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Towards Tutoring an Interactive Robot InTech
Britta Wrede; Katharina J. Rohlfing; Thorsten P. Spexard; Jannik Fritsch.
Modelling learning on a robot requires that the robot acts in a social situation. We have therefore integrated a complex interaction framework on our robot Barthoc that it is, thus, able to communicate with humans, more specifically, with tutors. This interaction framework enables the robot (1) to focus its attention on a human communication partner and (2) to interpret the communicative behaviour of its communication partner as communicative acts within a pragmatic framework of grounding. Based on this interaction framework, we can now integrate our proposed learning mechanism that aims at deriving a semantic understanding of the presented actions. In detail, we can now make use of the above mentioned variables derived from the visual (hand tracking) and...
Tipo: 31 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/towards_tutoring_an_interactive_robot
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Visual Attention and Distributed Processing of Visual Information for the Control of Humanoid Robots InTech
Ales Ude; Jan Moren; Gordon Cheng.
The goals of our work were twofold. On the one hand, we studied how to introduce topdown effects into a bottom-up visual attention system. We have extended the classic system proposed by (Itti et al., 1998) with top-down inhibitory signals to drive attention towards the areas with the expected features while still considering other salient areas in the scene in a bottom-up manner. Our experimental results show that the system can select areas of interest using various features and that the selected areas are quite plausible and most of the time contain potential objects of interest. On the other hand, we studied distributed computer architectures, which are necessary to achieve real-time operation of complex processes such as visual attention. Although...
Tipo: 22 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/visual_attention_and_distributed_processing_of_visual_information_for_the_control_of_humanoid_robots
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Simulation Study on Acquisition Process of Locomotion by Using an Infant Robot InTech
Katsuyoshi Tsujita; Tatsuya Masuda.
This chapter presented a simulation method for simulating, and thereby clarifying, the development process of human locomotion that uses a model of an infant robot. The infant robot has many degrees of freedom. By making constraints and coordination for many DOF of using "intensions" such as "want to stay sitting," or "want to move more forward," etc., various motion patterns emerge according to a specific intension. In this study, this type of intension is given as the objective function and development of motion pattern, and is simulated as an optimization or learning problem. Dynamically changing the intension according to the development process changed the motion pattern of the infant robot, and it developed from sitting to crawling, toward...
Tipo: 21 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/simulation_study_on_acquisition_process_of_locomotion_by_using_an_infant_robot
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Mixed Logic Dynamical Modeling and On Line Optimal Control of Biped Robot InTech
Yingjie Yin; Shigeyuki Hosoe.
In this study, we proposed a MLD modeling and MPC approach for the on line optimization of biped motion. Such modeling approach possesses advantage that it describes both the continuous dynamics and the impact event within one framework, consequently it provides a unified approach for mathematical, numerical and control investigations. This MLD model allows model predictive control (MPC) and subsequent stability from the numerical analysis viewpoints, by powerful MIQP solver. Hence the biped robot can be on line controlled without pre-defined trajectory. The optimal solution corresponds to the optimal gait for current environment and control requirement. The feasibility of the MLD model based predictive control is shown by simulations. How to effectively...
Tipo: 16 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/mixed_logic_dynamical_modeling_and_on_line_optimal_control_of_biped_robot
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Development of a CORBA-based Humanoid Robot and its Applications InTech
Yasuo Nasu; Genci Capi; Hanafiah Yussof; Mitsuhiro Yamano; Masahiro Ohka.
We have developed anthropomorphic prototype humanoid robot; Bonten-Maru I and Bonten-Maru II. The Bonten-Maru humanoid robot series are one of few research prototype humanoid robots in the world which can be utilized in various aspects of studies. In this research, we utilized the Bonten-Maru in development of the CORBA-based humanoid robot control architecture, the optimal gait strategy and the teleoperation via internet. 7.1 CORBA-Based Humanoid Robot Control Architecture (HRCA) In this section, we proposed a new robot control architecture called HRCA. The HRCA is developed as a CORBA client/server system and is implemented on the Bonten-Maru I humanoid robot. The HRCA allows easy addition, deletion, and upgrading of new modules. We have carried out...
Tipo: 6 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/development_of_a_corba-based_humanoid_robot_and_its_applications
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Limit Cycle Walking InTech
Daan G.E. Hobbelen; Martijn Wisse.
In this chapter we have introduced the paradigm `Limit Cycle Walking'. This paradigm has been used for some time by a group of bipedal robotics researchers, but the concept had not been properly defined before: Limit Cycle Walking is a nominally periodic sequence of steps that is stable as a whole but not locally stable at every instant in time. Limit Cycle Walking releases the unnecessary stability constraint of sustained local stability that is often applied in bipedal robots. It only requires the much less restrictive cyclic
Tipo: 14 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/limit_cycle_walking
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Inertial Forces Posture Control for Humanoid Robots Locomotion InTech
Victor Nunez; Nelly Nadjar-Gauthier; Kazuhito Yokoi; Pierre Blazevic; Olivier Stasse.
