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Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural cropping systems Organic Eprints
Nielsen, Otto.
The ecology of entomopathogenic nematodes in relation to cruciferous crops has been studied in Denmark. The main objectives were to obtain information about nematode occurrence, host range and regulatory effect on insects. This included a range of studies in the field and in the laboratory. In one set of experiment, cabbage fields were surveyed and Steinernema affine, S. bicornutum, S. intermedium and S. feltiae were isolated. The presence of nematodes was correlated to pupal numbers of the cabbage root fly, D. radicum. The conclusion was that the presence of nematodes at cabbage plants did not reduce the number of pupae. Another approach was to quantify the proportion of larvae or pupae of D. radicum infected with entomopathogenic nematodes during...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://orgprints.org/1611/1/sipabstract.doc
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Er der krummer i din jord – eller er det bare knolde Organic Eprints
Elmholt, S.; Schjønning, P.; Munkholm, L.J..
Jordens krummer er vigtige for vækst. Både vækst af afgrøden og de svampe og bakterier, der laver bindemidler til nye krummer. Vi har undersøgt, hvordan praktisk økologisk og konventionel drift påvirker dette samspil. Et varieret sædskifte med meget græs og husdyrgødning gav gode stabile krummer med højt indhold af biologiske bindemidler. Et ensidigt kornsædskifte med kunstgødning gav i stedet stabile knolde, hvor bindemidlet var ler. Sådan nogle knolde kan give et dårligt såbed, fordi våd jord bliver blød som mudder og tør jord hård som beton.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Soil biology; Soil tillage; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/7425/1/7425.PDF
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Estimating legume N2 fixation in a grass-clover mixture of grazed organic cropping systems using two 15N methods. Organic Eprints
Vinther, Finn P.; Jensen, Erik S..
The input of N through symbiotic N2 fixation (SNF) in grass-clover mixtures was determined in an organic cropping system for grazing during three years. The mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) was established by undersowing in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and maintained subsequently for two production years. Dinitrogen fixation was determined using the 15N isotope dilution techniques and two labelling procedures. Using either pre-labelling of the soil with immobilisation of the 15N by addition of a carbon source before establishment of the grass-clover mixture or adding the 15N labelled ammonium to the established crop, resulted in similar estimates of the proportion of N derived from the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil quality; Soil biology; Pasture and forage crops.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://orgprints.org/167/2/vinther_and_Jensen_2000.pdf
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Estimation by PLFA of Microbial Community Structure Associated with the Rhizosphere of Lygeum spartum and Piptatherum miliaceum Growing in Semiarid Mine Tailings Organic Eprints
Carrasco, Lucía; Gattinger, Andreas; Fließbach, Andreas; Roldán, Antonio; Schloter, Michael; Caravaca, Fuensanta.
The objective of this study was to compare the microbial community composition and biomass associated with the rhizosphere of a perennial gramineous species (Lygeum spartum L.) with that of an annual (Piptatherum miliaceum L.), both growing in semiarid mine tailings. We also established their relationship with the contents of potentially toxic metals as well as with indicators of soil quality. The total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) amount was significantly higher in the rhizosphere soil of the annual species than in the rhizosphere soil of the perennial species. The fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio was significantly greater in the perennial species compared to the annual species. The fatty acid 16:1ω5c, the fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio and...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/17847/1/Carrasco%2Detal%2D2010%2Dmicrob%2Decol.pdf
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Estrutura da população de nematoides do solo em uma unidade de produção agroecológica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Organic Eprints
Figueira, Adriana França; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Pimentel, João Pedro.
Estudou-se a comunidade de nematoides do solo em quatro sistemas de manejo no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica (SIPA): pasto, capoeira, figo com Paspalum notatum e horta. As amostras de solo foram coletadas a cada quatro meses durante um ano. A comunidade de nematoides foi identificada e descrita com os parâmetros: riqueza de famílias, diversidade de Shannon-Weaner, de dominância de Simpson, além da diversidade trófica e dominância trófica. Os fitoparasitas e bacteriófagos dominaram as comunidades de nematoides nas áreas. Os onívoros foram menos abundantes em todos os sistemas estudados. O sistema pasto apresentou maior diversidade de famílias de nematoides enquanto que, no sistema capoeira se encontraram valores de diversidade baixos, porém...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Farming Systems; Soil biology; Soil.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/21915/1/Figueira_Estrutura.pdf
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Et yrende liv rundt planterøttene Organic Eprints
Pommeresche, Reidun.
