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Registros recuperados: 241
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Agriculture and Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade AgEcon
Adams, Damian C..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Q18; Q48; Q54.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93679
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Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources AgEcon
Adams, Richard M.; Peck, Dannele E..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q25; Q54.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94496
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Assessing the Role of Microfinance in Fostering Adaptation to Climate Change AgEcon
Agrawala, Shardul; Carraro, Maelis.
Much of the current policy debate on adaptation to climate change has focussed on estimation of adaptation costs, ways to raise and to scale-up funding for adaptation, and the design of the international institutional architecture for adaptation financing. There is however little or no emphasis so far on actual delivery mechanisms to channel these resources at the sub-national level, particularly to target the poor who are also often the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It is in this context that microfinance merits a closer look. This paper offers the first empirical assessment of the linkages between microfinance supported activities and adaptation to climate change. Specifically, the lending portfolios of the 22 leading microfinance...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Climate Change; Financing; Adaptation; Bangladesh; Nepal; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q56; Q54; R51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92709
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Testing construct validity of verbal versus numerical measures of preference uncertainty in contingent valuation AgEcon
Akter, Sonia; Bennett, Jeffrey W..
The numerical certainty scale (NCS) and polychotomous choice (PC) methods are two widely used techniques for measuring preference uncertainty in contingent valuation (CV) studies. The NCS follows a numerical scale and the PC is based on a verbal scale. This report presents results of two experiments that use these preference uncertainty measurement techniques. The first experiment was designed to compare and contrast the uncertainty scores obtained from the NCS and the PC method. The second experiment was conducted to test a preference uncertainty measurement scale that combines verbal expressions with numerical and graphical interpretations: a composite certainty scale (CCS). The construct validity of the certainty scores obtained from these three...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Preference uncertainty; Contingent valuation; Numerical certainty scale; Polychotomous choice method; Composite certainty scale; Climate change; Australia.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q51; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94942
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Determinants of Participation in a Catastrophe Insurance Programme: Empirical Evidence from a Developing Country AgEcon
Akter, Sonia; Brouwer, Roy; Chowdhury, Saria; Aziz, Salina.
The paper presents empirical evidence of the determinants of catastrophe insurance participation in one of the poorest and most disaster prone countries in the world. In a large-scale household survey carried out in 2006 we ask 3,000 residents in six different districts in Bangladesh facing various environmental risk exposure levels about their willingness to participate in a catastrophe insurance programme. Combining factors put forward in risk theory and economics, we estimate a model of insurance participation. We show that the household decision to participate in the insurance programme differs depending on both exogenous and endogenous risk exposure levels. As predicted by micro-economic theory, ability to pay, measured in terms of household income...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Natural disasters; Catastrophe; Insurance; Participation; Risk; Bangladesh; Consumer/Household Economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; Risk and Uncertainty; Q54.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/5984
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Residential Consumption of Gas and Electricity in the U.S.: The Role of Prices and Income AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Gans, Will; Velez-Lopez, Daniel.
We study residential demand for electricity and gas, working with nationwide household-level data that cover recent years, namely 1997-2007. Our dataset is a mixed panel/multi-year cross-sections of dwellings/households in the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the United States as of 2008. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive set of data for examining household residential energy usage at the national level, containing the broadest geographical coverage, and with the longest longitudinal component (up to 6 observations per dwelling). We estimate static and dynamic models of electricity and gas demand. We find strong household response to energy prices, both in the short and long term. From the static models, we get estimates of the own price...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Residential Electricity and Gas Demand; Price Elasticity Of Energy Demand; Static Model; Dynamic Panel Data Model; Partial Adjustment Model; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q4; Q41; Q48; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99637
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Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence? AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E..
Understanding and considering the distribution of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is important in designing international climate change proposals and incentives for participation. I evaluate historic international emissions distributions and forecast future distributions to assess whether per capita emissions have been converging or will converge. I find evidence of convergence among 23 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), whereas emissions appear to be diverging for an 88-country global sample over 1960-–2000. Forecasts based on a Markov chain transition matrix provide little evidence of future emissions convergence and indicate that emissions may diverge in the near term. I also review the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions distributions; Environmental Kuznets curve; Markov chain transition matrix; Environmental Economics and Policy; O40; Q54; Q56.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10773
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Carbon Credit Payment Options for Agroforestry Projects in Africa AgEcon
Allwardt, Jennifer.
The potential of using carbon offset credits from agroforestry projects for farmers in developing areas has become more prevalent in both Clean Development Mechanism and voluntary carbon markets. Since the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, many international development organizations have been interested in using the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to help both mitigate CO2 emissions through agroforestry projects offsets and as a poverty reduction tool. Few organizations that have begun talking with farmers about planting trees for carbon offset credits have been able to tell the farmers how much money they would receive from their new tree growth or the costs they will incur in doing so. For this study, a whole farm budget toolkit was designed to...
Tipo: Thesis Palavras-chave: Agroforestry; Budget toolkit; Carbon credits; Clean Development Mechanism; Payment methods; Smallholder farmers; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; Land Economics/Use; O13; O22; R30; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118497
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The Effect of Risk, Ambiguity and Coordination on Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change: A Framed Field Experiment AgEcon
Alpizar, Francisco; Carlsson, Fredrik; Naranjo, Maria.
The risk of losses of income and productive means due to adverse weather associated to climate change can significantly differ between farmers sharing a productive landscape. It is important to learn more about how farmers react to different levels of risk, under measurable and unmeasurable uncertainty. Moreover, the costs associated to investments in reduced vulnerability to climatic events are likely to exhibit economies of scope. We explore these issues using a framed field experiment that captures realistically the main characteristics of production, and the likely weather related losses of premium coffee farmers in Tarrazu, Costa Rica. Given that the region recently was severely hit by an extreme, albeit very infrequent, climatic event, we expected to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Risk Aversion; Ambiguity Aversion; Technology Adoption; Climate change; Field Experiment; Environmental Economics and Policy; C93; D81; H41; Q16; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92708
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Abatement and Allocation in the Pilot Phase of the EU ETS AgEcon
Anderson, Barry; Di Maria, Corrado; Convery, Frank J..
We use historical industrial emissions data to assess the level of abatement and overallocation that took place across European countries during the pilot phase (2005-2007)of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. Using a dynamic panel data model, we estimate the counterfactual (business-as-usual) emissions scenario for EU member states. Comparing this baseline to allocated and verified emissions, we conclude that both overallocation and abatement occurred, along with under-allocation and emissions inflation. Over the three trading years of the pilot phase we find over-allocation of approximately 376 million EUAs (6%) and total abatement at the member state level of 107 Mt CO2 (1.8%). However, due to over-allocation and possible uncertainty about...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions Trading Scheme; Climate Policy; Dynamic Panel Data Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; C23; O13; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55831
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Equity Weighting and the Marginal Damage Costs of Climate Change AgEcon
Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S.J..
Climate change would impact different countries differently, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. Equity-weighted estimates of the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may also change the sign of the social cost estimates. Equity weights need to be normalised. Our estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region of normalisation. A discounting error of equity weighted social cost of carbon estimates in earlier work (Tol, Energy Journal, 1999), led to an error of a factor two. Equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Marginal Damage Costs; Climate Change; Equity; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9325
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On International Equity Weights and National Decision Making on Climate Change AgEcon
Anthoff, David; Tol, Richard S.J..
Estimates of the marginal damage costs of carbon dioxide emissions require the aggregation of monetised impacts of climate change over people with different incomes and in different jurisdictions. Implicitly or explicitly, such estimates assume a social welfare function and hence a particular attitude towards equity and justice. We show that previous approaches to equity weighing are inappropriate from a national decision maker’s point of view, because domestic impacts are not valued at domestic values. We propose four alternatives (sovereignty, altruism, good neighbour, and compensation) with different views on concern for and liability towards foreigners. The four alternatives imply radically estimates of the social cost of carbon and hence the optimal...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Domestic Climate Policy; Social Cost of Carbon; Equity Weights; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9547
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The Effect of Climate Change, CO2 Fertilization, and Crop Production Technology on Crop Yields and Its Economic Implications on Market Outcomes and Welfare Distribution AgEcon
Attavanich, Witsanu; McCarl, Bruce A..
Many studies have done econometric estimates of how climate alters crop yields and or land rents in an effort to gain information on potential effects of climate change. However, an important related factor, the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, and in fact a driver of climate change is ignored. This means the prior econometric estimates are biased as they infer what will happen under climate change from observations in the recent past, but without consideration of CO2 effects. Furthermore although CO2 has been varying, it has proceeded at a very linear pace and cannot be disentangled from technological progress using historical crop yield data. This paper is designed to overcome this issue and estimate the consequences that CO2 has and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Carbon Dioxide Fertilization; Crop Yield; Yield Variability; Climate Change; Crop Production Technology; Welfare Distribution; Market Outcomes; Stochastic Production Function; The Agricultural Sector Model; Feasible Generalized Least Squares; Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C61; C13; Q16; Q54; D69; D24.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103324
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The Effect of Climate Change on Transportation Flows and Inland Waterways Due to Climate-Induced Shifts in Crop Production Patterns AgEcon
Attavanich, Witsanu; McCarl, Bruce A.; Fuller, Stephen W.; Vedenov, Dmitry V.; Ahmedov, Zafarbek.
This study was funded by the the University Transportation Center for Mobility, Texas Transportation Institute
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Grain Transportation; Climate change and agriculture; Climate change and transportation; Land use change; Supply of grain; Demand for grain; Crop production patterns; Inland waterways; Mississippi River Basin; Climate change adaptation; Welfare distribution; Corn transportation; Soybeans transportation; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; C61; L91; L92; Q15; Q17; Q54; R14; R41; R13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109241
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Optimal Emission Policy under the Risk of Irreversible Pollution AgEcon
Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Pommeret, Aude; Prieur, Fabien.