In order to consider a whole body control approach capable of treating different kinds of locomotion modes, the consideration of a motion planing and a the posture controller stages is important. In this paper this approach is presented for the locomotion of a humanoid robot. With the proposed approach motions including aerial phases, can be considered. The inertial force posture controller presented here requires the locomotion to be specified using generalized inertial force, besides the trajectory of the extremities not in contact with the ground. This inertial forces can be planed for having zmp stable motion or desired angular momentum.
Tipo: 8 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/inertial_forces_posture_control_for_humanoid_robots_locomotion
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An Adaptive Biped Gait Generation Scheme Utilizing Characteristics of Various Gaits InTech
Kengo Toda; Ken Tomiyama.
A Sensor-Based Gait Generation method was introduced and an experimental system was built. Then, the system was implemented onto an original humanoid robot to evaluate operations and to demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results exhibited successful gait selection corresponding to the road surface condition obtained from sensor information. Additionally, walking velocity and the energy efficiency are both enhanced without reducing the success rate of walking. The design approach for Gait Selector based on both ZMP and the angular momentum adopted in this study is a sufficiently general and valid one. The developed Gait Selector should be applicable to many gaits and humanoids. However, more conditional branchings based not only...
Tipo: 11 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/an_adaptive_biped_gait_generation_scheme_utilizing_characteristics_of_various_gaits
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Artificial Muscles for Humanoid Robots InTech
Bertrand Tondu.
The functioning of natural skeletal muscle is based on microscopic phenomena that no technology is at present able to reproduce. The notion of artificial muscle is as a consequence mainly founded on a macroscopic model of the skeletal muscle. The mimicking of both tension-length and tension-velocity characteristics is aimed at giving future humanoid robots touch ability which is so fundamental in the `relational life' of human beings. No definitive technology has as yet emerged in the design of artificial muscle. It is, however, interesting to note that the most promising ones are based on the use of polymers whose physical properties (responses to chemical or physical agents, elasticity, etc.) mimic some dynamic properties of animal tissues. In particular...
Tipo: 5 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/artificial_muscles_for_humanoid_robots
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Stability Analysis of a Simple Active Biped Robot with a Torso on Level Ground Based on Passive Walking Mechanisms InTech
Terumasa Narukawa; Masaki Takahashi; Kazuo Yoshida.
We study a simple active biped robot on level ground to walk over a wide range of speed. The use of the torso for energy supply and the swing-leg control for stable waking are introduced. Numerical simulations show that the swing-leg control enables the biped robot on level ground to walk stably over a wide range of speed, and enlarges the stable region.
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/stability_analysis_of_a_simple_active_biped_robot_with_a_torso_on_level_ground_based_on_passive_walk
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Generating Natural Motion in an Android by Mapping Human Motion InTech
Daisuke Matsui; Takashi Minato; Karl F. MacDorman; Hiroshi Ishiguro.
This paper has proposed a method of implementing humanlike motions by mapping their three-dimensional appearance to the android using a motion capture system. By measuring the android's posture and comparing it to the posture of a human subject, we propose a new method to evaluate motion sequences along bodily surfaces. Unlike other approaches that focus on reducing joint angle errors, we consider how to evaluate differences in the android's apparent motion, that is, motion at its visible surfaces. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the evaluation: the method can transfer human motion. However, the method is restricted by the speed of the motion. We have to introduce a method to deal with the dynamic characteristics (Ben=Amor et al., 2007)...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/generating_natural_motion_in_an_android_by_mapping_human_motion
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Bipedal Walking Pattern Design by Synchronizing the Motions in the Sagittal and Lateral Planes InTech
Chi Zhu; Atsuo Kawamura.
In this paper, a new design approach of bipedal walking pattern based on the synchronization of the motions in the sagittal and lateral planes are presented. With the discussion on the motions in these two planes, the fact is clarified that the motions in the sagittal and lateral planes are tightly coupled together. The motion parameters in the sagittal plane such as walking speed, walking time, and phase stride can be easily adjusted by altering the start and finish points of the double support phase in the lateral plane. Therefore, an approach for adjusting the walking speed by controlling the double support phase is naturally developed. Moreover, it is pointed out that a smooth and fast walking can be obtained by shortening the double support phase...
Tipo: 17 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/bipedal_walking_pattern_design_by_synchronizing_the_motions_in_the_sagittal_and_lateral_planes
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Bilinear Time Delay Neural Network System for Humanoid Robot Software InTech
Fumio Nagashima.
In this chapter, I describe the neural network suitable for building the total humanoid robot software system and show some applications. This method is characterized by • uniform implementation for wide variety of applications • simplicity for dynamically structure modification The software system becomes flexible by these characteristics. Now, I’m working on the general learning technique for this neural network. There is a possibility free from NFL problem (Wolper, 1997). This chapter is originally written for the RSJ paper in Japanese (Nagashima, 2006).
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/bilinear_time_delay_neural_network_system_for_humanoid_robot_software
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Robot Learning by Active Imitation InTech
Juan Pedro Bandera; Rebeca Marfil; Luis Molina Tanco; Juan Antonio Rodriguez; Antonio Bandera; Francisco Sandoval.
