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A Household Level Analysis of Food Expenditure Patterns in Urban China: 1995-2000 AgEcon
Aguero, Jorge M.; Gould, Brian W..
With China's admission into the WTO, there is the potential for dramatic increases in U.S. agricultural exports to China. As China's economy continues to develop, there is general consensus that there will be an associated change in the population's diet. Currently, dairy products account for a small proportion of total food consumed, but that has been increasing in importance over the last two decades. As Chinese markets become more open to U.S. food products, it is important that U.S. manufacturers and traders obtain a better understanding of the determinants of food expenditures in China. This paper addresses the question of how changes in household income may impact food demand in general and dairy products in particular.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: China's Food Consumption; Chinese Markets; Chinese Household Income; World Trade Organization; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37598
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A Long Memory Conditional Variance Model for International Grain Markets AgEcon
Jin, Hyun Joung.
The study explores a long memory conditional volatility model on international grain markets, demonstrating importance of modeling both temporal effects of volatility and long memory process. This study adopts six different volatility models, nested in an ARMA(p,q)- FIGARCH(P,D,Q), to capture dependence of grain cash price volatility and compares the performance of the six models. It also visits a related question about non-normal behaviors of grain prices and adopts the student-t density intended to account for fat-tailed properties of the data. We find suitability of the FIGARCH type models under the student-t distribution and competitiveness of the parsimonious FIGARCH(1,d,0) for modeling long memory volatility.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International grain markets; Stochastic volatility; FIGARCH; Non-normality; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45654
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A Methodology for Assessing National Sustainable Development Strategies AgEcon
Cherp, Aleg; George, Clive; Kirkpatrick, Colin.
At the Rio Earth Summit of 1992, governments undertook to develop and adopt national sustainable development strategies as a key component of implementing the goals of Agenda 21. Only partial progress was reported at the 2002 World Summit in Johannesburg, with uncertainty as to the effectiveness of those strategies that had been introduced. This paper describes a methodology for assessing a country's progress in implementing a national sustainable development strategy for (NSDS) and for identifying potential areas for improvement. Five key principles of sustainable development and strategic planning are identified, and a set of assessment criteria are proposed for each principle. The results of applying the methodology in two Eastern European countries,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable development; Strategic planning; National sustainable development strategies; Transition countries; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30577
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A Methodology for Assessing the Effectiveness of National Sustainable Development Strategies AgEcon
George, Clive; Kirkpatrick, Colin.
At the Rio Earth Summit of 1992, governments undertook to develop and adopt national sustainable development strategies, as a key component of implementing the goals of Agenda 21. Only partial progress was reported at the 2002 World Summit in Johannesburg, with uncertainty in the effectiveness of those strategies which had been introduced. This paper describes a methodology for assessing the extent to which a country may be considered to have implemented an effective sustainable development strategy, with the prime aim of identifying weaknesses that need to be addressed. The methodology concentrates on evaluating those strategic planning processes that are operational in a country, taking into account any existing overall strategy document related to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30582
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A Model of Choice between Current Consumption and Future Economic Growth AgEcon
Arifa, Ali; Gan, Christopher E.C..
This paper uses a newly proposed working definition of sustainability based upon the Rawlsian principle of justice to develop a simple aggregative model of growth. The model explores the issue of choice between current consumption and future economic growth through changes in capital stock. It is shown that sustainable growth limits the range of this choice, but does not determine it. The model used is only illustrative, but may be useful as a pointer for future research and comparison of sustainability modelling techniques.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12303
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A mosaic type of development - the Agri-food Districts experience in Italy AgEcon
Brasili, Cristina; Fanfani, Roberto.
The Italian Industrial Districts (IDs) are now considered in the national and international literature as one of the main factors of the successful and rapid industrial development of Italy after the Second World War. In this paper we outline the general characteristics of the IDs approach and then the distinctive figures of the agrifood districts. A mosaic type of development characterised the geographical distribution of the different agrifood districts in the Italian experience. The different origins of agrifood districts often determines their production and structural characteristics of firms, with a relevant role of SMEs. In many cases, these districts originated from handcraft traditions and specific local demand. Their specialized production is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-Food Districts; Italian Industrial Districts (IDs); Technical efficiency of a panel of firms; Economic Development; International Development; A1; C23; O1; Q10; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9404
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A Mosaic Type of Development: The Agri-Food Districts Experience in Italy AgEcon
Brasili, Cristina; Fanfani, Roberto.
