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Registros recuperados: 71
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A genetic variant in microRNA-146a is associated with sporadic breast cancer in a Southern Brazilian Population Genet. Mol. Biol.
Brincas,Heloisa Magagnin; Augusto,Danillo G.; Mathias,Carolina; Cavalli,Iglenir João; Lima,Rubens Silveira de; Kuroda,Flávia; Urban,Cícero de Andrade; Gradia,Daniela Fiori; de Oliveira,Jaqueline; de Almeida,Rodrigo Coutinho; Ribeiro,Enilze Maria de Souza Fonseca.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in gene expression and affect the development of tumours, including breast cancer (BC). Polymorphisms in miRNA genes can affect the interaction of miRNAs with their target messenger RNA by interfering, creating or disrupting target sites. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2910164, located in the seed region of miR146a, was shown to be associated with BC among different populations. In the present study, we investigated whether rs2910164 is associated with BC in 326 patients and 411 controls from a Brazilian population of predominantly European ancestry. The presence of the allele rs2910164*C was associated with an increased risk of BC (OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.03-1.85, p = 0.03). We also analysed publicly...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: MiRNA polymorphism; MiR146a; Rs2910164; Breast cancer; Case-control study.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572019000500103
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Antiangiogenic VEGF165b Expression in Human Breast MCF-7 and MCF-10A Cells Exposed to Reverse Transcriptase and Protease Inhibitors International Journal of Morphology
Adefolaju,Gbenga Anthony; Scholtz,Kathrine Elizabeth; Hosie,Margot Jill.
The combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), a multidrug combination regimen, usually consisting Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, non- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Protease Inhibitors has altered the morbidity pattern affecting HIV-infected individuals to include non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADMs). The speculation is rife; does cART induce or promote the progression of nADMs such as breast cancer? This study was therefore designed to investigate of the effects of some antiretroviral drugs (at clinically relevant concentrations) on the expression of anti-angiogenic gene; VEGF165b in two human breast cell lines; MCF-7 and MCF-10A by Real Time qPCR and immuno-fluorescence. All of the antiretroviral drugs and combinations...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; Protease Inhibitors; VEGF165b; Breast cancer; MCF-7; MCF-10A.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022017000100024
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Anticancer potential of nanogold conjugated toxin GNP-NN-32 from Naja naja venom J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Attarde,Saurabh S.; Pandit,Sangeeta V..
Abstract Background: Cancer is the second most common fatal disease in the world, behind cardiovascular disorders in the first place. It accounts for around 0.3 million deaths per year in India due to the lack of proper diagnostic facilities, prevention and treatment. Current therapeutic methods do not provide adequate protection and affect normal cells along with cancerous ones. Thus, there is a need for some alternative therapeutic strategy, preferably from natural products, which have been traditionally used for treatment of various diseases in the country. Methods: In this study, we have conjugated purified NN-32 toxin from Naja naja venom with gold nanoparticles and its anticancer potential was evaluated against human breast cancer cell lines....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: GNP-NN-32; Anticancer; Toxin; Naja naja; Venom; Breast cancer; MCF-7; MDA-MB-231.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992020000100304
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Apoptosis as a prognostic marker in canine mammary tumors by TUNEL Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci.
Pereira,Kariny Sanches; Zuccari,Débora Aparecida Pires de Campos; Cury,Patrícia Maluf; Cordeiro,José Antônio.
Apoptosis plays an important role in oncogenesis determining tumor growth and aggressiveness. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between apoptosis, diagnosis and prognosis in canine mammary tumors. Thirty bitches were submitted to tumor extirpation and a method of labeling apoptotic cells, that labels DNA fragments, by terminal deoxynucleotidyl-tranferase (TdT) mediated by 5' deoxy-uridine-triphosphate (dUTP) nick and labeling (TUNEL) was used. The apoptotic cells were counted in ten high power fields (10HPF). Statistical results showed that when there are more than 30 apoptotic cells/10HPF the prognosis is worse (p= 0,0005). Thus suggesting that apoptosis can be used as a prognostic marker in canine breast tumors.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Apoptosis; Prognosis; Breast cancer; Bitch.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-95962003000500007
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Assessment of changes in the brca2 and p53 genes in breast invasive ductal carcinoma in northeast Brazil Biol. Res.
Ramalho,Eduardo AVF; Silva-Filho,João LQ; Cartaxo,Marina FS; Cavalcanti,Carmelita BL; Rêgo,Moacyr JBM; Oliveira,Maria BM; Beltrão,Eduardo IC.
BACKGROUND: BRCA protein interacts with at least 13 different proteins that have been implicated with cancer susceptibility and loss of BRCA function is correlated to sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents in preclinical models. RESULTS: BRCA2 methylation frequency was 44%, p53 Pro22 allele frequency was 32% and heterozygous frequency of Arg/Pro72 genotype was 60% which could be associated as risk factor for metastasis (p = 0.046 OR = 4.190). Regarding to polymorphism of codon 249 the frequency of Arg249 allele presented 82% which was considered not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There was not statistical significance to BRCA2 promoter methylation with any parameters chosen. However, our findings suggest that patients who present heterozygous...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Breast cancer; