de las diferencias metodológicas asociadas al cálculo de estos indicadores, la evidencia sugiere que en los últimos 40 años se habría reducido la dispersión en la distribución del ingreso. Asimismo, se habría producido una importante reducción en los niveles de pobreza, especialmente durante la década de los setenta. A pesar de ello, la tasa de pobreza continua siendo una de las más altas de América Latina. De otro lado, el análisis de la distribución de activos durante los últimos diez años revela en general una continuación de las tendencias de largo plazo. El nivel educativo medio sigue...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Pobreza; Distribucion del ingreso; Capital humano; Activos fijos; Poverty; Income distribution; Human capital; Fixed assets; Peru; I32; D33.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37815
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Families, Human Capital, and Small Business: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey AgEcon
Fairlie, Robert W.; Robb, Alicia.
Using data from the confidential and restricted-access Characteristics of Business Owners (CBO) Survey, we provide some suggestive evidence on the causes of intergenerational links in business ownership and the related issue of how having a family business background affects small business outcomes. Estimates from the CBO indicate that more than half of all business owners had a self-employed family member prior to starting their business. Conditional on having a self-employed family member, less than 50 percent of small business owners worked in that family member's business. In contrast, estimates from regression models conditioning on business ownership indicate that having a self-employed family member plays only a minor role in determining small...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Business outcomes; Self-employment; Entrepreneurship; Families; Human capital; Labor and Human Capital; M13; J24.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28446
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Corruption and economic growth in Lebanon AgEcon
Farida, Moe; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z..
This paper seeks to examine the impact of corruption on economic growth in Lebanon. Using a neoclassical model, we hypothesise that corruption reduces the country's standard of living as measured by real per capita GDP. We show that corruption deters growth indirectly through reducing the factor input productivity in a Cobb-Douglas production function. We provide empirical evidence suggesting that corruption increases inefficiencies in government expenditure and reduces investment and human capital productivity, leading to a negative impact on output. The implications of the analysis are explored.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Corruption; Economic growth; Investment; Human capital; Government expenditure; Foreign aid; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Public Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6043
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Comparing the evolution of spatial inequality in China and India: a fifty-year perspective AgEcon
Gajwani, Kiran; Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
In the second half of the last century, both India and China have undergone major transitions and have moved to more liberalized economies. This paper relates the observed patterns in regional inequality to major events during this period. Because of China’s institutional barriers to migration, regional inequality is much higher than in India. Also, China’s decentralization and opening up are closely related to the observed regional inequality - particularly the inland-coastal disparity - since the reform period. From the Green Revolution age to the period of economic liberalization in India, the evolution of regional comparative advantage has shifted from the quality of land to the level of human capital as India integrates with the international market....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Liberalized economics; Regional inequality; Migration; Decentralization; Green revolution; Economic conditions; International economic relations; Human capital; Spatial inequality; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55409
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Low Skill Employment and the Changing Economy of Rural America AgEcon
Gibbs, Robert; Kusmin, Lorin D..
This study reports trends in rural low-skill employment in the 1990s and their impact on the rural workforce. The share of rural jobs classified as low-skill fell by 2.2 percentage points between 1990 and 2000, twice the decline of the urban low-skill employment share, but much less than the decline of the 1980s. Employment shifts from low-skill to skilled occupations within industries, rather than changes in industry mix, explain virtually all of the decline in the rural low-skill employment share. The share decline was particularly large for rural Black women, many of whom moved out of low-skill blue-collar work into service occupations, while the share of rural Hispanics who held low-skill jobs increased.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Rural labor markets; Low-skill employment; Job skills; Human capital; Industry; Occupation; Economic development; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33595
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Human capital and its effect on the farm business life cycle AgEcon
Hadrich, Joleen C..
Human capital has been identified as significant determinant of farm size growth. However, there are numerous measures for human capital. Traditional measures include age, experience, and education of the principal operator and a management measure. This study identifies three types of management capabilities: production, financial, and human resource, as human capital measures. Farm size growth is estimated over a 15 year time period, 1994-2009. Results indicate that age of principal operator, financial management, and human resource management are significant determinants of farm size growth.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Human capital; Farm life cycle; Farm growth; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103481
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Natural Disasters in a Two-Sector Model of Endogenous Growth AgEcon
Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako.
This paper studies sustainability of economic growth considering the risk of natural disasters caused by pollution in an endogenous growth model with physical and human capital accumulation. It is shown that economic growth is sustainable only if the tax rate on the polluting input is increased over time and that the long-term rate of economic growth follows an inverted V-shaped curve relative to the growth rate of the environmental tax. The social welfare is maximized under a positive steady-state growth in which faster accumulation of human capital compensates the productivity loss due to declining use of the polluting input.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Natural disasters; Human capital; Endogenous depreciation; Economic growth; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O41; O13; E22.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97337
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HUMAN CAPITAL: EDUCATION AND AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
This chapter presents a review and synthesis of effects of education in agriculture, summarizes major contributions, and suggests major research gaps in the literature. Although growth in knowledge enables skill acquisition and specialization of labor, which generally raises labor productivity, and technical change, the dominant effect on agriculture has been technical change. A puzzle remains why schooling does not have broader direct impacts in agriculture. Furthermore, as we proxy education or general intellectual achievement by schooling in our empirical research, this has led to biased interpretations of impacts when general intellectual achievement of school graduate changes over time and perhaps in nonlinear ways.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Education; Schooling; Agriculture; Human capital; Impact analysis; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18264
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HUMAN CAPITAL, EDUCATION, AND AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
Education is widely recognized as the most important form of human capital, and health as the second most important form. The primary focus is on schooling where private and social real rates of return remain high in low and middle income countries for elementary and secondary schooling. The paper reviews broad effects of education in agriculture, and examines some of the prospects and potential for the future. Conclusions include: (i) schooling cannot be viewed as unconditionally productive in agriculture. It s impact is conditioned by the price and technology environment and options for off-farm work and migration. (ii) With rapid advances and fall prices of communication and information technologies, farm people of the future will need strong basic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Schooling; Education; Human capital; Agriculture; Information technologies; Training; Global agriculture; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18269
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