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What is Published in Human Morphology?: Types of Designs and Levels of Evidence International Journal of Morphology
Suazo Galdames,Iván; Manterola D,Carlos.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) employs the best available evidence in a particular time and context to solve specific clinical problems. This method of practicing medicine has been adopted by most of the disciplines involved in medical training; however, morphology appears to remain beyond this paradigm. The first step in evidence-based practice based on morphology is to recognize the types of studies being conducted with regard to morphology, followed by the assessment of the level of evidence that they provide, which is the purpose of this study. We designed a bibliometric study, in which journals in the Master Journal List of Thomson Reuters, selected using the keywords "Morphology" or "Anatomy," available between 2007 and 2008, with access to full text...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Evidence-based morphology; Evidence-based medicine; Research design; Bibliometrics; Level of evidence.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022010000200021
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What we see is how we are: New paradigms in visual research Biol. Res.
MALDONADO A,PEDRO.
As most sensory modalities, the visual system needs to deal with very fast changes in the environment. Instead of processing all sensory stimuli, the brain is able to construct a perceptual experience by combining selected sensory input with an ongoing internal activity. Thus, the study of visual perception needs to be approached by examining not only the physical properties of stimuli, but also the brain's ongoing dynamical states onto which these perturbations are imposed. At least three different models account for this internal dynamics. One model is based on cardinal cells where the activity of few cells by itself constitutes the neuronal correlate of perception, while a second model is based on a population coding that states that the neuronal...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Perception; Synchrony; Neural coding.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602007000500006
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Wheat biotechnology: A minireview Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Patnaik,Debasis; Khurana,Paramjit.
Due to the inherent difficulties associated with gene delivery into regenerable explants and recovery of plantlets with the introduced transgene, wheat was the last among cereals to be genetically transformed. This review attempts to summarize different efforts in the direction of achieving genetic transformation of wheat by various methods. Particle bombardment is the most widely employed procedure for the introduction of marker genes and also for the generation of transformed wheat with introduction of agronomically important genes for quality improvement, engineering of nuclear male sterility, transposon tagging, resistance to drought stress, resistance against fungal pathogens and insect resistance. The other methods of choice of gene delivery into...
Tipo: Journal article
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582001000200007
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Wheel-running and rest activity pattern interaction in two octodontids (Octodon degus, Octodon bridgesi) Biol. Res.
OCAMPO-GARCÉS,ADRIÁN; HERNÁNDEZ,FELIPE; MENA,WILSON; PALACIOS,ADRIÁN G.
Wheel-running and other non-photic stimuli influence the rest-activity pattern of diurnal and nocturnal mammals. A day to night inversion of phase preference of activity was described among Octodon degus, when exposed to ad-libitum wheel running. We have studied the rest-activity pattern response in presence of ad libitum wheel-running in wild-captured male individuals from two species of genus Octodon: O. degus (n=9, crepuscular-diurnal) and O. bridgesi (n=3, nocturnal). After two months of habituation to laboratory conditions, recordings were performed in isolation chambers under a 12:12 light-dark schedule with or without access to a running wheel. Actograms were constructed from data obtained by an automated acquisition system. O. bridgesi were also...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Circadian rhythms; Masking; Octodon degus; Octodon bridgesi; Wheel-running.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602005000200019
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WHEN IS A GAP NOT A GAP?: LIGHT LEVELS AND LEAF AREA INDEX IN BAMBOO-FILLED GAPS IN A CHILEAN RAIN FOREST Gayana Botánica
Lusk,Christopher H..
Bamboos of the genus Chusquea are aggressive colonisers of tree-fall gaps in the temperate rain forests of southern Chile. Chusquea thickets inhibit regeneration of tree species, suggesting that light levels beneath bamboo-filled gaps may be lower than beneath tall forest. Two LAI-2000 canopy analysers were used to compare diffuse light availability beneath five Chusquea quila thickets and five neighbouring tall forest stands, in a low altitude (<FONT FACE=Symbol>È</FONT> 400 m a.s.l.) old-growth temperate rain forest in Parque Nacional Puyehue (40º39'S). Leaf area indices (LAI) of these two vegetation phases are also compared. Average diffuse light levels beneath bamboo thickets (1.5 %) were only slightly lower than those beneath tall forest...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Chusquea; Diffuse light; Forest dynamics; LAI-2000; Positive feedback vegetation switch.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-66432001000100003
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Whey upgrading by enzyme biocatalysis Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Illanes,Andrés.
Whey is a co-product of processes for the production of cheese and casein that retains most of the lactose content in milk. World production of whey is estimated around 200 million tons per year with an increase rate of about 2%/per year. Milk production is seasonal, so surplus whey is unavoidable. Traditionally, whey producers have considered it as a nuisance and strategies of whey handling have been mostly oriented to their more convenient disposal. This vision has been steadily evolving because of the upgrading potential of whey major components (lactose and whey proteins), but also because of more stringent regulations of waste disposal. Only the big cheese manufacturing companies are in the position of implementing technologies for their recovery and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Beta-galactosidase; Enzyme catalysis; Lactose; Oligosaccharides; Prebiotics; Whey.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582011000600009
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Which Method is Gold Standard for Determination of Thyroid Volume? International Journal of Morphology
Erçikti,Nurcan; Acer,Niyazi; Apaydi,Nihal; Güven,Inanç; Zararsiz,Gökmen.
Change of the thyroid gland volume is often the symptom of most common pathological conditions some thyroid diseases. The exact calculation for the thyroid volume is very important for the assessment and management of thyroid disorders. The volume of thyroid gland, using computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been accessed in few studies published; however a gold standard method has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was to estimate the volume of normal thyroid gland to define an optimal correction factor therefore was to compare different techniques using the CT. We used computed tomography images obtained from 8 cadavers (2 females, 6 males) to calculate the thyroid volumes. In the present...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Thyroid volume; Actual volume; Correction factor; Stereology.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022017000200011
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WHO Congress Passes Beijing Declaration on Traditional Medicine Plantas Medicinales
Stafford,Lindsay.
Tipo: Journal article
Ano: 2010 URL: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1028-47962010000100008
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Why are most Europeans opposed to GMOs?: Factors explaining rejection in France and Europe Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Bonny,Sylvie.
A strong movement of opposition to GMOs developed in the late 1990s in many countries, especially in Europe, although these technologies were presented from the outset as highly promising and their advantages were often highlighted. How can this rejection be explained? The aim of this paper is to answer that question through the case of France, which is fairly representative in this respect of various European countries, even if the opposition movement is here particularly strong. One examines various factors, actors and processes that have led to such strong opposition to GMOs that at this stage their development in Europe has almost totally been halted. In the first part of the article we recall the results of several recent surveys, showing the level of...
Tipo: Journal article
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582003000100008
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Why so many apparently rare beetles in Chilean temperate rainforests? RChHN
RICHARDSON,BARRY J; ARIAS-BOHART,ELIZABETH T.
Species abundance curves were calculated from data sets collected by fogging 52 trees in Nothofagus forest (~46000 specimens) and 24 trees in Araucaria forest (~15000 specimens) in Chile. Neither data set fitted the standard species abundance models. Like similar data sets collected from tropical forests, there were too many species represented by single specimens. The proposal that these were vagrants normally found on other tree species was not supported as, unlike tropical forests, Nothofagus forests are not diverse, often consisting of single species stands. Examination of three assumptions of the most parsimonious equilibrium models showed them to be false. Between them the observations of undersampling bias, community disequilibria and combining data...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Species abundance curves; Biodiversity estimation; Body size and density.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2011000300009
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Why the dimension matters in ecological models? RChHN
Ramos-Jiliberto,Rodrigo; Hoecker-Escuti,Francisco; Mena-Lorca,Jaime.
In this work we discuss the ecological and mathematical significance of system's dimension in continuous-time population dynamics models. We show how the system's dimension reflects the ecological assumptions and affects both the spectrum of dynamic output and mathematical tractability of the models. We stress that the model dimension is not always the same as the number of state-variables, and we also present conditions under which the system's dimension is altered
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: ODE; Population dynamics; Theoretical models; Mathematical ecology; Stability.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2004000400012
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Wild ornamental germplasm exploration and domestication based on biotechnological approaches: In vitro colchicine treatment to obtain a new cultivar of Scoparia montevidiensis Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Escandón,Alejandro S; Miyajima,Ikuo; Alderete,Marisol; Hagiwara,Juan Carlos; Facciuto,Gabriela; Mata,Diego; Soto,Silvina M.
The genus Scoparia is native from Argentina. The diversity of colours and shape of their flowers bestows this genus a very interesting ornamental potential. The purpose of the present study is to explore the Scoparia species germplasm by means of in vitro polyploidization in order to improve their ornamental qualities. Accessions of S. montevidiensis var. montevidiensis, S. montevidiensis var. glandulifera, S. nudicaulis, S. hasleriana and S. dulcis were collected and maintained under greenhouse conditions. The Murashige-Skoog medium, supplemented with 0.25 mg/L BAP was used for the nodal segments multiplication of the five Scoparia species. Except for S. hasleriana, the multiplication rate of the other species ranged between 10 and 12 shoots per explant....
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Chimera; Flow cytometry; Micropropagation; Ornamental plants; Tetraploid.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582005000200010
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WIND DIRECTION SIGNAL IN POLARIZED MICROWAVE EMISSION OF SEA SURFACE UNDER VARIOUS INCIDENCE ANGLES Gayana
Pospelov,Michael N..
The paper summarizes the experimental results obtained during a series of aircraft experiments carried out by Space Research Institute in 1980's in the northwestern Pacific. The measurements of wind direction signatures were conducted with K- and Ka-band polarimeters at near-nadir and grazing view angles. These data are compared with the results obtained by JPL-NASA and ETL-NOAA researchers at medium range of view angles, and also with SSM/I data. Both first and second azimuthal harmonics as a function of view angle are analyzed. The experimental results are also compared with theoretical calculations based on the various models of the directional spectrum of wind waves. Reasoning from model calculations and experimental data, an optimal range of...
Tipo: Journal article
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-65382004000300032
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Wind effects on leaf morphology for the mangrove Conocarpus erecta at an oceanic island from the Mexican Pacific Ocean RChHN
DE LA BARRERA,ERICK; WALTER,HARTMUT S.
Leaf morphology was measured and aerodynamical attributes as well as transpiration rates were calculated for the mangrove Conocarpus erecta from sites naturally sheltered or sites exposed to oceanic winds at Socorro Island, Mexico, and compared with those of C. erecta, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle at a mainland estuary near La Manzanilla, Jalisco, Mexico. Leaves of C. erecta, 5.98 cm in length and 2.03 cm in width, were the smallest and most streamlined of the mainland mangroves. Moreover, both leaf dimensions were 32 % smaller for trees from the exposed sites on Socorro Island than on the mainland. For a given wind velocity, Reynolds numbers were 10 to 33 % lower at Socorro Island than on the mainland for leaves of C. erecta, leading to a...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Energy balance; Hurricane damage; Island biogeography; Laguncularia racemosa; Reynolds number; Rhizophora mangle.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2006000400004
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Wind-induced leaning (toppling) in young Pinus radiata plantations in Chile Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Toral,Manuel; Bown,Horacio E; Mañon,Alejandro; Alvarez,José; Navarro-Cerrillo,Rafael.
The toppling of young trees considerably reduces the value of the first log in Pinus radiata plantations. Although wind is the main cause of toppling, the quality and type of plants, planting techniques, soil fertility and soil preparation may play an important role in the susceptibility of the species to toppling. This article analyzes the influence of ripping and soil type on the probability of P radiata toppling after severe windstorms in central south Chile. To this aim, pairs of similar trees with and without toppling were selected in 2001 in six soil types with and without soil ripping. Root system differences in toppled versus straight trees were compared to gain better insight into the causes of the phenomenon. Among all root measurements, the...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Ripping; Soil fertility; Tap root; Toppling.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202011000300010
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Wine grape pomace flour improves blood pressure, fasting glucose and protein damage in humans: a randomized controlled trial Biol. Res.
Urquiaga,Inés; D'Acuna,Sonia; Pérez,Druso; Dicenta,Sara; Echeverria,Guadalupe; Rigotti,Attilio; Leighton,Federico.
BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet is a healthy diet with positive scientific evidence of preventing chronic diseases. Bioactive components support the healthy properties of the Mediterranean diet. Antioxidants and fiber, two components of the Mediterranean diet, are key functional nutrients for healthy eating and nutrition. Wine grape pomace is a rich source of these dietary constituents and may be beneficial for human health. Our hypothesis was that the intake of red wine grape pomace flour (WGPF) prepared from red wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon variety) reduced the metabolic syndrome in humans. To evaluate the effect of WGPF on components of metabolic syndrome we design a 16-week longitudinal intervention study. Thirty-eight males, 30-65 years of age,...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Antioxidant; Dietary intervention; Fiber; Metabolic syndrome; Oxidative stress; Wine grape pomace.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602015000100049
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Winter diet of the long-eared owl Asio otus (Strigiformes: Strigidae) in the grasslands of Janos, Chihuahua, Mexico RChHN
González-Rojas,José I.; Padilla-Rangel,Hernaldo; Ruvalcaba-Ortega,Irene; Cruz-Nieto,Miguel A.; Canales-del-Castillo,Ricardo; Guzmán-Velasco,Antonio.
Abstract Background The long-eared owl (Asio otus) has a Holarctic distribution, including much of North America. This nocturnal species is considered to be extremely secretive, and poorly known in the Great Plains of the United States and Canada, as well as to México, where no previous studies on its diet have been conducted. Findings We analyzed 120 pellets collected during January 2007 in roosts in a 2-3 m height mesquite scrub within a grassland area of Reserva Ecológica El Uno, located in the Natural Protected Area Janos. We registered and identified three orders, four families, eight genera and ten species of mammals and two orders and one family of insects. Winter diet is dominated by mammals, especially rodents in both frequency and biomass....
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Winter diet; Long-eared owl; Grasslands; Janos; México.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2017000100401
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Within selection RChHN
VALENZUELA,CARLOS Y.
The synthetic theory of evolution proposes that biotic variations generated by mutation are mostly fixed, lost or maintained polymorphic by natural selection, with a marginal effect due to genetic drift. Based on the theory of autopoiesis some authors have proposed that selection is unable to explain most evolutionary changes, and natural or phenotype drift and epigenesis are the mechanisms that explain most of evolution. This view misunderstands basic evolutionary notions. Selection is a natural process that occurs with or without evolution; it does not explain evolution, it is a factor of the evolutionary process. The concept of autopoiesis implies an invariant condition of living beings, thus, it cannot explain and even less produce evolution conceived...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Autopoiesis; Evolution; Natural drift; Neutral evolution; Selection; Synthetic theory.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2007000100009
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WITHIN-POPULATION GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CLIMBING PLANTS AND TREES IN A TEMPERATE FOREST IN CENTRAL CHILE Gayana Botánica
Torres-Díaz,Cristian; Ruiz,Eduardo; Salgado-Luarte,Cristian; Molina-Montenegro,Marco A; Gianoli,Ernesto.
The climbing habit is a key innovation in angiosperm evolution: climbing plant taxa have greater species richness than their non-climbing sister groups. It is considered that highly diversified clades should show increased among-population genetic differentiation. Less clear is the expected pattern regarding within-population genetic diversity in speciose lineages. We tested the hypothesis of greater within-population genetic diversity in climbing plants compared to trees in a temperate forest in central Chile. The assumption underlying this hypothesis is that higher among-population differentiation in climbers compared to trees should reflect higher genetic diversity as well. AFLP markers from 167 individual plants from 14 species (seven climbers and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: AFLP; Climbers; Evolution; Genetic variability; Key innovation.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-66432013000100005
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Wnt signaling: A complex issue Biol. Res.
HENDRIKS,BART; REICHMANN,ERNST.
The development of tissues and organs in multicellular organisms is controlled by the interplay of several signaling pathways that cross-talk to provide positional information and induce cell fate specification. Together with other families of secreted factors such as TGFßs, FGFs, Hedgehog and Notch proteins, Wnt growth factors are crucially implicated in these processes. Here, we will first discuss molecular mechanisms and then consider some biological consequences of Wnt signaling
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Wnts; Frizzled; LRP 5/6; SS-catenin; APC; TCF.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602002000200019
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