Rhizosfæren er sonen med jord og jordliv nærmest rundt en planterot. Det er sonen der biologien og kjemien i jorda er påvirket av rota og omvendt. Vi kaller den også for rotsonen. Denne sonen er omtrent 1 mm tykk, men har ingen klar grense. Det er et område med intens biologisk og kjemisk aktivitet som er påvirket av stoffer skilt ut av rota og av mikroorganismer som lever av disse stoffene.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Soil.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/30195/1/TEMA_6_14_Et%20yrende%20liv%20rundt%20planter%C3%B8ttene%20endelig.pdf
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Evaluation of an organic package of practice towards integrated management of Solanum tuberosum and its comparison with conventional farming in terms of yield, quality, energy efficiency and economics Organic Eprints
Seal, A; Bera, R; Datta, A; Saha, S; Roy Chowdhury, R; Sengupta, K; Barik, Arun Kumar; Chatterjee, Ashis Kumar.
A study was taken up during 2014-16 for evaluating the potential of an organic package of practice towards integrated crop production (green farming) in comparison to conventional farmers’ practice in West Bengal, India. Under green farming, compost was integrated with chemical fertilizer for soil management while organic plant/ pest management was undertaken utilizing Inhana Rational Farming (IRF) Technology. The study indicated higher yield (9.7 %), higher nutrient use efficiency and economic sustainability under green farming irrespective of study area or potato variety. Higher qualitative expression in terms of starch content, pulp pH, vitamin C etc. under green farming might be due to the organic plant management aimed at energization of plant...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil quality; Soil biology; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/32200/1/Evaluation_of_an_organic_package_of_practice_towar.pdf
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Farmyard manure, plant based organic fertilisers, inorganic fertiliser - which sustains soil organic matter best? Organic Eprints
Raupp, Joachim; Oltmanns, Meike.
Legume biomass or pulse meal may be considered as alternatives to farmyard manure (FYM) in organic farms with small scale animal husbandry or in stockless organic farms. From 1996 a field trial was established on a poor sandy soil to compare plant based organic fertilisers, FYM and inorganic fertilisers, each applied at 100 kg ha-1 N. Additionally, FYM was tested at a higher rate of 170 kg ha-1 N. Average soil organic carbon content in topsoil (Corg) of the last crop rotation period (2002-05) is compared to that in 1996. Corg remained at the same level of 0.78 % only with FYM, while plant based and inorganic fertiliser decreased carbon contents to 0.74 and 0.72 % Corg, respectively. The higher FYM rate increased Corg up to 0.84 %. Based on these results,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Soil quality; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/9853/1/aab%2Dcor06corgE.pdf
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Fate of 15N- and 14C from labelled plant material: Recovery in perennial ryegrass-clover mixtures and in pore water of the sward Organic Eprints
Rasmussen, J.; Gjettermann, B.; Eriksen, J.; Jensen, E.S.; Høgh-Jensen, H..
The below ground C and N dynamics leading to organic and inorganic N leaching from perennial ryegrass-clover mixtures are not well understood. Based on the hypothesis that four different plant materials would degrade differently, a 16 months field experiment was conducted to determine (i) the source strength of labelled plant residues in dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and dissolved organic N (DON) in pore water from the plough layer, and (ii) the plant uptake of organically bound N. Litterbags containing 14C- and 15N-labelled ryegrass or clover roots or leaves were inserted into the sward of a ryegrass-clover mixture in early spring. The fate of the released 14C and 15N was monitored in harvested biomass, roots, soil, and pore water percolating from the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil biology; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/16290/1/16290.pdf
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Fauna i landbruksjord-mangfold av virvelløse dyr og deres funksjoner Organic Eprints
Pommeresche, Reidun.
