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A radiographic method to estimate lung volume and its use in small mammals Biol. Res.
CANALS,MAURICIO; OLIVARES,RICARDO; ROSENMANN,Mario.
In this paper we develop a method to estimate lung volume using chest x-rays of small mammals. We applied this method to assess the lung volume of several rodents. We showed that a good estimator of the lung volume is: V*L = 0.496 · V RX ≈ 1/2·V RX , where V RX is a measurement obtained from the x-ray that represents the volume of a rectangular box containing the lungs and mediastinum organs. The proposed formula may be interpreted as the volume of an ellipsoid formed by both lungs joined at their bases. When that relationship was used to estimate lung volume, values similar to those expected from allometric relationship were found in four rodents. In two others, M. musculus and R. norvegicus, lung volume was similar to reported data, although...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Lung volume; X-ray; Method; Rodents.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602005000100006
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Biomechanical and ecological relationships of wing morphology of eight Chilean bats RChHN
CANALS,MAURICIO; GROSSI,BRUNO; IRIARTE-DÍAZ,JOSE; VELOSO,CLAUDIO.
In this study we compared the wing morphology of eight species of bats inhabiting Chile, including two previous studied species. We correlated the results with ecological information. Aspect ratio, wing span, wing area, wing loading and the second moment of area of humerus midshaft were estimated for the molossid Mormopterus kalinowskii, the phyllostomidae Desmodus rotundus and the vespertilionids Histiotus montanus, Histiotus macrotus, Lasiurus borealis, and Lasiurus cinereus. The free-tailed bats T. brasiliensis and M.kalinowskii and D. rotundus, without uropatagyum, showed a low wing area, but whilst the molossids showed large aspect ratios, that of D. rotundus was only moderate. Desmodus rotundus showed the lowest wing span (relative to the expected...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Bats; Biomechanics; Flight.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2005000200005
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Comparación de la morfología alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) y Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), representantes de dos diferentes patrones de vuelo RChHN
CANALS,MAURICIO; IRIARTE-DÍAZ,JOSÉ; OLIVARES,RICARDO; NOVOA,F. FERNANDO.
La morfología alar de los quirópteros se encuentra relacionada por una parte con la biomecánica y energética del vuelo y por otra parte con aspectos ecológicos y conductuales (i.e., patrón de vuelo, conducta de forrajeo y selección de hábitat y de presas). En este trabajo se compara la morfometría alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae) y Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae), representantes de diferentes patrones de vuelo, buscando compromisos entre la morfometría alar y aspectos ecológicos y conductuales. Nuestros resultados muestran que T. brasiliensis es un murciélago más robusto, de mayor envergadura, pero con un área alar similar a la de M. chiloensis. Esta última especie tiene una menor variabilidad en su masa y área cortical del húmero, que...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Tadarida brasiliensis; Myotis chiloensis; Morfología alar; Vuelo; Biomecánica.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2001000300015
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Effects of environmental temperature on oxygen diffusion capacity during post-natal development in the altricial rodent, Phyllotis darwini RChHN
CANALS,MAURICIO; FIGUEROA,DANIELA P; MIRANDA,JESSICA P; SABAT,PABLO.
In this contribution we studied the developmental phenotypic plasticity of respiratory structures involved in the exchange of gases in an altricial rodent, the leaf-eared mouse {Phyllotis darwini). We studied morphological pulmonary parameters of warm (30 °C) and cold acclimated animals 15 °C) at different developmental stages. We found that acclimation treatments did not affect neither lung volume, the alveolo-capillary barrier thickness nor the respiratory surface density. In consequence the oxygen diffusion capacity was not affected. Although Phyllotis darwini exhibited structural respiratory changes expected by its ontogenetic development, these structures were not affected by thermal acclimation during the post-natal development.
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Phenotypic plasticity; Lung; Altricial rodents.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2009000100010
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Interplay between the morphometry of the lungs and the mode of locomotion in birds and mammals Biol. Res.
FIGUEROA,DANIELA; OLIVARES,RICARDO; SALABERRY,MICHEL; SABAT,PABLO; CANALS,MAURICIO.
We studied the lung diffusion parameters of two species of birds and two species of mammals to explore how structural and functional features may be paralleled by differences in life style or phylogenetic origin. We used two fast-flying species (one mammal and one bird), one running mammal and one bird species that flies only occasionally as models. The harmonic mean thickness of the air-blood barrier was very thin in the species we studied. An exception was the Chilean tinamou Notoprocta perdicaria, which only flies occasionally. It showed an air-blood barrier as thick as that of flightless Galliformes. We found that the respiratory surface density was significantly greater in flying species compared to running species. The estimated values for the oxygen...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Diffusing capacity; Lungs; Flight.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602007000200010
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La asimetría y el grado de optimización del árbol bronquial en Rattus norvegicus y Oryctolagus cuniculus RChHN
CANALS,MAURICIO; ATALA,CRISTIAN; OLIVARES,RICARDO; NOVOA,F. FERNANDO; ROSENMANN,MARIO.
La vía aérea ha sido propuesta como modelo de diseño óptimo desde una perspectiva física. Su diseño se ha asociado con un adecuado flujo de gases a los alvéolos, una mínima producción de entropía y un mínimo costo en materia y energía. Se ha propuesto un decrecimiento exponencial del diámetro de los bronquios (dG) en función de la generación: dG = do·2-G/3, asociado a una mínima producción de entropía. También se ha propuesto un modelo de renormalización: dG = An·G-u donde u es un exponente y An una función que introduce desviaciones periódicas en la escala, es decir más de una escala, evitando la propagación distal de errores aleatorios en el calibre de un bronquio. Sin embargo, este último resultado podría ser consecuencia en árboles asimétricos de la...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Optimización; Bronquios; Asimetría; Modelos.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2002000200001
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Ontogenetic changes in the fractal geometry of the bronchial tree in Rattus norvegicus Biol. Res.
CANALS,MAURICIO; OLIVARES,RICARDO; LABRA,FABIAN; NOVOA,FRANCISCO F.
Respiration and metabolism change dramatically over the course of the development of vertebrates. In mammals these changes may be ascribed to organogenesis and differentiation of structures involved in gas exchange and transport and the increase in size. Since young as well as mature individuals must be well-designed if the species is to survive, the physiological changes during the development should be matched with geometrical or structural adjustments of the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the fractal geometry of the bronchial tree during the postnatal development of the rat. The average fractal dimension of the bronchial tree of the rats was 1.587, but that of juveniles was larger than that of the adults. We found...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Bronchial tree; Fractals; Ontogeny.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602000000100010
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Symmorphosis in the proximal pathway for oxygen in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini Biol. Res.
CANALS,MAURICIO; FIGUEROA,DANIELA; SABAT,PABLO.
In this report, we explore the matching of structures to functional needs by comparing previously reported data of maximal oxygen consumption and the development of the lung in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini in warm and cold environments. We discuss whether the state of structural design is commensurate with functional needs from regulated morphogenesis as predicted by the hypothesis of symmorphosis. We found a close match between respiratory structures and functional needs during postnatal development, expressed as safety factors close to unity. However, in the adult stage the safety factors were greater than two, which suggests that adult animals acquired a structure greater than that required considering their maximum capacities. A high safety...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Metabolism; Ontogeny; Phyllotis darwini; Symmorphosis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000100009
Registros recuperados: 8
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