Sabiia Seb
PortuguêsEspañolEnglish
Embrapa
        Busca avançada

Botão Atualizar


Botão Atualizar

Ordenar por: RelevânciaAutorTítuloAnoImprime registros no formato resumido
Registros recuperados: 49
Primeira ... 123 ... Última
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
A Typology for Vulnerability and Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Rockmore, Marc; Chamberlin, Jordan.
This paper considers vulnerability reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from a more aggregated macro viewpoint. We focus on risk related to agriculture, since vulnerability and agriculture are intimately linked in SSA due to the location of the poor, their dependence on agriculture and the inherent risks of an agricultural livelihood. We argue that agricultural growth is one of the most effective means for improving permanent incomes and reducing vulnerability. However, agriculture is not homogeneous, and the inherent risks vary across countries and regions. Therefore, we also discuss appropriate investment strategies and policy instruments for different sets of risks.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Agriculture; Vulnerability; Typology; International Development.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42365
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Are India’s Gender Imbalances Inducing Higher Household Savings? AgEcon
Chiu, Alice; Headey, Derek D.; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61640
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Asymmetric property rights in China's economic growth AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo.
This paper highlights the difference between secure investor property rights and loosely defined individual property rights. Globalization and fiscal decentralization have intensified this difference. On the one hand, in the presence of mobile foreign direct investments and under the arrangement of fiscal decentralization, local governments compete vigorously to offer various protections on the property rights of investors; on the other hand, local governments and developers attempt to acquire land at as low price as possible by taking advantage of the loopholes inherent in the Chinese law. Secure investor property rights together with weak protections on individuals’ land property rights is argued to be one of the major drivers of China’s rapid economic...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Property rights; Investments; Economic growth; China; Individual land property; Fiscal policies; Decentralization; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55406
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Blood for Social Status: Preliminary Evidence from Rural China AgEcon
Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Xi Chen acknowledges generous Doctoral Research Grant from the Institute for the Social Sciences at Cornell University and precious data set provided by the Development Strategy and Governance Division at IFPRI. Conference Travel Grant provided by the Department of Applied Economics and Management at Cornell is also acknowledged. We are grateful to Ravi Kanbur for invaluable comments, guidance and encouragement. This paper also benefited from helpful discussion and invaluable comments from Robert Frank, David Sahn, Marc Rockmore, and seminar participants in the Department of Economics at Cornell. Due to time limit, I have not incorporated all helpful comments and suggestions in this early draft paper. The views expressed herein and any remaining errors...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Blood Donation; Social Status; Poverty; Inequality; Relative Deprivation; Rural China; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Production Economics; Public Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Risk and Uncertainty; I32; J22; D13; D63.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49411
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
BLUNT TO SHARPENED RAZOR: INCREMENTAL REFORM AND DISTORTIONS IN THE PRODUCT AND CAPITAL MARKETS IN CHINA AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Tan, Kong-Yam.
A key objective of China's reform program was to reduce distortions in the economic system and enhance growth. However, when implemented in incremental and partial ways, local governments or individuals have chance to capture rents inherent in the reform process. Young (2000) warned that the rent-seeking behavior might lead to increasing market fragmentation. Empirical studies have since shown that this did not happen in the product markets. In this paper we argue that as rents from the product markets were squeezed out during the reform process, rent-seeking behavior shifted to the factor markets, especially the capital and land markets. The reform process now needs to be deepened to ensure that the factor markets also become more integrated and efficient.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Reform; China; Rent Seeking; Factor and Product Market; Transition; International Development; D33; D61; D63; O11; O53; P23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60183
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
China's Growth Strategies AgEcon
Headey, Derek D.; Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51156
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
China’s Regional Disparities: Experience and Policy AgEcon
Fan, Shenggen; Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57041
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Clustering as a Way to Lower Capital Barriers: The Case of the Cashmere Sweater Cluster in Zhejiang AgEcon
Ruan, Jianqing; Wei, Longbao; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Understanding how small enterprises overcome capital barriers is the key to understanding China's rapid development. The literature traditionally emphasizes the development of financial market to raise small amount of loan. By studying the division of labor in the cashmere sweater cluster in Puyuan and the cash flow in the course of daily operation, this paper, argues instead that industry clusters lower capital entry access through the division of labor; various entities in the cluster obtain the capital required for daily operation by taking advantage of individual social capital and endogenous capital in the cluster.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25280
