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Registros recuperados: 8
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Calculating the Costs of Environmental Regulation AgEcon
Pizer, William A.; Kopp, Raymond J..
Decisions concerning environmental protection hinge on estimates of economic burden. Over the past 30 years, economists have developed and applied various tools to measure this burden. In this paper, developed as a chapter for the Handbook of Environmental Economics, we present a taxonomy of costs along with methods for measuring those costs. At the broadest level, we distinguish between partial and general equilibrium costs. Partial equilibrium costs represent the burden directly borne by the regulated entity (firms, households, government), including both pecuniary and nonpecuniary expenses, when prices are held constant. General equilibrium costs reflect the net burden once all good and factor markets have equilibrated. In addition to partial...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social cost; Cost-benefit; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q20; Q28; H41; L50; D58.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10762
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Cost-Benefit Analysis and Regulatory Reform: An Assessment of the Science and the Art AgEcon
Kopp, Raymond J.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Toman, Michael.
The continuing efforts in the 104th Congress to legislate requirements for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the revised Office of Management and Budget guidelines for the conduct of such assessments during a regulatory rulemaking process highlight the need for a comprehensive examination of the role that CBA can play in agency decision-making. This paper summarizes the state of knowledge regarding CBA and offers suggestions for improvement in its use, especially in the context of environmental regulations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cost-benefit; Cost-effectiveness; Risk management; Regulatory reform; Demand and Price Analysis; D6; L5.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10851
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Mock Referenda for Intergenerational Decision-making AgEcon
Kopp, Raymond J.; Portney, Paul R..
Traditional applications of benefit-cost analysis make use of what we refer to as the "damage function and discounting" (or DFD) approach. This approach is well-suited to the analysis of projects for which the principal benefits and costs occur within the next thirty to forty years, say. However, for projects with significant intergenerational consequences--i.e., impacts that do not arise for hundreds of years or more--the DFD approach becomes almost intractable. We propose an alternative conception of benefit-cost analysis for intergenerational decision-making--the mock referendum--that is: (i) arguably more consistent with the tenets of modern welfare economics; (ii) more amenable to the analysis of long-term projects or policies; and (iii) consistent...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Discounting; Non-market valuation; Intergenerational equity; Contingent valuation; Labor and Human Capital; D6; H4.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10745
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Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets AgEcon
Kopp, Raymond J..
At the present time no widely accepted temporal emissions path for greenhouse gases has been developed and adopted at either a country or a global level. What does exist is a set of near-term, country-level emissions targets associated with the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and a process for the determination of targets for subsequent commitment periods. However, the first commitment period targets specified by the protocol have been heavily criticized on the grounds that they are arbitrary and ad hoc. The purpose of this paper is to examine the conceptual foundations upon which one might base a domestic climate policy for the United States and to attempt to determine whether a near-term emissions target can indeed be derived from...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: U.S. climate policy; Greenhouse gas target; Cost-effectiveness analysis; Cost-benefit analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10818
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Referendum Design and Contingent Valuation: The NOAA Panel's No-Vote Recommendation AgEcon
Carson, Richard T.; Hanemann, W. Michael; Kopp, Raymond J.; Krosnick, Jon A.; Mitchell, Robert C.; Presser, Stanley; Ruud, Paul A.; Smith, V. Kerry; Conaway, Michael; Martin, Kerry.
In 1992 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened a panel of prominent social scientists to assess the reliability of natural resource damage estimates derived from contingent valuation (CV). The product of the Panel's deliberations was a report that laid out a set of recommended guidelines for CV survey design, administration, and data analysis. One of the Panel's recommendations was that CV surveys should employ a referendum approach. This method describes a choice mechanism that asks each respondent how they would vote if faced with a particular program and the prospect of paying for the program through some means, such as higher taxes. The Panel also recommended that CV referendum questions which commonly use only "for" or...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Contingent valuation; Natural resource damages; Passive use; Exxon Valdez; Reliability; Environmental Economics and Policy; D60; D61; K32; Q28.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10865
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Technology Adoption and Aggregate Energy Efficiency AgEcon
Pizer, William A.; Harrington, Winston; Kopp, Raymond J.; Morgenstern, Richard D.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
Improved technology is often cited as a means to alter the otherwise difficult trade-off between the economic burden of regulation and environmental damage. Focusing on energy-saving technologies that mitigate the threat of climate change, we find that both energy prices and financial health influence technology adoption among a sample of industrial plants in four heavily polluting sectors. Based on a model linking technology adoption to growth in aggregate efficiency, we estimate that a doubling of energy prices, after raising the growth rate to 2.1%, would require slightly more than 50 years to generate a 50% improvement in aggregate efficiency relative to the baseline forecast.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy efficiency; Endogenous technological change; Technology adoption; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O31; O38; Q43; Q48.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10616
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Temporal Reliability of Estimates from Contingent Valuation AgEcon
Carson, Richard T.; Hanemann, W. Michael; Kopp, Raymond J.; Krosnick, Jon A.; Mitchell, Robert C.; Presser, Stanley; Ruud, Paul A.; Smith, V. Kerry.
In 1992 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened a panel of prominent social scientists to assess the reliability of natural resource damage estimates derived from contingent valuation (CV). The product of the panel's deliberations was a report that laid out a set of recommended guidelines for CV survey design, administration, and data analysis. This paper focuses on one of these guidelines -- the Panel's call for the "temporal averaging" of willingness-to-pay (WTP) responses obtained from CV surveys as one method for increasing their reliability. The panel suggested: "Time dependent measurement noise should be reduced by averaging across independently drawn samples taken at different points in time. A clear and substantial time...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Contingent valuation; Natural resource damages; Passive use; Exxon Valdez; Reliability; Environmental Economics and Policy; D60; D61; K32; Q28.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10580
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Was the NOAA Panel Correct about Contingent Valuation? AgEcon
Carson, Richard T.; Hanemann, W. Michael; Kopp, Raymond J.; Krosnick, Jon A.; Mitchell, Robert C.; Presser, Stanley; Ruud, Paul A.; Smith, V. Kerry; Conaway, Michael; Martin, Kerry.
The past few years have seen a highly charged debate about whether contingent valuation (CV) surveys can provide valid economic measures of people's values for environmental resources. In an effort to appraise the validity of CV measures of economic value, a distinguished panel of social scientists, chaired by two Nobel laureates, was established by NOAA, to critically evaluate the validity of CV measures of nonuse value. The Panel provided an extensive set of guidelines for CV survey construction, administration, and analysis, and distinguished a subset of items from their guidelines for special emphasis and described them as burden of proof requirements. Of particular interest was the Panel's requirement that CV surveys demonstrate "responsiveness to the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Contingent valuation; Scope test; NOAA Panel; Environmental Economics and Policy; D6; H4.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10503
Registros recuperados: 8
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