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First report of Botrytis cinerea on Lilium polyphyllum, a critically endangered herb in Uttarakhand, India Phyton
Dhyani,A; Nautiyal,BP; Nautiyal,MC; Rivera,MC; Prasad,D; Singh,KP.
Lilium polyphyllum is a critically endangered herb in the wilds of Uttarakhand, India. Gray mold appeared as a new disease on this species from July to August (2008-2009) causing death of inflorescences and shoots. Botrytis cinerea was consistently isolated on PDA, from infected inflorescences. Pathogenicity was established by inoculation of potted plants of L. polyphyllum in a glasshouse. Botrytis cinerea was recorded as a gray mold pathogen on L. polyphyllum for the first time in India, causing flower and shoot blight. Tis disease may seriously afect reproductive stages of this endangered host. To our knowledge, B. cinerea had not been reported previously on L. polyphyllum.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Lilium polyphyllum; Gray mold; Botrytis cinerea; First report; India.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-56572012000200003
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How Inefficient Really Are the Small-Scale Rice Farmers in Eastern India?: Examining the Effects of Microtopography on the Estimation of Technical Efficiency AgEcon
Fuwa, Nobuhiko; Edmonds, Christopher M.; Banik, Pabitra.
We focus on the impact of failing to control for differences in land types defined along toposequence on estimates of farm technical efficiency for small-scale rice farms in eastern India. In contrast with the existing literature, we find that those farms may be considerably more technically efficient than they appear from more aggregated analysis without such control. Farms planted with modern rice varieties are technically efficient. Furthermore, farms planted with traditional rice varieties operate close to the production frontier on less productive lands (upland and mid-upland), but significant technical inefficiency exists on more productive lands (medium land and lowland).
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Technical efficiency; Stochastic frontier production function; Productivity; Rice; India; Farm Management; O13; O33; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19435
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Socioeconomic Determinants of the Intra-family Status of Wives in Rural India: Analysis and Empirical Evidence AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A.; Roy, Kartik C.; Regmi, Gopal.
Relying on a structured survey of 117 wives in four rural villages in the Midnapore District of West Bengal, this article investigates the influence on the intra-family status of wives of variables which may increase the bargaining power of wives in their family. Several indicators of status are considered and investigated using the ANOVA techniques and probit analysis. the main hypothesis considered is whether the results support bargaining theories of the intrahousehold status of wives or the view that gender status is primarily determined in Indian society by social customs and the patriarchal structure of society. given the overal patriarcgak structure of Indian Society, the results indicate that bargaining theories are at best only marginally...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bargaining theories of family; Economic theories of family; Gender Development Index (GDI); India; Patriarchy; Status of wives.; Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100206
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Farm Productivity and Rural Poverty in India AgEcon
Datt, Gaurav; Ravallion, Martin.
To what extent do India’s rural poor share in agricultural growth? Combining data from 24 household sample surveys spanning 35 years with other sources, we estimate a model of the joint determination of consumption-poverty measures, agricultural wages, and food prices. We find that higher farm productivity brought both absolute and relative gains to poor rural households. A large share of the gains were via wages and prices, though these effects took time. The benefits to the poor were not confined to those near the poverty line.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm income; India; Rural poor; Prices; Poverty; Food Security and Poverty; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97041
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Trees and water: smallholder agroforestry on irrigated lands in Northern India AgEcon
Zomer, Robert J.; Bossio, Deborah A.; Trabucco, Antonio; Yuanjie, Li; Gupta, Diwan C.; Singh, Virendra P..
Trees are increasingly grown on-farm to supply wood and biomass needs within developing countries. Over the last several decades, within the irrigated rice-wheat growing lands of northern India, fast-growing poplar trees have been planted on tens of thousands of small farms. Recent debate regarding afforestation has raised the issue that water use is often increased when trees are planted. This ongoing debate focuses primarily on afforestation or reforestation of upland and rain-fed agricultural areas, and off-site impacts such as reduced streamflow. Adoption of poplar agroforestry in northern India, in contrast, is occurring in areas where land and water are already intensively used and managed for agricultural production. This study based on farmer...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Trees; Populus deltoids; Agroforestry; Afforestation; Reforestation; Models; Water use; Water balance; Evapotranspiration; Precipitation; Remote sensing; Irrigation requirements; India; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53067
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A Tale of Two Countries: Emissions Scenarios for China and India AgEcon
Massetti, Emanuele.
