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Registros recuperados: 11
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Assessing the Benefits of Public Research Within an Economic Framework: The Case of USDA's Agricultural Research Service AgEcon
Heisey, Paul W.; King, John L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Bucks, Dale A.; Welsh, Rick.
Evaluation of publicly funded research can help provide accountability and prioritize programs. In addition, Federal intramural research planning generally involves an institutional assessment of the appropriate Federal role, if any, and whether the research should be left to others, such as universities or the private sector. Many methods of evaluation are available, peer review—used primarily for establishing scientific merit—being the most common. Economic analysis focuses on quantifying ultimate research outcomes, whether measured in goods with market prices or in nonmarket goods such as environmental quality or human health. However, standard economic techniques may not be amenable for evaluating some important public research priorities or for...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural Research Service; Federal intramural research; Publicly funded research; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Livestock Production/Industries; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94852
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COMPETITIVE GRANTS AND THE FUNDING OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN THE U.S. AgEcon
Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Heisey, Paul W.; Klotz-Ingram, Cassandra; Frisvold, George B..
To increase the efficiency of the public agricultural R&D system, expanded use of competitive grants to fund state institutions has been advocated. This paper characterizes different funding instruments and empirically assesses the effects of changes in mechanism use. Factors associated with greater levels of competitive grants are modeled.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21863
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Crop Genetic Resources: An Economic Appraisal AgEcon
Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Heisey, Paul W.; Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Sullivan, John; Frisvold, George B..
Crop genetic resources are the basis of agricultural production, and significant economic benefits have resulted from their conservation and use. However, crop genetic resources are largely public goods, so private incentives for genetic resource conservation may fall short of achieving public objectives. Within the U.S. germplasm system, certain crop collections lack sufficient diversity to reduce vulnerability to pests and diseases. Many such genetic resources lie outside the United States. This report examines the role of genetic resources, genetic diversity, and efforts to value genetic resources. The report also evaluates economic and institutional factors influencing the flow of genetic resources, including international agreements, and their...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Genetic resources; Genetic diversity; Germplasm; R&D; International transfer of genetic resources; In situ conservation; Ex situ conservation; Gene banks; Intellectual property.; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59388
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ECONOMIC ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AgEcon
Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Harwood, Joy L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Dunahay, Terry; Heisey, Paul W.; Hoffman, Linwood A.; Klotz-Ingram, Cassandra; Lin, William W.; Mitchell, Lorraine; McBride, William D.; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge.
Agricultural biotechnology has been advancing very rapidly, and while it presents many promises, it also poses as many questions. Many dimensions to agricultural biotechnology need to be considered to adequately inform public policy. Policy is made more difficult by the fact that agricultural biotechnology encompasses many policy issues addressed in very different ways. We have identified several key areas — agricultural research policy, industry structure, production and marketing, consumer issues, and future world food demand — where agricultural biotechnology is dramatically affecting the public policy agenda. This report focuses on the economic aspects of these issues and addresses some current and timely issues as well as longer term issues.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Economics; Adoption; Patents; Research policy; Markets; Market segmentation; Identity preservation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33735
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GOVERNMENT PATENTING AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AgEcon
Heisey, Paul W.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; King, John L..
Intellectual property rights such as patents protect new inventions from imitation and competition. Patents' major objective is to provide incentives for invention, sacrificing short-term market efficiency for long-term economic gains. Although patents are primarily granted to private firms, policy changes over the last 25 years have resulted in greater use of patenting by the public sector. This study examines government patenting behavior by analyzing case studies of patenting and licensing by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ARS uses patenting and licensing as a means of technology transfer in cases in which a technology requires additional development by a private sector partner to yield a marketable...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Patents; Licenses; Intellectual property rights; Technology transfer; Agricultural Research Service; Agricultural research and development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33597
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INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE OF GENETIC RESOURCES, THE ROLE OF INFORMATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OWNERSHIP: THE CASE OF THE U.S. NATIONAL PLANT GERMPLASM SYSTEM AgEcon
Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Smale, Melinda.
