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Rapid Prototyping for Robotics InTech
Imme Ebert-Uphoff; Clement M. Gosselin; David W. Rosen; Thierry Laliberte.
The rapid prototyping framework presented in this chapter provides fast, simple and inexpensivemethods for the design and fabrication of prototypes of robotic mechanisms.As evidenced by the examples presented above, the prototypes can be of great help togain more insight into the functionality of the mechanisms, as well as to convey theconcepts to others, especially to non-technical people. Furthermore, physical prototypescan be used to validate geometric and kinematic properties such as mechanicalinterferences, transmission characteristics, singularities and workspace. Actuated prototypes have also been successfully built and controlled. Actuated mechanisms can be used in lightweight applications or for demonstration purposes. The main limitation in such...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Cutting Edge Robotics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/rapid_prototyping_for_robotics
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Dynamics and Control for Nonholonomic Mobile Modular Manipulators InTech
Yangmin Li; Yugang Liu.
In this chapter, 3-wheeled nonholonomic mobile modular manipulators are investigated. First, an integrated modelling method is proposed in consideration of the nonholonomic constraints and the interactive motions. Second, a model based controller and a robust adaptive controller are presented in task space directly. Third, simulations are carried out on a mobile modular manipulator composed of a 3-wheeled mobile platform and a 4-DOF onboard modular manipulator, and the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. The proposed algorithms can be easily extended to some other mobile manipulators as well.
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robotics; Moving Intelligence.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/dynamics_and_control_for_nonholonomic_mobile_modular_manipulators
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Biped without Feet in Single Support: Stabilization of the Vertical Posture with Internal Torques InTech
Formalsky Alexander; Aoustin Yannick.
We defined here control strategies to stabilize the equilibrium vertical posture of a two-link, a three-link and a five-link biped, explicitly taking into account the limits imposed on the amplitudes of the control torques. For each biped we use the Jordan form of its linear model to extract the unstable modes that we want to suppress with the feedback control. For the two-link biped, the control law is optimal. This means that the basin of attraction for its linear system is as large as possible, i.e., it coincides with the controllability domain. For the five-link biped several choices of torques are allowable because we have four torques and three unstable modes. Therefore, we define a criteria to compute these torques. All the numerical results in this...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robots: towards New Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/biped_without_feet_in_single_support__stabilization_of_the_vertical_posture_with_internal_torques
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Joint Torque Sensory in Robotics InTech
Farhad Aghili.
Motivated by the need for accurate joint torque sensing in robots, we designed a new torque sensor, based on the hollow hexaform geometry. Its key features were its extremely high sti ness and its insensitivity to the set of support forces and moments which persist in a robot joint. These features permit to mount the sensor directly in the joints of a robot manipulator leading to accurate joint torque sensing and to a compact and modular design. The structure of the sensor also exhibits strain concentration to torsion loads which maximizes the sensitivity to torsion without sacrificing torsional sti ness. Other design issues such as practical shape consideration, material properties and overloading also considered. The sensor geometry was analyzed and...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Industrial Robotics: Programming; Simulation and Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/joint_torque_sensory_in_robotics
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The Cobasa Architecture as an Answer to Shop Floor Agility InTech
Jose Barata.
Almeida, C. F. (2000). Contratos I - Conceitos; Fontes; Forma??o, Almedina, Coimbra. Barata, J., and Camarinha-Matos, L. M. (1994). "Development of a FMS/FAS System." Studies in Informatics and Control, 3(2-3), 231-239. Barata, J., and Camarinha-Matos, L. M. (2000). "Shopfloor Reengineering To Support Agility in Virtual Enterprise Environments." E-Business and Virtual Enterprises, L. M. Camarinha-Matos, H. Afsarmanesh, and R. Rabelo, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, 287-291.
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Manufacturing the Future.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the_cobasa_architecture_as_an_answer_to_shop_floor_agility
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Active Vision Based Regrasp Planning for Capture of a Deforming Object Using Genetic Algorithms InTech
Ashish Dutta; Goro Obinata; Shota Terachi.
The main contributions of this research are an effective vision based method to compute the optimal grasp points for a 2D prismatic object using GA has been proposed. The simulation and experimental results prove that it is possible to apply the algorithm in practical cases to find the optimal grasp points. In future we hope to integrate the method in a multifinger robotic hand to grasp different types of deforming objects autonomously.
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/active_vision_based_regrasp_planning_for_capture_of_a_deforming_object_using_genetic_algorithms
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Locomotion of an Underactuated Biped Robot Using a Tail InTech
Fernando Juan Berenguer; Felix Monasterio-Huelin.