The aim of the paper is to present evidence that China and India are, and will remain, two very different actors in international negotiations to control global warming. We base our conclusions on historical data and on scenarios until 2050. The Business-as-Usual scenario (BaU) is compared to four Emissions Tax scenarios to draw insights on major transformations in energy use and in energy supply and to assess the possible contribution of China and India to a future international climate architecture. We study whether or not the Copenhagen intensity targets require more action than the BaU scenario and we assess whether the emissions reductions induced by the four tax scenarios are compatible with the G8 and MEF pledge to reduce global emissions by 50% in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; China; India; Energy Efficiency; Energy and Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q32; Q43; Q54; Q43; O53; P52.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101378
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Evolution of Crop-dairy Production Systems in South India from 1971 to 2002 AgEcon
Yaguchi, Yue; Kajisa, Kei.
It is widely believed that not only a Green Revolution in a crop sector but also a White Revolution in a dairy sector has generated the great momentum of agricultural development in India since the late 1960s. However, due to the dominance of sector-specific analyses, the importance of the interaction between these two sectors has been neglected in the existing literature. The interaction is important in that the dairy sector provides manure to crop production while the crop sector supplies fodder to the dairy. Using household data collected in Tamil Nadu, India for three decades from 1971, we show the increase of fodder production as a byproduct of Green Revolution in 1970s enabled subsequent White Revolution in 1980s and the byproduct of the White...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Green revolution; White revolution; Agricultural system; India; Production Economics; M3; O13; Q12; Q13; Q56.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25562
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Adoption and impacts of zero tillage as a resource conserving technology in the irrigated plains of South Asia AgEcon
Erenstein, Olaf; Farooq, Umar; Malik, R.K.; Sharif, Muhammad.
The recent stagnation of productivity growth in the irrigated areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia has led to a quest for resource-conserving technologies that can save water, reduce production costs and improve production. The present synthesis of two detailed country studies confirmed widespread adoption of zero tillage (ZT) wheat in the rice-wheat systems of India’s Haryana State (34.5% of surveyed households) and Pakistan’s Punjab province (19%). The combination of a significant “yield effect” and “cost-saving effect” makes adoption worthwhile and is the main driver behind the rapid spread and widespread acceptance of ZT in Haryana, India. In Punjab, Pakistan, adoption is driven by the significant ZT-induced cost savings for wheat...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Zero tillage; Rice; Wheat; Water conservation; India; Pakistan; Haryana; Punjab; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91816
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Comparative Economic and Gender, Labor Analysis of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Tribal Villages in India AgEcon
Lai, Cynthia; Chan, Catherine; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Shariq, Linsey; Roul, Pravat; Idol, Travis; Ray, Chittanrajan; Evensen, Carl.
