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Registros recuperados: 9
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A controversy re-visited: Is the coccinellid Adalia bipunctata adversely affected by Bt toxins? Organic Eprints
Hilbeck, Angelika; Mc Millan, Johanna M.; Meier, Matthias; Humbel, Anna; Schläpfer-Miller, Juanita; Trtikova, Miluse.
Background: In 2008/2009, Schmidt and colleagues published a study reporting lethal effects of the microbial Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb on the coccinellid biological control organisms Adalia bipunctata. Based on this study, in concert with over 30 other publications, Mon810 cultivation was banned in Germany in 2009. This triggered two commentaries and one experimental study all published in the journal ‘Transgenic Research’ that question the scientific basis of the German ban or claim to disprove the adverse effects of the Bt toxins on A. bipunctata reported by Schmidt and colleagues, respectively. This study was undertaken to investigate the underlying reasons for the different outcomes and rebuts the criticism voiced by the two other commentaries....
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Research methodology and philosophy; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/23046/1/Hilbeck-etal-2012-EnvironSciEu-24-10-p1-12.pdf
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A framework for a European network for a systematic environmental impact assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMO) Organic Eprints
Graef, Frieder; Römbke, Jörg; Binimelis, Rosa; Myhr, Anne Ingeborg; Hilbeck, Angelika; Breckling, Boder; Dalgaard, Tommy; Stachow, Ulrich; Catacora-Vargas, Georgina; Bohn, Thomas; Quist, David; Darvas, Béla; Dudel, Gert; Oehen, Bernadette; Meyer, Hartmut; Henle, Klaus; Wynne, Brian; Metzger, Marc J.; Knäbe, Silvio; Settele, Josef; Székács, András; Wurbs, Angelika; Bernard, Jeannette; Murphy-Bokern, Donal; Buiatti, Marcello; Giovannetti, Manuela; Debeljak, Marko; Andersen, Erling; Paetz, Andreas; Dzeroski, Saso; Tappeser, Beatrix; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Wosniok, Werner; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Aslaksen, Iulie; Pesch, Roland; Maly, Stanislav; Werner, Armin.
The assessment of the impacts of growing genetically modified (GM) crops remains a major political and scientific challenge in Europe. Concerns have been raised by the evidence of adverse and unexpected environmental effects and differing opinions on the outcomes of environmental risk assessments (ERA). The current regulatory system is hampered by insufficiently developed methods for GM crop safety testing and introduction studies. Improvement to the regulatory system needs to address the lack of well designed GM crop monitoring frameworks, professional and financial conflicts of interest within the ERA research and testing community, weaknesses in consideration of stakeholder interests and specific regional conditions, and the lack of comprehensive...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/23020/1/Graef-etal-2012-BioRisk-Vol7-p73-97.pdf
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Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants - concepts and controversies Organic Eprints
Hilbeck, Angelika; Meier, Matthias; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Teichmann, Hanka; Tappeser, Beatrix.
Background and purpose: In Europe, the EU Directive 2001/18/EC lays out the main provisions of environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) organisms that are interpreted very differently by different stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to: (a) describe the current implementation of ERA of GM plants in the EU and its scientific shortcomings, (b) present an improved ERA concept through the integration of a previously developed selection procedure for identification of non-target testing organisms into the ERA framework as laid out in the EU Directive 2001/18/EC and its supplement material (Commission Decision 2002/623/EC), (c) describe the activities to be carried out in each component of the ERA and (d) propose a hierarchical...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Environmental aspects; Regulation.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/24705/1/Hilbeck-etal-2011-EnvironSciEu-23-13-p1-12.pdf
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Feeding the People: Agroecology for Nourishing the World and Transforming the Agri-Food System Organic Eprints
Herren, Hans Rudolf; Hilbeck, Angelika; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Home, Robert; Levidow, Les; Müller, Adrian; Nelson, Erin; Oehen, Bernadette; Pimbert, Michel.
Agroecology is an idea inspiring more and more people, but it means different things to different people. Altieri (1983) defined it as the application of ecological principles to agriculture. This definition of agroecology includes farmers and farmers’ knowledge, and it sees farmers as stewards of the landscape, of biodiversity and of the diversity of foods. In 2002, Altieri developed his concept further when he proposed that agroecological systems should be based on five ecological principles: 1) recycling biomass and balancing nutrient flows and availability; 2) securing favourable soil conditions for plant growth by enhancing the organic matter; 3) minimizing losses of solar radiation, water and nutrients by managing the microclimate and soil cover, and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Community development Food security; Food quality and human health Policy environments and social economy World.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/30370/1/ifoameu_policy_ffe_feedingthepeople-2015.pdf
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Post-Industrial Agriculture: Competing Proposals for the Transformation of Agiculture Organic Eprints
Hilbeck, Angelika; Oehen, Bernadette.
