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Registros recuperados: 9
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Transient Health Shocks and Agricultural Labor Demand in Rice-producing Households in Mali AgEcon
Larochelle, Catherine; Dalton, Timothy J..
Malaria and other transient illnesses have been recognized as factors constraining economic development in tropical countries. The purpose of this paper is to determine the direct and the indirect impact of transient illness shocks, caused primarily by malaria but also including other tropical illness, on family labor use in irrigated rice production in Mali. Family labor is the most important factor of production used in rice production in Mali and transient illness shocks may negatively impact labor supply, production and hence household welfare derived from agricultural income and consumption. Two labor demand models are estimated to determine whether illness does indeed reduce labor supply: one where the dependent variable only includes family labor...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: D1; I0; Q12; Crop Production/Industries; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25314
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Promoting sustainable food consumption: the case of nutrition education programs in public schools AgEcon
Gorgitano, Maria Teresa; Sodano, Valeria.
Within the realm of public policies for a sustainable food system, the focus has gradually shifted from production oriented towards consumption oriented interventions. Whilst changing consumer behavior can have a long-lasting positive environmental impact, choosing effective sustainable consumption policy instruments may be a challenging task. In the case of food consumption, the choice of interventions is particularly difficult because of the multiple aspects- psychological, cultural, economic, religious- associated with eating habits. The paper deals with one of the most commonly used forms of intervention, nutrition education programs in public schools. The main conclusion of the paper is that a major effort should be made by the Ministry of Education,...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Sustainable consumption; Nutrition education; Welfare economics; Food governance; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I0; Q01; D10.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124379
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The Long-Term Impacts of Orphanhood on Education Attainment and Land Inheritance among Adults in Rural Kenya AgEcon
Yamano, Takashi.
The long-term economic impacts of the AIDS epidemic on orphans have been major concerns in countries hit by the epidemic. Responding to these concerns, previous studies have investigated the schooling of orphans. Yet, few studies have investigated the impacts of orphan status into adulthood. Therefore, this paper examines the education attainment and land inheritance of former orphans, who have lost at least one parent before reaching 15, by using a survey of 889 households in Kenya in 2004. In the survey, we have asked the ages of household members when they lost their parents, if they have suffered such a loss, and identified former orphans. Among individuals who started schooling before the Free Education Program introduced in 1974, we find about a one...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Orphans; Land Inheritance; Schooling; Kenya; Labor and Human Capital; I0; I3; J1; O1; Q15.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25263
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Potential Impacts of Golden Rice on Public Health in India AgEcon
Stein, Alexander J.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Qaim, Matin.
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects millions of people world-wide, causing serious health problems. Golden Rice (GR), which has been genetically engineered to produce beta-carotene, is being proposed as a remedy. While this new technology has aroused controversial debates, its nutritional impact and cost-effectiveness remain unclear. We determine the current burden of VAD in India from a public health perspective,and simulate the potential alleviating impact of GR using representative household food consumption data. Given broad public support, GR could more than halve the overall burden of VAD. Juxtaposing health benefits and overall costs suggests that GR is very costeffective.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Golden Rice; Vitamin A deficiency; Biofortification; Genetic engineering; DALYs; Cost-effectiveness analysis; India; Crop Production/Industries; Health Economics and Policy; I0; I3; Q16; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25381
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A concern about low relative income, and the alignment of utilitarianism with egalitarianism AgEcon
Stark, Oded; Kobus, Martyna; Jakubek, Marcin.
A utilitarian social planner who maximizes social welfare assigns the available income to those who are most efficient in converting income into utility. However, when individuals are concerned about their income falling behind the incomes of others, the optimal income distribution under utilitarianism is equality of incomes.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Utilitarianism; Income equality; Social welfare maximization; Relative income; Labor and Human Capital; H0; I0; I30; I31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117257
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Bacterial Resistance and the Optimal Use of Antibiotics AgEcon
Laxminarayan, Ramanan.
The increasing resistance of harmful biological organisms (bacteria, parasites, and pests) to selection pressure from the widespread use of control agents such as antibiotics, antimalarials, and pesticides is a serious problem in both medicine and agriculture. Modeling resistance-or, conversely, the effectiveness of these control agents as a biological resource-yields insights into how these agents should be optimally managed to maximize their economic benefit to society. This paper uses a model of evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics-in which resistance places an evolutionary disadvantage on the resistant organism-to develop a simple sequential algorithm of optimal antibiotic use. Although the solution to this problem follows the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Antibiotic resistance; Natural resource; Optimization; Health Economics and Policy; I0; Q0.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10479
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The Physical, Social, and Cultural Determinants of Obesity: An Empirical Study of the U.S. AgEcon
Chang, Tangel; Barrett, James M.; Vosti, Stephen A..
During the past three decades, levels of excess weight and obesity have risen significantly in the United States. The reasons are physical, economical and sociological. The second half of the twentieth century is characterized by changes in the diets and levels of activity in the American society. Recent studies that focus on simple explanations that are based on a few determinants or classes of determinants are inadequate in explaining the recent rise in obesity. Cross-sectional and time series data are analyzed with a variety of statistical techniques. This paper empirically examines the factors correlated with the drastic increase in excess weight in the United States. Demographic characteristics (e.g., race and gender) and income level are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: I0; D1; J2; Health Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25279
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Are Agricultural Policies Making Us Fat? Likely Links Between Agricultural Policies and Human Nutrition and Obesity, and their Policy Implications AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Vosti, Stephen A..
Rates of obesity among adults and children in the U.S. are soaring, with potentially huge private and social costs. Increasing attention is being paid to agricultural policies as both the culprits through their perceived roles in reducing the relative prices of energy-dense foods, and as the potential saviors through their perceived ability to do the opposite. However, the effects of agricultural policies on human nutrition and obesity are not well understood. This paper considers (1) trends in agricultural commodity prices, and the contributions of commodity policies and agricultural R&D policies to those trends, (2) the links between changes in commodity prices and changes in food prices; and (3) the implications of price-induced changes in food...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: H5; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; Q16; I0.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25343
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Does Reducing Malaria Improve Household Living Standards? AgEcon
Laxminarayan, Ramanan.
Living in malaria-endemic regions places an economic burden on households even if they do not actually suffer an episode of malaria. Households living with endemic malaria are less likely to have access to economic opportunities and may have to modify agricultural practices and other household behavior to adapt to their disease environment. Data from Vietnam demonstrate that reductions in malaria incidence through government-financed malaria control programs can contribute to higher household income for all households living in endemic areas. Empirically, a 10% decrease in malaria cases at the national level translates to a roughly US $30 million annual economic benefit in the form of improved living standards.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Malaria; Living standards; Disease; Health Economics and Policy; D1; O1; I0.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10633
Registros recuperados: 9
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