The International Food and Agribusiness Management Review is published quarterly by IFAMA. www.ifama.org
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: India; Conservation agriculture; Gender; Labor; Maize; Cowpea; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Productivity Analysis; Q.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120859
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Sustainable Development and Intergenerational Equity: Issues Relevant to India and Globally AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
As outlined, recurring concerns have surfaced since the 1700s that economic growth may prove to be unsustainable. These concerns have been expressed again and have intensified in recent decades but their foundation differs from that of Malthus. The rapid economic growth of China and India have added to these worries. Recent discussions by economists of the desirability of achieving sustainable economic development have mainly focused on measures to attain intergenerational equity in resource use and the dominant view is that each succeeding generation should be at least as well-off as its predecessor. While this is said to be an implication of Rawls’ principle of justice, this dominant rule does not fully reflect Rawls’ principle and it also can violate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: China; Economic growth; India; Intergenerational equity; Rawls’ principle of justice; Sustainable economic development; Consumer/Household Economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; O13; O44; Q01.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97470
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Poverty - Dynamic and Sustainability Perspectives Implications for Welfare and Policy with Reference to India AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
After outlining some comparative features of poverty in India, this article reviews critically recent literature on the dynamics of poverty. On economic efficiency grounds, it rejects the view that the chronically poor are more deserving than the non-chronic poor of poverty assistance. Mechanisms of households and communities for coping with poverty are discussed. The possibility is raised that where poverty has been persistent that rational methods for coping with it are likely to be well established, and less suffering may occur than for households and communities thrown temporarily into poverty. However, situations can also be envisaged where such rational behaviours deepen the poverty trap and create unfavourable externalities for poverty...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: India; Markets and poverty; Poverty alleviation policy; Markets and poverty; Poverty dynamics; Sustainable communities; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/106951
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Elephants and Polity in Ancient India as Exemplified by Kautilya's Arthrasastra (Science of Polity) AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
After providing some background on the domestication and use of elephants in ancient India, this article concentrates on the role of the elephant in Indian statescraft as outlined in Kautilya’s Arthasastra, reputed to have been written in the fourth century BC (over 2300 years ago). The body of this essay is presented as follows: first background on the nature of Kautilya’s Arthasastra is provided and then his advice is outlined and discussed about the care of elephants. This care involves the duty of the King, the duties of the superintendent of elephants and the law relating to the treatment of elephants. Subsequently, Kautilya’s views about the use of elephants in war are considered. The essay concludes with an overall assessment of the role of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Elephants; India; Kautilya; Arthasastra; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55062
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The Dissemination of Private Wells and Double Tragedies: The Overexploitation of Groundwater among Well Users and Increased Poverty among Non-Well Users in Tamil Nadu, India AgEcon
Kajisa, Kei; Palanisami, Kuppannan; Sakurai, Takeshi.
This paper investigates the impact of the dissemination of modern irrigation systems, i.e. private wells with pumps, on the livelihood not only among the farmers who have access to wells but also among the farmers who have no access to wells and thus rely solely on traditional irrigation systems called tank irrigation systems. The analysis is based on a village and household data set collected in Tamil Nadu, India where tank irrigation systems have been managed collectively for rice cultivation. Our statistical analyses predict that once declines in collective management occur due to the dissemination of private wells, the rice yield and income of the no-well-access farmers alone will decrease, resulting in increased poverty among them. Our analyses also...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Irrigation; Well; Common property; Poverty; India; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O3; O13; Q25.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25682
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IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ON POVERTY: FINDINGS OF AN INTEGRATED ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ANALYSIS AgEcon
Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Adato, Michelle; Haddad, Lawrence James; Hazell, Peter B.R..
The extent to which agricultural research has reduced poverty has become an increasing concern of policymakers, donors, and researchers. Until recently, poverty reduction was a secondary goal of agricultural research. The primary focus was on increasing food supplies and reducing food prices, a strategy that was successful in increasing the yields of important food staples. When increased productivity is combined with increased agricultural employment, lower food prices, and increased off-farm employment, agricultural research can be credited with significant reductions in rural poverty. However, these benefits do not necessarily materialize, and thus it is essential to understand how agricultural technologies influence and are influenced by the diverse...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty; Agricultural research; Sustainable livelihoods; Vulnerability; Agricultural extension; Bangladesh; China; India; Mexico; Kenya; Zimbabwe; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16088
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Managing Quantity, Quality and Timing in Cane Sugar Production: Ex Post Marketing Permits or Ex Ante Production Contracts? AgEcon
Patlolla, Sandhyarani.
Sugarcane produced in India is utilized to manufacture three sweetening agents: sugar, gur, and khandsari. Sugar processors must comply with a floor price for cane, but gur and khandsari producers are exempt from the floor price. Thus, any effect of the sugar processor’s choice of procurement method on the incentives facing farmers will depend on the expected cane price in these competing unregulated markets. In Andhra Pradesh (AP), India, private sugar processors use an unusual form of vertical coordination. Rather than conventional pre-planting contracts, they issue ‘permits’ to selected cane growers a few weeks before harvest. I explore the potential motivations behind this choice of sugar processors and hypothesize that the probabilistic permit system...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Contracts; Sugarcane; India; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61238
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Technical Efficiency of Resource-Conserving Technologies in Rice -Wheat Systems: The Case of Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh in India AgEcon
Dung, Khong Tien; Sumalde, Zenaida M.; Pede, Valerien O.; McKinley, Justin D.; Garcia, Yolanda T.; Bello, Amelia L..
This study has evaluated the technical efficiency of farmers engaged in rice-wheat cropping systems in North-eastern India, who are using Resource-Conserving Technologies (RCTs) such as Zero Tillage (ZT) and Direct Seeded Rice (DSR). These technology promotions are being carried out under the intervention of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) project, primarily funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The resource-conserving technologies are being promoted as part of conservation agriculture supported by the project. The data used in this study have been derived from the socioeconomic surveys conducted in Eastern Uttar-Pradesh and Bihar in North-eastern India during the kharif season of 2009 and rabi season of 2010. A stochastic...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Conservation agriculture; Direct seeded rice; India; Resource-conserving technology; Technical efficiency; Stochastic frontier; Zero tillage; Agricultural and Food Policy; O30; Q18; O22.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118227
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Gender and irrigation in India: the Women's Irrigation Group of Jambar, South Gujarat. AgEcon
van Koppen, Barbara; Nagar, Rashmi K.; Vasavada, Shilpa.
Documents a "best practice" - a successful gender-balanced irrigation intervention in which women were given control over an irrigation technology. The study evaluates the approach taken by the implementing NGO, the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, in terms of its replicability in other areas where women share in farm activities and decision making.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Irrigation management; Women in development; Gender; Female labor; Agricultural credit; Decision making; Irrigation programs; Rain-fed farming; Institution building; Pumping; India; South Gujarat; Bharuck; Jambar; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Production Economics; Public Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51045
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The broken broker system? Transacting on horticulture wholesale markets in India (Uttarakhand) AgEcon
Minten, Bart; Vandeplas, Anneleen; Swinnen, Johan F.M..
Relying on data from a unique survey, we study the wholesale market activities of agricultural brokers in India. Three main findings emerge. First, most transactions on these wholesale markets are small cash-and-carry transactions with physical handling, quality and quantity assessment, and financial settlements all combined in a single transaction. Second, marketing regulations are ineffective as most brokers charge rates that significantly exceed the prescribed ones. Third, a majority of farmers self-select in long-term relationships with brokers, most often based on their perceived market performance. These relationships allow some of the farmers to interlink credit and insurance markets to the agricultural output market. We find that this inter-linkage...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: India; Agricultural marketing; Brokers; Agricultural and Food Policy; Marketing; Q12; Q13; L15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51730
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Forecasting with X-12-ARIMA: International tourist arrivals to India and Thailand AgEcon
Balogh, Peter; Kovacs, Sandor; Chaiboonsri, Chukiat; Chaitip, Prasert.
Forecasting is an essential analytical tool in tourism policy and planning. This paper focuses on forecasting methods based on X-12-ARIMA seasonal adjustment and this method was developed by the Census Bureau in the United States. It has been continually improved since the 1960s, and it is used by many statistics agencies and central banks. The secondary data were used to produce forecasts of international tourist arrivals to India for 2007-2010 and also these data were used to produce forecasts of international tourist arrivals to Thailand for 2006-2010. From these period the results confirm that the best forecasting method based on the X-12-ARIMA seasonal adjustment is X-12-ARIMA(0,1,2)(0,1,1), X-12-ARIMA(0,1,1)(0,1,1) and X-12-ARIMA(2,1,0)(0,1,1) for...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: India; Thailand; International tourism; X-12-ARIMA; The best forecasting methods; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49226
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Adoption of Genetically Modified Eggplant in India: An Ex Ante Analysis AgEcon
Kolady, Deepthi; Lesser, William H..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/28/05.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetically Modified Crops; Bt Eggplant; Adoption; India; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O13; O14; O33.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19262
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