For many years, scientists have been sounding the alarm that the global ecosystem is in a precarious state and possibly on the verge of abrupt changes due to anthropogenic pressures.
Tipo: Report chapter Palavras-chave: Community development Food security; Food quality and human health.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/30163/1/hilbeck-oehen-2015-feeding-people-ifoamEUgroup-chapter2-p12-19pdf.pdf
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Procedure for the Implementation of the Precautionary Principle in Biosafety Commissions Organic Eprints
Ammann, Daniel; Hilbeck, Angelika; Lanzrein, Beatrice; Hübner, Philipp; Oehen, Bernadette.
In order to fulfil their responsibilities under the precautionary principle, biosafety commissions should lay down guidelines concerning the understanding and application of this principle and work towards an operational procedure. With this contribution, we propose a step-wise procedure that aims to establish the understanding of the precautionary principle within biosafety commissions and to provide a methodological approach for the application of this principle to specific cases in the course of risk assessment. This approach is based on systematically investigating the consensus view within a group of 15 biosafety experts with the help of sets of checklists. For step 1, we propose a checklist of 13 criteria aimed at defining the understanding of the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Education; Extension and communication Regulation.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/25735/1/Ammann%20et%20al%20%202007.pdf
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Ranking matrices as operational tools for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops on non-target organisms Organic Eprints
Hilbeck, Angelika; Weiss, Gabriele; Oehen, Bernadette; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Teichmann, Hanka; Lang, Andreas; Otto, Mathias; Tappeser, Beatrix.
For the operationalization of the structured, stepwise selection procedure for non-target testing organisms integrated into the new EFSA guidelines for environmental risk assessment of GM plants practicaltools – i.e. ranking matrices – were developed. These tools – some of them are new and some are refinedfrom older ones – were tested using the GM case crop of TC 1507 maize. The selection procedure consists of six steps. The strategy builds on identifying the important ecological functions for the particularcropping system and compiling a species lists according to their ecological functions and presence inthe specific receiving environments. Subsequently, the species numbers are reduced in a systematic,stepwise fashion to a relevant and practical number...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Breeding; Genetics and propagation Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/25738/6/Hilbeck%20et%20al2013.pdf
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Simulating evolutionary responses of an introgressed insect resistance trait for ecological effect assessment of transgene flow: a model for supporting informed decisionmaking in environmental risk assessment Organic Eprints
Meier, Matthias S.; Trtikova, Miluse; Suter, Matthias; Edwards, Peter J.; Hilbeck, Angelika.
Predicting outcomes of transgene flow from arable crops requires a system perspective that considers ecological and evolutionary processes within a landscape context. In Europe, the arable weed Raphanus raphanistrum is a potential hybridization partner of oilseed rape, and the two species are ecologically linked through the common herbivores Meligethes spp. Observations in Switzerland show that high densities of Meligethes beetles maintained by oilseed rape crops can lead to considerable damage on R. raphanistrum. We asked how increased insect resistance in R. raphanistrum – as might be acquired through introgression from transgenic oilseed rape – would affect seed production under natural herbivore pressure. In simulation experiments, plants protected...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Environmental aspects Regulation.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/24708/1/Meier-etal-2013-EcolEvol-3-2-p416-423.pdf
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Underlying reasons of the controversy over adverse effects of Bt toxins on lady beetle and lacewing larvae Organic Eprints
Hilbeck, Angelika; Meier, Matthias; Trtikova, Miluse.
We outline important underlying reasons that fuel the decades-long controversy over adverse effects of Bt toxins expressed in genetically modified plants on beneficial, nontarget organisms. Inconsistent evaluation standards and asymmetrical levels of scrutiny applied to studies reporting significant adverse effects compared to those finding no adverse effects are described using the examples of the green lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea) and the twospotted lady beetle (Adalia bipunctata). Additionally, the chosen style and concerted nature of the rather confrontational counter study and responses in the lady beetle cases bear striking similarities to other reported examples in the field of biosafety/risk science of genetically modified plants and to other...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Knowledge management.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/24706/1/Hilbeck-etal-2012-EnvironSciEu-24-9-p1-5.pdf
Registros recuperados: 9
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
 

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