Ved Norsk senter for økologisk landbruk (NORSØK) bygges det opp kompetanse innen feltet biologisk mangfold, blant annet om virvelløse dyr på og i jordbruksjord. Reidun Pommeresche har utarbeidet denne rapporten som en del av denne kompetanseoppbyggingen. Rapporten er basert på et litteraturstudium. Hensikten er å presentere en del temaer angående livet i jordbruksjord, med hovedvekt på jordfaunaen i lys av økologisk landbruk. Bakerst i rapporten finnes en ordliste som vil være nyttig for den som er lite kjent innen fagområdet. Økt kunnskap om livet i jorden, øker mulighetene for en bedre forvaltning av det naturlige mangfoldet i norsk landbruksjord og bidrar til interessant og nyttig kunnskap for utviklingen av økologisk landbruk. Dette ved å belyse hvilke...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://orgprints.org/6832/1/Jordfaunarapport2000pdf.pdf
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Field homogeneity in OSCAR-MEE Organic Eprints
Marinari, S.; Papp, R.; Sripada, U.; Thami-Alami, I.; Campiglia, E.; Pearce, B.D.; Bergkvist, G.; van der Heijden, M.; Baresel, J.P.; Finckh, Maria R..
Soil properties at the beginning of the MEE (Multi Environment Experiments) were statistically analyzed in order to verify the field homogeneity. The initial soil properties represent the starting point to interpret the effect of CC and LM on soil fertility during crop cycle.Soil properties of the fields were quite homogeneous at the beginning of crop cycles (first and second). The soil properties of the experimental fields in the selected areas showed a wide variety of pedons to be used for the comparison of CC and LM effect in different climate zones. Soils from the Northern European sites are more acid and richer of nutrients and organic matter with respect to the soils in Southern sites.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil biology; Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/29641/1/poster%20OSCAR%201.pdf
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FieldEco – a multi-purpose biologically driven food web model Organic Eprints
Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard; Sønderskov, Mette; Bruus-Pedersen, Marianne; Tybirk, Knud; Eriksen, Jørgen.
We here present a food web model (FieldEco) that has been constructed to simulate complicated eco-system processes in a food web that includes both the soil and above ground ecosystems and connec-tions between them. FieldEco has been designed to work at the species level. The model is driven by climatic input, and both the population dynamics and the interactions between species are simulated according to the ideas presented by Gutierrez (1996). FieldEco is equipped with a user interface from which it is possible to design an ecosystem of interest from a list of parameterised species. Presently, this list of parameterised species consists mainly of species that are common in Danish agricultural fields, and it is possible to manipulate their biological...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil biology; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/4659/2/4659.pdf
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Fixacao biologica de nitrogenio em solos de cerrados (1994). Infoteca-e
VARGAS, M. A. T.; SUHET, A. R.; MENDES, I. de C.; PERES, J. R. R..
bitstream/item/120967/1/vargas-01.pdf
Tipo: Livro técnico (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Fixacao biologica; Planta leguminosa; Planta Leguminosa forrageira; Legumes crops; Feed legumes; Plants; Winter crops.; Cerrado; Feijão; Glycine Max; Inverno; Nitrogênio; Phaseolus Vulgaris; Soja; Solo.; Kidney beans; Nitrogen fixation; Soybeans.; Soil biology; Soil; Savannas.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/556081
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FØJOII-29: Nature Quality in Organic Farming. Midterm Status Report 2003 Organic Eprints
Fredshavn, Jesper; Tybirk, Knud; et al.,.
The work is organised in five work packages (WP 1-5, Table A1). Since the start in July 2001 the following work has been accomplished:  WP 1. Starting up seminar and the annual seminars have served as a successful platform for project planning and cross-cutting activities. The general project co-ordination and planning of field work and selection of case study areas has been stimulated both at these meetings and in separate meetings with the WP responsibles. The first cross-cutting (CC4) has been accomplished in close co-operation with WP 5 and all project scientists. A homepage for the project is now available.  WP 2. Eleven case areas with high concentration of organic farmers have been selected and 347 farmers have been interviewed. A database...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Landscape and recreation; Soil biology; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/1577/1/1577.pdf
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Fractions of particulate organic matter in soils depending upon farmyard manure and mineral fertilization Organic Eprints
Raupp, Dr Joachim; Oltmanns, Meike.
