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Autonomic control of cardiorespiratory interactions in fish, amphibians and reptiles BJMBR
Taylor,E.W.; Leite,C.A.C.; Skovgaard,N..
Control of the heart rate and cardiorespiratory interactions (CRI) is predominantly parasympathetic in all jawed vertebrates, with the sympathetic nervous system having some influence in tetrapods. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been described as a solely mammalian phenomenon but respiration-related beat-to-beat control of the heart has been described in fish and reptiles. Though they are both important, the relative roles of feed-forward central control and peripheral reflexes in generating CRI vary between groups of fishes and probably between other vertebrates. CRI may relate to two locations for the vagal preganglionic neurons (VPN) and in particular cardiac VPN in the brainstem. This has been described in representatives from all vertebrate...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cardiorespiratory interactions; Autonomic nervous system; Cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons; Central interactions; Peripheral reflex control; Non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic (NANC) control of heart rate.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2010000700001
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Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and reptiles BJMBR
Taylor,E.W.; Leite,C.A.C.; McKenzie,D.J.; Wang,T..
Fish and amphibians utilise a suction/force pump to ventilate gills or lungs, with the respiratory muscles innervated by cranial nerves, while reptiles have a thoracic, aspiratory pump innervated by spinal nerves. However, fish can recruit a hypobranchial pump for active jaw occlusion during hypoxia, using feeding muscles innervated by anterior spinal nerves. This same pump is used to ventilate the air-breathing organ in air-breathing fishes. Some reptiles retain a buccal force pump for use during hypoxia or exercise. All vertebrates have respiratory rhythm generators (RRG) located in the brainstem. In cyclostomes and possibly jawed fishes, this may comprise elements of the trigeminal nucleus, though in the latter group RRG neurons have been located in the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Vertebrates; Control of respiration; Respiratory rhythm generation; Water and air breathing; Chemoreceptors; Mechanoreceptors.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2010000500001
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