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Comparing the evolution of spatial inequality in China and India: a fifty-year perspective AgEcon
Gajwani, Kiran; Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
In the second half of the last century, both India and China have undergone major transitions and have moved to more liberalized economies. This paper relates the observed patterns in regional inequality to major events during this period. Because of China’s institutional barriers to migration, regional inequality is much higher than in India. Also, China’s decentralization and opening up are closely related to the observed regional inequality - particularly the inland-coastal disparity - since the reform period. From the Green Revolution age to the period of economic liberalization in India, the evolution of regional comparative advantage has shifted from the quality of land to the level of human capital as India integrates with the international market....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Liberalized economics; Regional inequality; Migration; Decentralization; Green revolution; Economic conditions; International economic relations; Human capital; Spatial inequality; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55409
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Costly Posturing: Relative Status, Ceremonies and Early Child Development AgEcon
Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Though social spending facilitates risk‐pooling in the impoverished regions, too many resources devoted to social occasions may impose negative externalities and hinder efforts to alleviate poverty for households living close to subsistence. Conducting three waves census‐type panel survey in rural western China with well‐defined reference groups and detailed information on social occasions, gift exchanges, nutrients intake and health outcomes, we find that the squeeze effect originated from lavish ceremonies is associated with lower height‐for‐age zscore, higher probability of stunting and underweight in early child development. The lasting impact suggests that “catch up” is limited. The squeeze is stronger for the fetal period and towards the lower tail...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Relative Status; Squeeze Effect; Nutrients Intake; Stunting; Underweight; Gender; Agribusiness; D13; I32; O15.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115517
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Credit Constraints, Organizational Choice, and Returns to Capital: Evidence from a Rural Industrial Cluster in China AgEcon
Ruan, Jianqing; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Traditional economic theory posits that a well functioning capital market is a necessary condition for industrialization and economic growth. However, in reality it is observed that micro and small enterprises are ubiquitous because entrepreneurs can set up business in low-return activities with minimal barriers to entry. Using a cashmere sweater cluster in China as an example, this paper shows that organizational choice can overcome the prohibitive cost of investment. Facing credit constraints, firms are more likely to concentrate in divisible production technologies in the form of industrial clusters. With clusters, a vertically integrated production process can be decomposed into many small incremental stages, making them more accessible for small...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cluster; Putting-out; Subcontract; Industrialization; Entrepreneurship; China; Industrial Organization; International Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50334
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
CROSS-COUNTRY TYPOLOGIES AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES TO END HUNGER IN AFRICA AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Johnson, Michael; Resnick, Danielle; Robinson, Sherman.
A key motivation behind this study is to explore the many patterns of interactions between economic and non-economic factors in sub-Saharan Africa (hereafter referred to as Africa) in order to map out a typology of different types of country situations and thus, corresponding future options to develop strategies to end hunger and poverty in the region. The study builds on the earlier work of Irma Adelman and Cynthia Morris who argued that economic development is a dynamic, multi-faceted, nonlinear, and malleable process, a process explained by the many complex interactions between social, economic, political and institutional changes. As in Adelman and Morris, we use factor analysis to reduce a large number of variables into a manageable set of key...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; International Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60175
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
DOES GUANXI MATTER TO NONFARM EMPLOYMENT? AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Guo.
Because land is scarce, farmers in China increasingly have to rely on nonfarm activities to enhance their incomes. The functioning of rural nonfarm labor markets is therefore crucial in determining who has access to nonfarm employment. Previous studies have identified human capital as a key factor determining the selection of workers in the rural nonfarm economy. Using a detailed household survey of northern and northeastern China, this paper shows that guanxi (social networks), has also played an important role. With limited nonfarm job opportunities and poor market information, farmers with better social contacts are more likely to obtain nonfarm jobs. Moreover, guanxi has a larger effect on the nonfarm employment opportunities of male workers than...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farming; China; Nonfarm; Guanx; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16076
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC GOODS DEPENDENCY AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Fan, Shenggen.