The Italian Industrial Districts (IDs) are now considered in the national and international literature as one of the main factors of the successful and rapid industrial development of Italy after the Second World War. In this paper we outline the general characteristics of the IDs approach and then the distinctive figures of the agrifood districts. A mosaic type of development characterised the geographical distribution of the different agrifood districts in the Italian experience. The different origins of agrifood districts often determines their production and structural characteristics of firms, with a relevant role of SMEs. In many cases, these districts originated from handcraft traditions and specific local demand. Their specialized production is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-Food Districts; Italian Industrial Districts (IDs); Technical efficiency of a panel of firms; Economic Development.; International Development; A1; C23; O1; Q10; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25405
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A NOTE ON THE LINK BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURAL IMPORTS AgEcon
Houck, James P..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13917
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A POLICY AGENDA FOR PRO POOR AGRICULTURAL GROWTH AgEcon
Dorward, Andrew; Kydd, Jonathan; Morrison, Jamie; Urey, Ian.
Economic growth has been low and the incidence and numbers of poor people remain very high in some parts of the world, notably in sub Saharan Africa and some parts of South Asia. Projections for poverty reduction suggest that these regions are likely to continue to hold very large numbers of very poor rural people in the foreseeable future. Theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that in poor agrarian economies both the processes of structural change within national economies and micro-economic relations within rural economies give agriculture (and particularly intensive cereal based growth) a pre-eminent and unique role in economic development and in poverty reduction. However, reliance on pro-poor agricultural growth as the main weapon...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; International Development.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10923
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A Politico-Economic Model of Aging, Technology Adoption and Growth AgEcon
Lancia, Francesco; Prarolo, Giovanni.
Over the past century, all OECD countries have been characterized by a dramatic increase in economic conditions, life expectancy and educational attainment. This paper provides a positive theory that explains how an economy might evolve when the longevity of its citizens both influences and is influenced by the process of economic development. We propose a three periods OLG model where agents, during their lifetime, cover different economic roles characterized by different incentive schemes and time horizon. Agents’ decisions embrace two dimensions: the private choice about education and the public one upon innovation policy. The theory focuses on the crucial role played by heterogeneous interests in determining innovation policies, which are one of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Growth; Life Expectancy; Human Capital; Systemic Innovation; Majority Voting; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D70; J10; O14; O31; O43.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9552
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A PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATION APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT FOR FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE AgEcon
Nikkel, Steven K..
Several aspects of the situation pertaining to the citizens of Freetown, Sierra Leone are described in the first two chapters. The societal and economic contexts of the community are most heavily emphasized, particularly the transfer of rural institutions to the city as well as the small-scale industry and marketing aspects of Freetown's economy. The following four chapters highlight several approaches to development in the Third World. Those described are farming systems research, marketing systems research and development, community development, diffusion of innovation, development education, and management. In the final chapter, the various approaches are synthesized into a conceptual framework. This framework is composed of the following steps:...
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 1985 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11133
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A Reappraisal of the Role of Agriculture in Economic Growth in Melanesian Countries AgEcon
Fleming, Euan M.; Fleming, Pauline.
Fortunes in the agricultural sectors of four of the largest South Pacific countries are traced in recent decades by estimating the single factoral terms of trade index. The single factoral terms of trade are measured for agriculture in four Melanesian countries-Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu-over the period, 1970 to 2002. This index provides a useful method to assess changes in returns to factors employed in agricultural production in these countries. Except in Solomon Islands, farmers experienced a deteriorating index, indicating that they have reaped progressively lower returns to their resources. In Solomon Islands, returns to resources are shown to have increased slightly. A sustained contribution by the agricultural sector to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Factoral terms of trade; Melanesia; Smallholders; Total factor productivity; International Development; D24; O12; O47; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25715
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A Review of Economic Appraisal of Environmental Goods and Services: With a Focus on Developing Countries AgEcon
Hearne, Robert R..
Environmental economics has an extensive literature on procedures for placing economic values on the environment. Most of these methodologies have been developed and refined in the context of developed countries, where high levels of disposable income allow for a high demand for environmental amenities and a willingness to pay for non-use values. This paper argues that the applicability of these methodologies may be limited in developing countries. A microeconomic model, designed to highlight the different roles of environmental goods and services in developed and developing counties, is presented. In developing countries the value of environmental amenities is relatively less important than the value of environmental resources in the production process....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24144
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A Review of FDA Imports Refusals - US Seafood Trade 2000-2010 AgEcon
Anders, Sven M.; Westra, Sabrina.
The United States is the third largest consumer of seafood products in the world. The percentage of imported seafood consumed in the U.S. has steadily increased from 66% in 1999 to over 84% in 2009 (NOAA, 2010). Food safety, especially of imported foods and products from developing countries, has raised increasing concerns among American consumers and policy makers. Accordingly, the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) (Ababouch et al. 2000) border inspection system is considered critical for ensuring the safety of domestic seafood consumers. However, the potential non-tariff barrier to trade posed by FDA regulations, especially for many developing country exporters have been frequently cited in the literature. This paper investigates trends and patterns...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Import refusal reports; FDA; Import Alerts; Seafood; Trade barriers; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103877
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A REVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY AND HUMAN NUTRITION ISSUES IN NEPAL AgEcon
Shively, Gerald E.; Gars, Jared; Sununtnasuk, Celeste.
Nepal faces multiple development challenges, including chronic and widespread food insecurity and adult and child malnutrition. Due to population growth, agricultural stagnation and a range of institutional failures, the threat of a serious food crisis in Nepal is substantial. The recent scaling back of WFP assistance means that food security conditions in some parts of Nepal will undoubtedly worsen in the near future. This paper presents a brief review of topics and available evidence regarding food security, malnutrition and related subjects in Nepal. It is intended to document important source material and provide an overview of topics for non-specialists or those moving into new areas of concern.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Health; Nutrition; Nepal; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; I12; I31; O19; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116190
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A REVIEW WITH REFLECTIONS AND REMARKS ON HAYAMI-RUTTAN'S AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AgEcon
Weber, Adolf.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14233
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A small nation’s comparative advantage: The case of Latvia AgEcon
Fedotovs, Aleksandrs.
Problem of comparative advantage in international trade is important in theoretical and practical aspect. Theoretical models in this area are periodically re-examined in search for empirical evidence. The aim of the paper is to verify the two fundamental theories in the case of a small European country - Latvia - and disclose problems in the country’s trade specialization. In Latvia’s trade with “old” EU countries, the Ricardian model and the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem can be corroborated. After 2000, however, share of EU-15 countries in Latvia’s exports steadily declines. Instead, share of regional (Baltic) market increases, while the potential of CIS markets remains underexploited. Problem of identifying new areas of comparative advantage has become...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Сomparative advantage; Competitive advantage; Wood exports; EU; Economy of Latvia.; International Development; F11; F14.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95940
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A spatial bio-economic modelling approach on the trade-offs between global bioenergy demand, agricultural intensification, expansion, and trade AgEcon
Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Beringer, Tim; Muller, Christoph; Lucht, Wolfgang.
Increased future demands for food, fibre and fuels from biomass can only be met if the available land and water resources on a global scale are used and managed as efficiently as possible. The main routes for making the global agricultural system more productive are through intensification and technological change on currently used agricultural land, land expansion into currently non-agricultural areas, and international trade in agricultural commodities and processed goods. In order to analyse the trade-offs and synergies between these options, we present a global bio-economic modelling approach with a special focus on spatially explicit land and water constraints as well as technological change in agricultural production. For a given bioenergy demand...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land use change; Spatial modelling; Technological change; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C61; F15; Q24; Q25.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51458
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A STANDARD COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL FOR SOUTH AFRICA AgEcon
Thurlow, James; van Seventer, Dirk Ernst.
The paper reports on the construction and testing of a Standard International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) computable general equilibrium model for South Africa. A 1998 social accounting matrix (SAM) for South Africa is compiled using national accounts information and recently released supply-use tables. By updating to a recent year, and by distinguishing between producers and commodities, this SAM is an improvement on the existing SAM databases for South Africa. Furthermore, this SAM is made consistent with the requirements of IFPRI's standard comparative static computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. This model is then used to simulate the economy- wide impact of a range of hypothetical policy levers, including: increased government...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16279
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A STOCHASTIC DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING MODEL OF DIRECT SUBSIDY PAYMENTS AND AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT AgEcon
Vercammen, James.
A stochastic dynamic programming model is used to compare the farmland investment impact of a fully decoupled direct payment and a standard price subsidy. The direct payment induces the farmer to invest because it lowers the farm's debt to asset ratio, which in turn reduces the probability of bankruptcy. The value of the real option to defer the investment decision is lower with a lower risk of bankruptcy, and thus the direct payment results in a higher probability of immediate investment. Simulation results demonstrate that for a farm facing moderate revenue and land price variability, the impact of a decoupled direct payment on farm investment is nearly as large as the investment impact of an equal-sized price subsidy. These results suggest that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; International Development.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15847
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