We consider an optimal consumption and pollution problem that has two important features. Environmental damages due to economic activities may be irreversible and the level at which the degradation becomes irreversible is unknown. Particular attention is paid to the situation where agents are relatively impatient and/or do not care a lot about the environment and/or Nature regenerates at low rate. We show that the optimal policy of the uncertain problem drives the economy in the long run toward a steady state while, when ignoring irreversibility, the economy follows a balanced growth path accompanied by a perpetual decrease in environmental quality and consumption, both asymptotically converging toward zero. Therefore, accounting for the risk of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Optimal Control; Irreversibility Threshold; Uncertainty; Optimal Reversible; Irreversible Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; D81; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101292
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Derechos de emision temporales procedentes de actividades de forestacion y reforestacion en el EU ETS AgEcon
Bachiller Mendez, Ignacio; Fernandez-Cavada, Jose Luis; Martin Juez Labat, Jaime.
Resumen En este trabajo se examina el marco regulatorio establecido por la Convención Marco sobre Cambio Climático, el Protocolo de Kioto y sus Mecanismos de Flexibilidad, entre ellos el Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL) y el sistema europo de Comercio de Derechos de Emisión (EU ETS). Partiendo de este marco general se expone de qué modo se han incorporado las actividades de forestación y reforestación en el ámbito del MDL y su situación actual en el EU ETS. Se analizan los costes de transacción de este tipo de proyectos de MDL y el estado del mercado de derechos temporales que genera. Finalmente, a la vista de los elementos descritos, se formulan unas conclusiones con respecto a la conveniencia y expectativas del desarrollo futuro de este mercado....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Temporary allowances; EU ETS; Afforestation; CDM; Reforestation; Derechos temporales; EU ETS; Forestacion; MDL; Reforestación; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F18; Q23; Q54; Q56.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7057
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Net Farm Income and Land Use under a U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap and Trade AgEcon
Baker, Justin Scott; McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian C.; Rose, Steven K.; Alig, Ralph J.; Adams, Darius M.; Latta, Gregory S.; Beach, Robert H.; Daigneault, Adam J..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q15; Q18; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93683
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Groundwater Management in the Presence of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Incentives for Agriculture AgEcon
Baker, Justin Scott; Murray, Brian C..
This study explores the interactions of groundwater extraction, quality, and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions within a productive agricultural region. Two conceptual models are proposed. In the first, GHG emissions are managed at the local level, and an efficient level of abatement is solved for endogenously to the system. Here, regional management of GHG emissions offers an alternative policy tool for managing quantity/quality by internalizing the costs of a common externality associated with both groundwater extraction and nitrogen fertilizer application. A simple numerical simulation is used to illustrate the potential groundwater co-benefits of managing agricultural GHG emissions within the system. The second model reflects the reality that GHG...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Groundwater; GHG Mitigation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q25; Q53; Q54.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49481
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Impacts of Border Carbon Adjustments on China’s Sectoral Emissions: Simulations with a Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Model AgEcon
Bao, Qin; Tang, Ling; Zhang, ZhongXiang; Qiao, Han; Wang, Shouyang.
Carbon-based border tax adjustments (BTAs) have recently been proposed by some OECD countries to level the carbon playing field and target major emerging economies. This paper applies a multi-sector dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to estimate the impacts of the BTAs implemented by US and EU on China’s sectoral carbon emissions. The results indicate that BTAs will cut down export prices and transmit the effects to the whole economy, reducing sectoral output-demands from both supply side and demand side. On the supply side, sectors might substitute away from exporting toward domestic market, increasing sectoral supply; while on the demand side, the domestic income may be strikingly cut down due to the decrease in export price, decreasing...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Border Carbon Tax Adjustments; Computable General Equilibrium Model; Carbon Emissions; Environmental Economics and Policy; D58; F18; Q43; Q48; Q52; Q54; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120044
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Investments and Financial Flows Induced by Climate Mitigation Policies AgEcon
Bastianin, Andrea; Favero, Alice; Massetti, Emanuele.
In this paper we use the hybrid integrated model WITCH to quantify and analyze the investments and financial flows stimulated by a climate policy to stabilize Greenhouse Gases concentrations at 550ppm CO2-eq at the end of the century. We focus on investments to decarbonize the power sector and on investments in knowledge creation. We examine the financial flows associated with the carbon market and the implications for the international trade of oil. Criticalities in investment requirements will emerge when coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration and nuclear power plants are deployed around 2020-2040, both in high and low income regions. Investments in energy related R&D increase sharply and might cause stress in the short term....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Mitigation; Carbon Finance; Emission Trading; Energy Investments; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q01; Q43; Q54; O32; O11.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59418
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