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Registros recuperados: 24
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
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Biogas aus Festmist – eine neue Technologie zu Schließung des Nährstoff- und Energiekreislaufes auf dem landwirtschaftlichen Betrieb Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Evers, Lars; Lehto, Marja; Sorvala, Sanna; Teye, Frederick; Granstedt, Artur.
The Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna developed at the farm Yttereneby a two phase biogas plant. The plant digests manure of dairy cattle and organic residues originating from the farm and the surrounding food processing units containing 17,7 - 19,6 % dry matter. A new technology for continuously filling and discharging the biogas reactor was developed and implemented. Digestion residues are separated into a solid fraction for composting and into a liquid fraction. The solid fraction is suitable for aerobic composting. Initial results show that anaerobic digestion and following aerobic composting of the solid fraction improves the nitrogen balance of the farm compared to mere aerobic composting. Composted biogas plant residues and effluent together...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general Dairy cattle Recycling; Balancing and resource management Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/3459/1/3459.pdf
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Biogas on-farm: energy and material flow Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Objectives: European countries are committed to reduce CO2 emission originating from fossil fuels. On-farm produced biogas may replace energy produced from fossil fuels and so contribute to achieve the target. Up to now only in Germany a greater number of on-farm biogas plants has been established. The data of these plants can be used to evaluate cost and benefit of on-farm biogas production in other European countries. This paper concerns the following questions: Which parameters of biogas plant construction and operation have an influence on profit and sustainability of biogas production on-farm? Hypothesis: A biogas plant integrated within a self-contained farm organism is economically more competitive and more sustainable than an industrial...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Buildings and machinery Greenhouses and coverings Farm economics Recycling; Balancing and resource management.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/1299/1/Schaefer_2003_Biogas_on%2Dfarm.pdf
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Biogas plant in Järna Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Granstedt, Artur; Evers, Lars.
The Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna developed an on-farm biogas plant integrated within the highly self-supporting farm organism, Skilleby-Yttereneby, one of the farms studied in the BERAS project. The biogas plant digests dairy cattle manure and organic residues originating from the farm and the surrounding food processing units.
Tipo: Report chapter Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects; Animal husbandry.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/7041/1/ekolantbruk46.pdf
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Dry anaerobic digestion of organic residues on-farm - a feasibility study Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Lehto, Marja; Teye, Frederick.
Objectives The feasibility study shall answer the following questions: Are there economical and ecological advantages of on-farm dry digestion biogas plants? How the construction and operation parameters of a dry digestion biogas plant influence environment, profit, and sustainability of on-farm biogas production? The aim of the feasibility study is to provide facts and figures for decision makers in Finland to support the development of the economically and environmentally most promising biogas technology on-farm. The results may encourage on-farm biogas plant manufacturers to develop and market dry anaerobic digestion technology as a complementary technology. This technology may be a competitive alternative for farms using a dry manure chain or even...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm nutrient management; Buildings and machinery; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/6590/1/MET77.pdf
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Energy crops and renewable energy: overall and process efficiency Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Here are compared efficiencies of energy crops with technical alternatives of renewable energy production. Production of rape as energy crop is presented.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Post harvest management and techniques.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/10630/1/fnytt406_11%2D13.pdf
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Energy efficiency of fossil and renewable fuels Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Assessment results of renewable energy supply in agriculture and forestry are often questionable because 1. the methodology does not describe the nature dependent conditions of agricultural production, 2. there is no standard system boundary, 3. thermodynamic laws are violated and/or ignored, 4. direct and embodied energy is mixed, 5. the mainstream life cycle analysis (LCA) takes downstream and upstream inputs arbitrarily into consideration, depending on the research objectives and the research-funding agency. Thus, the calculation results neglect a wide range of specific energy input figures of upstream and downstream factors outside farm level resulting in non-comparable figures. The EROI describes the ratio between energy output and...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2016
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Entropy of energy crops and GHG mitigation Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
The photosynthesis process generates beside carbon hydrates also complex chemical compounds. The artificial synthesis of such compounds is often impossible or may require high energy input compared to their heat value. In other words, the entropy of energy crops is low compared to fossil fuels. This fact is usually neglected in energy analysis of bio fuels resulting in questionable political decisions concerning renewable energy. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the GHG mitigation potential of e.g. fibre crops may be enhanced using them first as raw material for commercial products before processing to fuel at the end of their lifetime. For example, reed canary grass may be used for paper production and after recycling, the used paper can...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Technology assessment; Crop husbandry; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19458/1/Entropy_of_energy_crops_and_GHG_mitigation_s.pdf
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Fibre crops for energy production and energy saving Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
The photosynthesis process generates beside carbon hydrates also complex chemical compounds. The artificial synthesis of such compounds is often impossible or may require high energy input compared with their heating value. In other words, the entropy of energy crops is low compared with that of fossil fuels. This fact is usually neglected in energy analysis of bio fuels resulting in questionable political decisions concerning renewable energy. This paper demonstrates that the energy saving and the GHG mitigation potential of fibre crops may be enhanced using them first used as raw material for commercial products before processing to fuel at the end of their lifetime. For example reed canary grass may be used for paper production and after recycling the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Technology assessment Recycling; Balancing and resource management Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/21040/1/Fibre_crops_Jelgava_2012_s.pdf
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Idea and practice of inclusive farming Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Inclusive farming (INCLUFAR) - Transfer of concepts, experiences, skills, and training tools for social farming and eco-social inclusion is an innovation transfer project within the Lifelong Learning Leonardo da Vinci funding scheme of the EU. The results were gathered during the project period from October 2013 until September 2015.Why INCLUFAR? First, Finland signed the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and is presently adjusting the legislation accordingly. Second, the results of the public consultation on the review of the EU-policy on organic agriculture conducted by the directorate general for agriculture and rural development in 2013 shows that economic and social dimension have the highest priority.Third, social farming and...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Social aspects; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Landscape and recreation; Quality and evaluation of inputs.