In a long-term fertilization trial particulate organic matter (POM) was investigated after 20 years of farmyard manure vs. mineral fertilization at different levels with the method of Meijboom et al. (1995). The organic matter was separated with sodium polytungstate (Magid et al., 1996; Six et al., 1999) into a light (p <1.13 g cm-3), medium (1.13-1.37 g cm-3) and heavy (p >1.37 g cm-3) fraction. The organically fertilized plots had lower contents of the light fraction (0.73 - 0.78 g kg-1 dry matter on average of all fields) compared to the mineral treatment (0.95 g kg-1 TS). This gives a hint that organic residues are decomposed faster in the manure fertilized soil, according to the higher biological activity found earlier in this treatment. The...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil biology; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/770/1/rai02po.pdf
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Functional Compost Organic Eprints
Luxhøi, Jesper; Brøgger, Morten; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Poulsen, Pernille H.B.; Møller, Jacob; Jensen, Birgit; Jensen, Dan F.; Magid, Jakob.
The aim of the research program Functional Compost is to develop and test compost, which have been enriched with chitin, for plant growth promoting properties and to recognise specific mechanisms. Two types of compost were included in the program: source separated biodegradable municipal solid waste compost (DM = 62 %) and garden and park waste compost (DM = 66 %). Chitin was added in trace amounts during the maturity phase, combined with two levels of trace amounts immediately before adding the compost to the growth medium. The research program includes several parallel experiments. In experiment I, compost (20 vol. %) was added to soil (no plants) and incubated at 15 C for 5 month, under regular determination of microbial respiration and gross and net N...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil biology; Soil quality.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/9214/1/9214.pdf
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Fünfherziger Weltbürger Organic Eprints
Pfiffner, Lukas; Forster, Jacqueline.
Pro Natura stellt den Tauwurm (Lumbricus terrestris) aus der Familie der Regenwürmer ins Rampenlicht. Über das Tier des Jahres 2011 gibt es Bemerkenswertes zu berichten.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/20047/1/Seiten4_5_ba%2Dd%2D2011%2D03.pdf
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Fungal population and diversity in organically amended agricultural soils of Meghalaya, India Organic Eprints
Swer, H; Dkhar, MS; Kayang, H.
The effect of different organic fertilisers (farm yard manure [FYM]; vermicompost [VC]; plant compost [PC] and integrated compost [INT], i.e. a combination of FYM, VC and PC in a 1:1:1 ratio) on the population and diversity of soil fungi was investigated in a maize-French bean trial. Fungal populations were much higher in organically fertilised plots as compared to the control (CTRL) and showed a decreasing trend in the order FYM>PC>INT>VC>CTRL. Altogether, 122 fungal species and two sterile mycelia were isolated from all the plots of which 25 fungal genera belonged to Deuteromycotina, seven to Ascomycotina, four to Zygomycotina and one to Mastigomycotina. The most common genera isolated from all the plots include Penicillium, Aspergillus,...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19269/4/19269.pdf
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Fungal/bacterial ratios in grasslands with contrasting nitrogen management Organic Eprints
de Vries, Franciska T; Hofland, Ellis; van Eekeren, Nick; Brussaard, Lijbert; Bloem, Jaap.
It is frequently hypothesised that high soil fungal/bacterial ratios are indicative for more sustainable agricultural systems.Increased F/B ratios have been reported in extensively managed grasslands.To determine the shifts in fungal/bacterial biomass ratio as in fluenced by grassland management and to find relations with nitrogen leaching potential,we sampled a two-year-old field experiment at an organic experimental farm in the eastern part of The Netherlands.The effect of crop (grass and grass-clover),N application rate (0, 40, 80,120 kg N/ha 1 )and manure type (no manure,farm yard manure and slurry)on the F / B ratio within three growing seasons was tested, as well as relations with soil and crop characteristics,nitrate leaching and partial N balance....
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/9382/1/De_Vries_et_al._2006.pdf
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Fungi in Danish soils under organic and conventional farming Organic Eprints
Elmholt, S.; Labouriau, R..
A multi-soil study was conducted in Denmark including 29 sites, 8 classified as ‘Organic’, 11 as ‘Conventional with manure and synthetic fertilisers’ and 10 as ‘Conventional with synthetic fertilisers’. The variability of fungal abundance within the three farming systems and the long-term effects of different farming systems on fungal propagules in soil were evaluated. Fungal abundance showed large variations within all three farming systems and this variability reduced the possibility to obtain general conclusions on fungal composition in soils under different farming systems. This was illustrated by the results on total propagule numbers of filamentous fungi and yeasts. Penicillium spp. and Gliocladium roseum were more abundant under organic than...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/3328/1/3328.pdf
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