Few studies have systematically documented the interdependency among different types of public goods and their impact on economic development. This papers aims to develop a methodological framework to evaluate the degree of interdependency and identify the weakest link of public goods provisions and empirically applies it to Uganda.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21959
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Estimating Crop-Specific Production Technologies in Chinese Agriculture: A Generalized Maximum Entropy Approach AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Fan, Shenggen.
"September 1999". Includes bibliographical references (p. 31-33). Published as: Zhang, Xiabo; Fan, Shenggen. 2001. Estimating crop-specific production technologies in Chinese agriculture: a generalized maximum entropy approach. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 83(2): 378-388.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technology; Crops--China; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97508
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
FIFTY YEARS OF REGIONAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA: A JOURNEY THROUGH REVOLUTION, REFORM AND OPENNESS AgEcon
Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
This paper constructs and analyses a long run time series for regional inequality in China from the Communist Revolution to the present. There have been three peaks of inequality in the last fifty years, coinciding with the Great Famine of the late 1950s, the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s and 1970s, and finally the period of openness and global integration in the late 1990s. Econometric analysis establishes that regional inequality is explained in the different phases by three key variables--the ratio of heavy industry to gross output value, the degree of centralization, and the degree of openness.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Inequality; Polarisation; Decentralization; Industrialization; Openness; Globalization; Chinese economy; Political Economy; D63; 018; P27.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7236
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Finance and Cluster-Based Industrial Development in China AgEcon
Ruan, Jianqing; Zhang, Xiaobo.
The traditional literature emphasizes the causal role of finance in promoting industrial growth. China’s rapid industrialization over the past several decades, which has occurred in the absence of well-functioning financial markets, seems to defy the conventional wisdom. By studying a cashmere sweater cluster in China, this paper argues that rural industrial clustering, as a new business model, lowers the entry barriers of initial capital investment through the division of labor. Within these clusters, enterprises can often acquire trade credits from upstream or downstream firms and obtain informal financing from friends and relatives, and use these funds to mitigate constraints of working capital. These findings help explain China’s rapid...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Industrialization; Cluster; Finance; China; Growth; Financial Economics; International Development.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42322
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Fiscal Decentralization and Political Centralization in China: Implications for Regional Inequality AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo.
Published as Zhang, Xiaobo. 2006. Fiscal decentralization and political centralization in China: implications for regional inequality. Journal of Comparative Economics.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Nonfarm sector; Regional economics; Inequality; Political Economy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58385
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Gender Difference in the Long-Term Impact of Famine AgEcon
Mu, Ren; Zhang, Xiaobo.
An increasing literature examines the association between restricted fetal or early childhood growth and the incidence of diseases in adulthood. Little is known, however, about gender difference in this association. We assess the impact of nutritional deficiency in the early lives of survivors of the Chinese Great Famine in terms of health and economic welfare, paying special attention to gender differences. We found evidence of several significant negative impacts for female--but not male--survivors, and the gender differences are statistically significant. Furthermore, we show that the selection bias caused by differences in mortality plausibly explains more than two-thirds of the documented gender difference in the long-term health of famine survivors.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Famine; Fetal origins hypothesis; Gender difference; China; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42331
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
GROWTH AND POVERTY IN RURAL CHINA: THE ROLE OF PUBLIC INVESTMENTS AgEcon
Fan, Shenggen; Zhang, Linxiu; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Public investment, together with institutional and policy reforms, has contributed substantially to rapid economic growth in rural China since the late 1970s. This rapid growth has also led to dramatic reductions in rural poverty. In this study we use a simultaneous equations model and time-series (1978-97), cross-sectional (25 provinces) data to analyze the differential impact of different types of public investments on growth and poverty reduction in rural China. The results show that government expenditures on education have by far the largest impact on poverty reduction, and the second largest impact on production growth; it is a dominant “win-win” strategy. Government spending on agricultural research and extension has the largest impact on...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Public Economics.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16115
Registros recuperados: 49
Primeira ... 123 ... Última
 

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa
Todos os direitos reservados, conforme Lei n° 9.610
Política de Privacidade
Área restrita

Embrapa
Parque Estação Biológica - PqEB s/n°
Brasília, DF - Brasil - CEP 70770-901
Fone: (61) 3448-4433 - Fax: (61) 3448-4890 / 3448-4891 SAC: https://www.embrapa.br/fale-conosco

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional