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AJAE APPENDIX: CONSUMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR THE COLOR OF SALMON: A CHOICE EXPERIMENT WITH REAL ECONOMIC INCENTIVES AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Steine, Gro; Kolstad, Kari.
The material contained herein is supplementary to the article named in the title and published in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 88, Number 4, November 2006.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7393
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AJAE Appendix: Willingness to Pay Versus Expected Consumption Value in Vickrey Auctions for New Experience Goods AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode.
The material contained herein is supplementary to the article named in the title and published in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 89, Number 4, November 2007.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7101
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Bidding behavior in environmental contract auctions with incomplete monitoring AgEcon
Romstad, Eirik; Alfnes, Frode.
It is well known from the compliance literature that whenever it costly to monitor agents' compliance to contract terms, compliance is likely to be incomplete. This paper goes one step further by examining the implications of incomplete monitoring on agent's sales offers in auctions for environmental contracts. From a monitoring perspective we show allocation contracts to least cost also produces another gain – that less resources need to be spend on monitoring and enforcement. To get full use of this insight one needs to have auction procedures that provide incentives for truthful revelation of agents' private alternate incomes. Our second result is that the incentives for truthful revelation is lost when monitoring is incomplete unless the expected value...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental contract auctions; Monitoring and compliance; Truthful revelation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115985
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Cognitive Dissonance as a Means of Reducing Hypothetical Bias AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Yue, Chengyan; Jensen, Helen H..
Hypothetical bias is a persistent problem in stated preference studies. We propose and test a method for reducing hypothetical bias based on the cognitive dissonance literature in social psychology. A central element of this literature is that people prefer not to take inconsistent stands and will change their attitudes and behavior to make them consistent. We find that participants in a stated preference willingness-to-pay study, when told that a nonhypothetical study of similar goods would follow, state significantly lower willingness to pay than participants not so informed. In other words, participants adjust their stated willingness to pay to avoid cognitive dissonance from taking inconsistent stands on their willingness to pay for the good being...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Apples; Cognitive consistency; Hypothetical bias; Instrument calibration; Willingness to pay.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47737
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CONSUMERS' WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR THE COLOR OF SALMON:A CHOICE EXPERIMENT WITH REAL ECONOMIC INCENTIVES AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Steine, Gro; Kolstad, Kari.
We designed an experimental market with posted prices to investigate consumers’' willingness to pay for the color of salmon. Salmon fillets varying in color and price were displayed in 20 choice scenarios. In each scenario, the participants chose which of two salmon fillets they wanted to buy. To induce real economic incentives, each participant drew one unique binding scenario; the participants then had to buy the salmon fillet they had chosen in their binding scenario.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19126
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Discounting Spotted Apples: Investigating Consumers’ Willingness to Accept Cosmetic Damage in an Organic Product AgEcon
Yue, Chengyan; Alfnes, Frode; Jensen, Helen H..
The appearance of organic produce is often less than perfect because of limited methods of avoiding plant diseases. We combine hypothetical and real auction mechanisms to investigate how cosmetic damage affects consumers’ willingness to pay for apples. We find that 75% of the participants are willing to pay more for organic than for conventional apples given identical appearance. However, at the first sight of any imperfection in the appearance of the organic apples, this segment is significantly reduced. Furthermore, the cosmetic damage has a larger impact on the willingness to pay for organic apples than for conventional apples.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Appearance; Apples; Experimental auctions; Organic; Willingness to pay; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D12; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48756
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Discounting Spotted Apples: Investigating Consumers' Willingness to Accept Cosmetic Damage in an Organic Product AgEcon
Yue, Chengyan; Alfnes, Frode; Jensen, Helen H..
Organic producers have limited methods of avoiding plant diseases that result in cosmetic damage to produce. Therefore, the appearance of organic produce is often less than perfect. We use an experimental auction to investigate how cosmetic damage affects consumers' willingness to pay for organic apples. We find that 75% of the participants are willing to pay more for organic than for conventional apples given identical appearance. However, at the first sight of any imperfection in the appearance of the organic apples, this segment is significantly reduced. Furthermore, we find that there is a significant effect of interaction between cosmetic damage and product methods. Even though most consumers say they buy organic products to avoid pesticides, we find...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Appearance; Apples; Experimental auctions; Organic; Willingness to pay; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18349
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Experimental Evidence of Risk Aversion in Consumer Markets: The Case of Beef Tenderness AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Rickertsen, Kyrre; Ueland, Oydis.
We use an experimental auction market to investigate how inconsistency in tenderness affects consumers' WTP for beef. We find that both the level and the spread of tenderness affect consumers' WTP. Categorization the beef into various classes of tenderness increased the total value of the beef by 8%.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19285
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Experimental Evidence of Risk Aversion in Consumer Markets: The Case of Beef Tenderness AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Rickertsen, Kyrre; Ueland, Oydis.
Consistency of quality is important for brand loyalty and market share in consumer markets. Among consumers of beef, tenderness is the primary quality attribute. We use an experimental auction market to investigate how inconsistency in tenderness affects consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for beef. We find that both the level and the spread of tenderness affect consumers’ WTP for beef. Categorization the beef into various classes of tenderness increased the total value of the beef by 8%, which suggests that improved tenderness labeling may be a profitable strategy.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Beef tenderness; Consumer demand; Experimental auction; Marketing; Risk aversion; Consumer/Household Economics; C91; D12; D8; Q13.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24553
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None-of-These Bias in Stated Choice Experiments AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Steine, Gro.
We conduct a within-sample test of hypothetical bias and parameter equality between a hypothetical stated choice (SC) experiment using pictures and a real choice (RC) experiments using products. With exception of the none-of-these alternative-specific dummy, we cannot reject parameter equality between the two datasets. However, when we estimate the models separately with no parameter restrictions, the SC experiment gave WTP estimates that were approximately 50 percent higher and marginal WTP estimates that were almost two times as high as the corresponding estimates from the RC experiment. However, even though the monetary value of the WTP disparity was large, the disparity between the WTP estimates from the two data sets was not statistically significant.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Choice experiment; Hypothetical bias; Color; Mixed logit; Salmon; Willingness to pay; Consumer/Household Economics; C81; C93; D12; Q22.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24761
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SC-X: CALIBRATING STATED CHOICE SURVEYS WITH EXPERIMENTAL AUCTION MARKETS AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Rickertsen, Kyrre.
Experimental auctions (X) use real economic incentives but are limited by available products and locally recruited samples. Stated choice (SC) surveys can use a representative sample to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for hypothetical products with unavailable characteristics. However, a number of studies conclude that surveys give biased WTP estimates. We designed a method, SC-X, to calibrate the WTP estimates from stated choice surveys with WTP observed in experimental auctions. This method allows us to extend the results from auctions to products with unavailable characteristics and to socioeconomic groups not included in the auction. The SC-X method is illustrated using Norwegian consumers' preferences for country-of-origin and hormone...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Marketing.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25814
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SC-X: CALIBRATING STATED CHOICE SURVEYS WITH EXPERIMENTAL AUCTION MARKETS AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Rickertsen, Kyrre.
Experimental auctions (X) use real economic incentives but are limited by available products and locally recruited samples. Stated choice (SC) surveys can use a representative sample to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for hypothetical products with unavailable characteristics. However, a number of studies conclude that surveys give biased WTP estimates. We designed a method, SC-X, to calibrate the WTP estimates from stated choice surveys with WTP observed in experimental auctions. This method allows us to extend the results from auctions to products with unavailable characteristics and to socioeconomic groups not included in the auction. The SC-X method is illustrated using Norwegian consumers' preferences for country-of-origin and hormone...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21962
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Unstable Individual Bids and Stable Market Demand AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Rickertsen, Kyrre; Shogren, Jason F..
We explore preference stability at the individual and market level. We examine individual bidding behavior among 116 French consumers who participated in experimental auctions conducted seven months apart for five types of fish. We reject preference stability at the individual level, but not at the aggregate market level.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Consumer preferences; Demand; Experimental auctions; Food choice; Marketing; C91; D12; Q13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114219
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Unstable Individual Preferences and Stable Aggregate Demand: French Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Farmed and Wild Cod AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode; Rickertsen, Kyrre.
We use panel data from two experiments conducted five months a part to investigate the stability of individual preferences and aggregate demand for five types of fish. Even though the bids in the two experiments are positively correlated, they clearly suggest that the individual preferences are unstable. This may be explained by internal desire for variety or by external effects such as new relevant information, seasonality in preferences, changes in the quality of the fish, and changes in the market price of fish. However, the aggregate demand curves of the participants are stable when we control for changes in the perceived quality of the fish and price expectations of the participants. In other words, the stability is generated by aggregation rather...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Consumer preferences; Demand; Experimental markets; Food choices; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; C91; D12; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49968
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WILLINGNESS TO PAY VERSUS EXPECTED CONSUMPTION VALUE IN VICKREY AUCTIONS FOR NEW EXPERIENCE GOODS AgEcon
Alfnes, Frode.
Vickrey auctions are commonly used to elicit willingness to pay for new food products. This paper shows that in a multi-period context, it can be optimal to bid higher than the expected consumption value for new experience goods to obtain information about the quality of the goods. The degree of value uncertainty, the purchasing frequency, and expected future market prices affect both the expected value of the quality information and the weakly dominant bidding strategy in Vickrey auctions for new experience goods. Keywords: experience goods, value of information, Vickrey auctions.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Experience goods; Value of information; Vickrey auctions.; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21211
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