Ano: 2016
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INCLUFAR – INCLUSIVE FARMING – A NEW EDUCATIONAL APPROACH IN SOCIAL FARMING Organic Eprints
van Elsen, Thomas; Herz, Gerhard; Ehlers, Hartwig; Schäfer, Winfried; Merckens, Klaus.
"Social farming" and “Green Care” are being developed throughout Europe: farms which put the "multifunctionality" demanded by the policy makers into practice, contributing to the creation of jobs in rural areas through the creation of social services. The team of authors has applied successfully to run the project “Inclusive farming – transfer of concepts, experiences, skills and training tools for Social Farming and eco-social inclusion” within the “Leonardo da Vinci - Transfer of Innovation” scheme. Based on the experiences above and two 3-years curricula (FAMIT and BALTIC seminar) a participatory transfer to “importing countries” in Eastern and Southern European countries is planned.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Social aspects Education; Extension and communication.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/24071/1/24071%20paper_ISOFAR_final_new_MM.pdf
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Lebensmittel und Energiepflanzen aus biologischem Anbau - unerwünschte oder nachhaltige Möglichkeiten? Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Crop production is a conversion process of sun energy into biomass. Consequently, both the cultivation area and the insolation stroking this area limit the agroenergy output of the globe. Cultivation measures support the photosynthetic conversion process. Although organic cultivation measures require less energy than mainstream agriculture, the overall efficiency remains below 1%. Nevertheless, agroenergy production is captivating with many win-win situations: environmentally neutral bio-fuels replace polluting fossil fuels, farmers get better prices for energy crops, and turnover of power industry grows due to increasing energy consumption to process biomass into fuel. As a following, the state tax income improves too. However, better prices for energy...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects Indicators and other value-laden measures Farm nutrient management Buildings and machinery Recycling; Balancing and resource management Technology assessment.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/15430/1/Sch%C3%A4fer_Lednice.pdf
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LIVING ON FARM – A NEW APPROACH OF COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE (CSA) Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
The development of living on farm is described from an agricultural engineer's point of view focussing on opportunities for elderly in Finland. There are three main groups: Anthroposophical social farms, farms governed by a strict ecological philosophy of life, and farms looking for diversifi­cation concerning ecology, business and on-farm living communities. However, the boundaries between these groups are fluid. The farms may create additional income by offering accommodation, janitorial and transport services, basic and other services to people, who want to live on the farm. Thus, the traditional target of community supported farms - processing and selling the farm products to a community of customers - is considerably extended. In the long run, the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Recycling; Balancing and resource management Social aspects Education; Extension and communication Landscape and recreation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23601/1/63601%20Sch%C3%A4fer%20Living%20on%20farm.pdf
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Methodical Problems in Organic Farming Research Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Workshop presentation with particular focus on values, transferability and praxis relevance of organic farming research. Examples from agricultural engineering lead to the conclusion, that prototype farming, goal oriented project management, participative decision making and funding, coaching of co-operation, and coaching of conflict management may enhance long term, holistic and interdisciplinary research.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Research methodology and philosophy; Indicators and other value-laden measures; Systems research and participatory research; Specific methods.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/4559/1/Seminar_12%2D12%2D02.pdf
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Nutrient balance of a two-phase solid manure biogas plant Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Evers, Lars; Lehto, Marja; Sorvala, Sanna; Teye, Frederick; Granstedt, Artur.