In this chapter, an architecture that endows a robot with the ability to imitate has been described. This architecture has modules that provide action level and program level
Tipo: 27 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/robot_learning_by_active_imitation
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Hierarchical Reactive Control for Soccer Playing Humanoid Robots InTech
Sven Behnke; Jorg Stuckler; Hauke Strasdat; Michael Schreiber.
This chapter described the design of the behavior control software for our humanoid soccer robots, which successfully took part as team NimbRo at the RoboCup 2006 competitions. We implemented the control software in a framework that supports a hierarchy of reactive behaviors. This structure restricts interactions between the system variables and thus reduces the complexity of behavior engineering. A kinematic interface for body parts made it possible to abstract from individual joints when implementing basic skills like omnidirectional walking. These basic skills made it possible to abstract from body parts when implementing more complex soccer behaviors. At this player level, our humanoid robots are very similar to wheeled or four-legged soccer robots....
Tipo: 33 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/hierarchical_reactive_control_for_soccer_playing_humanoid_robots
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Neural Control of Actions Involving Different Coordinate Systems InTech
Cornelius Weber; Mark Elshaw; Jochen Triesch; Stefan Wermter.
Sigma-Pi units lend themselves to the task of frame of reference transformations. Multiplicative attentional control can dynamically route information from a region of interest within the visual field to a higher area (Andersen et al, 2004). With an architecture involving Sigma-Pi weights activation patters can be dynamically routed, as we have shown in Fig. 8 b). In a model by Grimes and Rao (2005) the dynamic routing of information is combined with feature extraction. Since the number of hidden units to be activated depends on the inputs, they need an iterative procedure to obtain the hidden code. In our scenario only the position of a stereotyped activation hill is estimated. This allows us to use a simpler, SOM-like algorithm. 7.1 Are Sigma-Pi Units...
Tipo: 30 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/neural_control_of_actions_involving_different_coordinate_systems
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Multipurpose Low-Cost Humanoid Platform and Modular Control Software Development InTech
Filipe Silva; Vítor Santos.
In this chapter we have described the development and integration of hardware and software components to build a small-size humanoid robot based on off-the-shelf technologies. A modular design is conceived to ensure easy maintenance and faster reproducibility. The most relevant feature of this implementation includes the distributed architecture in which independent and self-contained control units may allow either a cooperative or a standalone operation. The integration in these simpler control units of sensing, processing and acting capabilities play a key role towards localised control based on feedback from several sensors. The adoption of an outer motion control loop to provide accurate trajectory tracking was presented and has been experimentally...
Tipo: 4 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/multipurpose_low-cost_humanoid_platform_and_modular_control_software_development
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Towards Adaptive Control Strategy for Biped Robots InTech
Christophe Sabourin; Kurosh Madan; Olivier Bruneau.
In this chapter, we have described a control strategy based on both proprioceptive and exteroceptive information for autonomous biped robots. The first presented results, carried out on the basis of computer based simulation techniques, are very promising and prove that the proposed approach is a good way to improve the control strategy of a biped robot. First, we show that, with only five reference gaits, it is possible to generate other gaits. The adjustment of the step length as a function of the average velocity is due to the gait pattern based on the Fuzzy CMAC structure. Moreover, with a fuzzy evaluation of the distance between the robots' feet and an obstacle, our control strategy allows to the biped robot to avoid an obstacle using step over...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/towards_adaptive_control_strategy_for_biped_robots
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Design of an Assistive Gait Device for Strength Endurance and Rehabilitation InTech
K. H. Low; Xiaopeng Liu; Haoyong Yu.
8.1 Conclusion This chapter has presented the development and control of a wearable lower exoskeleton system for augmentation of human walking ability, which incorporates human as the integral part of the control system and can relieve humans physical fatigue caused by excessive walking and heavy payloads. In this work, xPC Target, together with other toolboxes from MATLAB have been used so as to provide a real-time operating system and an integrated development environment for controlling the exoskeleton. Real-time control of the exoskeleton is implemented in this environment. At last, walking experiments are performed and demonstrated. 8.2 Future Work The first prototype is only a test bed to verify the control algorithms. It looks bulky and rough....
Tipo: 1 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/design_of_an_assistive_gait_device_for_strength_endurance_and_rehabilitation
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Development of Biped Humanoid Robots at the Humanoid Robot Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) InTech
Ill-Woo Park; Jung-Yup Kim; Jungho Lee; Min-Su Kim; Baek-Kyu Cho; Jun-Ho Oh.
In this chapter, The HUBO-series robot platform development is introduced. HUBO, Albert HUBO, and HUBO FX-1 are biped humanoids. Each robot has its own character. HUBO is a biped humanoid robot. The major function of this robot is to walk with its two legs and imitate the human's motions such as hand shaking, bowing, and communicating in sign language. The system components of the control hardware are connected using a CAN communication line. The control system of HUBO is based on the distributed control
Tipo: 3 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/development_of_biped_humanoid_robots_at_the_humanoid_robot_research_center__kaist_
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