Changing perceptions of resource ownership have altered international exchange of genetic resources. After summarizing the role of genebanks and issues related to property regimes, this paper presents an empirical study of one of the largest national genebanks, the U.S. National Germplasm System. The demand for its genetic resources appears to be substantial, both domestically and internationally. Utilization rates are higher than suggested by past studies. The role of information in enhancing the usefulness of NPGS resources is explored with an econometric model that indicates that accompanying data make germplasm more useful. U.S. requestors account for most of the germplasm demanded, but developing countries appear to make greater use of these...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop genetic resources; Genebanks; Germplasm collection; Genetic resource management; Developing countries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60332
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Public Research Yields High Returns... Measured in More Than Dollars AgEcon
Heisey, Paul W.; King, John L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A..
Well-established quantitative approaches find that in the aggregate, public investments in agricultural research yield high returns and spur growth in agricultural productivity. Standard economic approaches may be difficult to apply to evaluations of some research benefits and may not help in gauging important steps necessary to positive research outcomes. In these more difficult cases, economic reasoning can provide qualitative analysis even when quantitative estimates of benefits are intractable.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121098
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Research Investments and Market Structure in the Food Processing, Agricultural Input, and Biofuel Industries Worldwide AgEcon
Fuglie, Keith O.; Heisey, Paul W.; King, John L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Schimmelpfennig, David E.; Wang, Sun Ling.
Meeting growing global demand for food, fiber, and biofuel requires robust investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) from both public and private sectors. This study examines global R&D spending by private industry in seven agricultural input sectors, food manufacturing, and biofuel and describes the changing structure of these industries. In 2007 (the latest year for which comprehensive estimates are available), the private sector spent $19.7 billion on food and agricultural research (56 percent in food manufacturing and 44 percent in agricultural input sectors) and accounted for about half of total public and private spending on food and agricultural R&D in high-income countries. In R&D related to biofuel, annual...
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural biotechnology; Agricultural chemicals; Agricultural inputs; Animal breeding; Animal health; Animal nutrition; Aquaculture; Biofuel; Concentration ratio; Crop breeding; Crop protection; Farm machinery; Fertilizers; Herfindahl index; Globalization; Market share; Market structure; Research intensity; Seed improvement; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120324
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RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN JOINT PUBLIC-PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AgEcon
Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Fuglie, Keith O..
Federal technology transfer legislation has encouraged increased collaboration between the public and private sectors, including joint research ventures known as Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs). While several economically important technologies have been developed through CRADAs, there is concern that CRADA may divert public research from its central research missions. This study compares the pattern of research resource allocation for CRADA projects at the U.S. Department of Agriculture with research priorities of public and private intramural agricultural research. The findings suggest that CRADAs have attracted considerable private co-financing of joint research projects, and may have enabled public research to concentrate...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural research; CRADA projects; Research priorities; Technology transfer; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14725
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THE DEMAND FOR CROP GENETIC RESOURCES FROM A NATIONAL COLLECTION AgEcon
Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Smale, Melinda.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16475
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THE DEMAND FOR CROP GENETIC RESOURCES: INTERNATIONAL USE OF THE U.S. NATIONAL PLANT GERMPLASM SYSTEM AgEcon
Smale, Melinda; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Zohrabian, Armineh; Hodgkin, T..
In contrast to a perception that ex situ collections of germplasm are rarely used, this empirical case study reveals large quantities of germplasm samples distributed by the U.S. National Germplasm System to many types of scientific institutions located in numerous countries around the world. Distributions favor developing countries in several ways including the numbers of samples shipped, utilization rates in crop breeding programs, and the secondary benefits brought about through sharing this germplasm with other scientists. Expected future demand is also greater among scientists in developing countries. These findings underscore the importance to global science and technology of retaining such resources in the public domain.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Developing countries; Crop genetic resources; Plant breeding; Germplasm collection; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16086
Registros recuperados: 11
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