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13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E.; Barrett, Scott; Stavins, Robert N..
We critically review the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. We employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The Kyoto Protocol does not fare well on a number of criteria, but none of the alternative proposals fare well along all six dimensions. We identify several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is "too little, too fast"; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Policy architecture; Kyoto Protocol; Efficiency; Cost effectiveness; Equity; Participation; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10541
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Green Technologies for a More Sustainable Agriculture AgEcon
Hrubovcak, James; Vasavada, Utpal; Aldy, Joseph E..
For U.S. agriculture to continue along a sustainable path of economic development, further production increases must be generated by technologies that are both profitable and more environmentally benign. In this context, we assess the role of these green or sustainable technologies in steering agriculture along a more sustainable path. However, the lack of markets for the environmental attributes associated with green technologies can limit their development. In addition, simply making a technology available does not mean it will be adopted. Experience with green technologies such as conservation tillage, integrated pest management, enhanced nutrient management, and precision agriculture demonstrates that even when technologies are profitable, barriers to...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Sustainable agriculture; Natural capital; Nonrenewable resources; Renewable resources; Environmental services; Green technology; Integrated pest management; Conservation tillage; Enhanced nutrient management; Precision agriculture; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33721
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Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence? AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E..
Understanding and considering the distribution of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is important in designing international climate change proposals and incentives for participation. I evaluate historic international emissions distributions and forecast future distributions to assess whether per capita emissions have been converging or will converge. I find evidence of convergence among 23 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), whereas emissions appear to be diverging for an 88-country global sample over 1960-–2000. Forecasts based on a Markov chain transition matrix provide little evidence of future emissions convergence and indicate that emissions may diverge in the near term. I also review the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions distributions; Environmental Kuznets curve; Markov chain transition matrix; Environmental Economics and Policy; O40; Q54; Q56.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10773
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The Promise and Problems of Pricing Carbon: Theory and Experience AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E.; Stavins, Robert N..
Because of the global commons nature of climate change, international cooperation among nations will likely be necessary for meaningful action at the global level. At the same time, it will inevitably be up to the actions of sovereign nations to put in place policies that bring about meaningful reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases. Due to the ubiquity and diversity of emissions of greenhouse gases in most economies, as well as the variation in abatement costs among individual sources, conventional environmental policy approaches, such as uniform technology and performance standards, are unlikely to be sufficient to the task. Therefore, attention has increasingly turned to market-based instruments in the form of carbon-pricing mechanisms. We...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Global Climate Change; Market-Based Instruments; Carbon Pricing; Carbon Taxes; Cap-and-Trade; Emission Reduction Credits; Energy Subsidies; Clean Energy Standards; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q540; Q580; Q400; Q480.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119105
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Using the Market to Address Climate Change: Insights from Theory and Experience AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E.; Stavins, Robert N..
Emissions of greenhouse gases linked with global climate change are affected by diverse aspects of economic activity, including individual consumption, business investment, and government spending. An effective climate policy will have to modify the decision calculus for these activities in the direction of more efficient generation and use of energy, lower carbon-intensity of energy, and – more broadly – a more carbon-lean economy. The only approach to doing this on a meaningful scale that would be technically feasible and cost-effective is carbon pricing, that is, market-based climate policies that place a shadow-price on carbon dioxide emissions. We examine alternative designs of three such instruments – carbon taxes, cap-and-trade, and clean energy...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Global Climate Change; Market-Based Instruments; Carbon Pricing; Carbon Taxes; Cap-And-Trade; Clean Energy Standards; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q540; Q580; Q400; Q480.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119095
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