We have presented in this work a biped mechanism of easy design and construction that is able to walk with only one actuator. The system is attractive for educational and commercial applications due to the simplicity of the applied concepts. In order to reduce the energy consumption of this system, an important problem in actuated bipedal locomotion, we aim for a gait with smooth contact between feet and ground, reduce the joints friction and
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Bioinspiration and Robotics Walking and Climbing Robots.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/locomotion_of_an_underactuated_biped_robot_using_a_tail
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Integration Method of Ant Colony Algorithm and Rough Set Theory for Simultaneous Real Value Attribute Discretization and Attribute Reduction InTech
Yijun He; Dezhao Chen; Weixiang Zhao.
In this study, ant colony algorithm is proposed for simultaneous real value attributes discretization and reduction. Based on the concept of distinction table in rough set theory, the relationship between discretization and reduction is discussed, and these two different problems can be integrated into a unified framework. Moreover, the relationship between this unified framework and set covering problem is analyzed. The detailed strategy for ant colony algorithm to solve this problem is proposed and applied to the four datasets. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, showing the better performance than those of the other three rough set theory based heuristic methods. However, this is a preliminary study, because we...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Swarm Intelligence; Focus on Ant and Particle Swarm Optimization.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/integration_method_of_ant_colony_algorithm_and_rough_set_theory_for_simultaneous_real_value_attribut
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Attitude and Steering Control of the Long Articulated Body Mobile Robot KORYU InTech
Edwardo F. Fukushima; Shigeo Hirose.
The authors have designed and actually built a mechanical prototype of a class of articulated body mobile robots, 3.3m long, and mass of more than 400kg, called KR-II. Attitude control and steering control has been successfully implemented, and the robot can move stably in the outdoors, even on uneven terrain. The presented steering control method is based on parameter representation for describing trajectories in an inertial reference frame, with travelled distance as a parameter. In doing so, the position of each element (in the case of the articulated body mobile robot KR-II, segment center positions) on the trajectory can be tracked by simple and effective numerical searching algorithms. For the real robot KR-II, the introduced method demonstrated good...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Climbing and Walking Robots: towards New Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/attitude_and_steering_control_of_the_long_articulated_body_mobile_robot_koryu
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A Novel Omnidirectional Stereo Vision System via a Single Camera InTech
Chuanjiang Luo; Liancheng Su; Feng Zhu.
We have developed a complete framework of automatically generating omnidirectional depth maps around a mobile robot using a novel designed panoramic vision sensor. Compared to previous vision systems, our system has such significant advantages as its geometry calculating easy and fast and simultaneous acquisition of precise range information without high cost or system complexity. And as the separation between the two hyperbolic mirrors provides a large baseline, the range information obtained from this method has much improved precision. We have proposed an imaging model for
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Scene Reconstruction Pose Estimation and Tracking.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_novel_omnidirectional_stereo_vision_system_via_a_single_camera
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Positioning in Robots Soccer InTech
Hesam T. Dashti; Shahin Kamali; Nima Aghaeepour.
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Robotic Soccer.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/positioning_in_robots_soccer
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Multimodal Range Image Segmentation InTech
Michal Haindl; Pavel Zid.
We proposed novel fast and accurate range segmentation method based on the combination of range & intensity profile modelling and curve-based region growing. A range profile is modelled using an adaptive simultaneous regression model. The recursive adaptive predictor uses spatial correlation from neighbouring data what results in improved robustness of the algorithm over rigid schemes, which are affected with outliers often present at the boundary of distinct shapes. A parallel implementation of the algorithm is straightforward, every image row and column can be processed independently by its dedicated processor. The region growing step is based on the cubic spline curve model. The algorithm performance is demonstrated on the set of test range images...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Segmentation and Pattern Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/multimodal_range_image_segmentation
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Combinatorial Models for Multi-Agent Scheduling Problems InTech
Alessandro Agnetis; Dario Pacciarelli; Andrea Pacifici.
In this chapter we have described a number of models which are useful when several agents have to negotiate processing resources on the basis of their scheduling performance. Research in this area appears at a fairly initial stage. Among the topics for future research we can mention: An experimental comparison of different auction mechanisms for scheduling problems, in terms of possibly addressing general systems (shops, parallel machines...) Analyzing several optimization problems, related to finding "good" overall solutions to multi-agent scheduling problems Designing and analyzing effective scheduling protocols and the corresponding agents' strategies.
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Multiprocessor Scheduling; Theory and Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/combinatorial_models_for_multi-agent_scheduling_problems
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Novel Approaches to Speech Detection in the Processing of Continuous Audio Streams InTech
Janez Zibert; Bostjan Vesnicer; France Mihelic.
This chapter addresses the problem of speech detection in continuous audio streams and explores the impact of speech/non-speech segmentation on speech-processing applications. We proposed a novel approach for deriving speech-detection features based on phoneme transcriptions from generic speech-recognition systems. The proposed phoneme-recognition features were designed to be recognizer and language independent and could be applied in different speech/non-speech segmentation-classification frameworks. In our evaluation experiments two segmentation-classification frameworks were tested, one based on the Viterbi decoding of hidden Markov models, where speech/non-speech segmentation and detection were performed simultaneously, and the other framework, where...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Robust Speech Recognition and Understanding.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/novel_approaches_to_speech_detection_in_the_processing_of_continuous_audio_streams
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Achieving Illumination Invariance Using Image Filters InTech
Ognjen Arandjelovic; Roberto Cipolla.
In this chapter we described a novel framework for automatic face recognition in the presence of varying illumination, primarily applicable to matching face sets or sequences. The framework is based on simple image processing filters that compete with unprocessed greyscale input to yield a single matching score between individuals. By performing all numerically consuming computation offline, our method both (i) retains the matching efficiency of simple image filters, but (ii) with a greatly increased robustness, as all online processing is performed in closed-form. Evaluated on a large, real-world data corpus, the proposed framework was shown to be successful in video-based recognition across a wide range of illumination, pose and face motion pattern...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Face Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/achieving_illumination_invariance_using_image_filters
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Biomechanical Constraints in the Design of Robotic Systems for Tremor Suppression InTech
Juan-Manuel Belda-Lois; Alvaro Page; Jose-Maria Baydal-Bertomeu Rakel Poveda; Ricard Barbera.
Tremor suppression with robotic devices can be an alternative for people with pathological tremor resistant to conventional treatments. Common orthotic principles don't fit well for tremor suppression due to the inherent dynamic characteristics of tremor. In the design of robotic systems for tremor suppression the correct design of load transmission to the bones through the soft tissues is one of the key aspects for successful performance. We have summarised the design specifications into three guidelines: a) Length restriction to avoid the low stiffness associated in the shear plane. b) Increase of contact pressure to increase contact stiffness. c) Increase of the number of contact points to keep the alignments between the orthosis and the body segment.
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Rehabilitation Robotics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/biomechanical_constraints_in_the_design_of_robotic_systems_for_tremor_suppression
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Gait Transition from Quadrupedal to Bipedal Locomotion of an Oscillator-driven Biped Robot InTech
Shinya Aoi; Kazuo Tsuchiya.
Kinematical and dynamical studies on biped robots are important for robot control. As described above, although model-based approaches using inverse kinematics and kinetics have generally been used, the difficulty of establishing adaptability to various environments as well as complicated computations has often been pointed out. In this paper, we employed an internal structure composed of nonlinear oscillators that generated robot kinematics and adequately responded based on environmental situations and achieved dynamically stable quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion and their transition in a biped robot. Specifically, we generated robot kinematical motions using rhythmic signals from internal oscillators. The oscillators appropriately responded to sensory...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots: New Developments.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/gait_transition_from_quadrupedal_to_bipedal_locomotion_of_an_oscillator-driven_biped_robot
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A Novel Anthropomorphic Robot Hand and its Master Slave System InTech
Tetsuya Mouri; Haruhisa Kawasaki.
We have presented the newly developed anthropomorphic robot hand named the KH Hand type S and its master slave system using the bilateral controller. The use of an elastic body has improved the robot hand in terms of weight, the backlash of the transmission, and friction between the gears. We have demonstrated the expression of the Japanese finger alphabet. We have also shown an experiment of a peg-in-hole task controlled by the bilateral controller. These results indicate that the KH Hand type S has a higher potential than previous robot hands in performing not only hand shape display tasks but also in grasping and manipulating objects in a manner like that of the human hand. In our future work, we are planning to study dexterous grasping and manipulation...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_novel_anthropomorphic_robot_hand_and_its_master_slave_system
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Visually Guided Robotics Using Conformal Geometric Computing InTech
Eduardo Bayro-Corrochano; Luis Eduardo Falcon-Morales; Julio Zamora-Esquivel.
In this chapter the authors have used a single non?standard mathematical framework, the Conformal Geometric Algebra, in order to simplify the set of data structures that we usually use with the traditional methods. The key idea is to define and use a set of products in CGA that will be enough to generate conformal transformations, manifolds as ruled surfaces and develop incidence algebra operations, as well as solve equations and obtain directed distances between different kinds of geometric primitives. Thus, within this approach, all those different mathematical entities and tasks can be done simultaneously, without the necessity of abandoning the system. Using conformal geometric algebra we even show that it is possible to find three grasping points for...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robots: Perception & Navigation.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/visually_guided_robotics_using_conformal_geometric_computing
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Application of Neural Networks to Modeling and Control of Parallel Manipulators InTech
Ahmet Akbas.
This chapter is mainly concerned with the application of ANNs to modeling and control of parallel manipulators. A practical implementation is completed to emulate the operation of
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Parallel Manipulators; New Developments.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/application_of_neural_networks_to_modeling_and_control_of_parallel_manipulators
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