So called "dry fermentation" prototype plants for anaerobic digestion of organic material containing 15-50 % total solids show added advantages compared to slurry digestion plants (Hoffman 2001): Less reactor volume, less process energy, less transport capacity, less odour emissions. However on-farm dry fermentation plants are not common and rarely commercially available. Recent on-farm research (Kusch & Oechsner 2004) and prototype research (Linke 2004) show promising technical solutions for dry fermentation batch reactors on-farm. The Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna developed a two-phase on-farm biogas plant. The plant digests manure of dairy cattle and organic residues originating from the farm and the surrounding food processing units...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farm nutrient management; Buildings and machinery; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/6542/1/nj372.pdf
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Solid compost from biogas plant digestion residues - a new product Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Lehto, Marja.
Here is presented the nitrogen content of dairy cattle solid manure treated anaerobically and aerobically.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/10631/1/fnytt306.pdf
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Spelt - a pilot crop to strengthen co-operation between farmers, food processors, distributors and consumers Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
In the beginning of the 1990's, spelt cultivation in Finland was rather unknown. First cultivation experiments at the organic research farm of MTT/Agricultural Engineering Research (Vakola) were done in co-operation with some farmers since 1993. Many farmers showed interest in cultivating spelt because of curiosity about crops suitable for organic farming, competition leadership by marketing new niche products, and consumers demand for healthy and high quality food produced pro-environmentally. Constraints like lack of certified organic seeds, missing national legislation for propagation of spelt seeds, unsuitable drilling machines, inappropriate dehusking machinery, and lack of marketing infrastructure are compensated by a wide product range made of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Markets and trade Community development Processing; Packaging and transportation Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://orgprints.org/618/1/NJF%2DSeminar_327_Copenhagen_6%2D3%2D2002.PDF
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Sustainability, overall and process efficiency of energy crops Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
A method to calculate efficiency of energy crop production including sun energy, direct and indirect energy for cultivation, processing, and conversion into fuel is demonstrated using rape and derived fuels as an example. Every production and conversion step is a process and calculated separately. The overall efficiency includes energy input and output of all processes. The process efficiency of rape cultivation reaches in Finland up to 1100 %. However, the overall energy efficiency of rape methyl ester (RME) is 1 to 2 ‰ only. The production of biogas from manure of dairy fed by rape meal results in a process energy efficiency of 33 to 41 %, but the overall energy efficiency of RME and biogas together is only 1.2 to 2.5 ‰. In contrast, thermal or...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Recycling; Balancing and resource management.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/15164/1/ECOMIT_Sch%C3%A4fer_2008.pdf
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Technique of green mulch spreading Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried; Väisänen, Jaana; Pihala, Marjo.
Finland’s policy of subsidising the conversion to organic production precipitated the rapid growth of organic farming in the 1990’s. As a consequence, many stockless farms encountered the problems of nitrogen deficit, poor grain quality, and weed control. Since the spreading of green mulch on cash crops is very common especially in tropical agriculture, organic fertilisers like green mulch may be an alternative that would compensate for the prohibition on the use of mineral N-fertilisers. However, one problem is that presently there is no appropriate technique available to substitute for the strenuous handwork of spreading green mulch. The main subject of this research report is the technique of green mulch spreading. Between 1994 and 1997, a green...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://orgprints.org/608/1/tukimusselostus79.pdf
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Technique of pneumatic pest control Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Objectives: Pest control in organic production of berries, potatoes and vegetables usually employs spreading technique of registered phytopharmaceutical agents. This technique may be supported or even replaced by pneumatic pest control. Up to now there is no evaluation of pneumatic pest control available from agricultural engineering point of view. This paper concerns the following questions: Which techniques of pneumatic pest control are available and how may these techniques be improved in terms of technical and physical parameters? Hypothesis: Analysis of pneumatic pest control techniques supports improvement of present available implements. Method: Literature review, process analysis, and evaluation in respect of agricultural engineering parameters...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/880/1/Pneumatic_pest_control.PDF
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Technique of pneumatic pest control – analyses and a new device Organic Eprints
Schäfer, Winfried.
Pest control in organic production of berries, potatoes and vegetables usually employs spreading technique of registered phytopharmaceutical agents. This technique may be supported or even replaced by pneumatic pest control. Pneumatic pest control means suction of pest using a vacuum device similar to a home vacuum cleaner. Up to now there is no evaluation of pneumatic pest control available from an agricultural engineering point of view. This paper concerns the following questions: Which techniques of pneumatic pest control are available and how may these techniques be improved in terms of technical and physical parameters? Based on the answers a new device design is presented.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/4667/1/4667.pdf
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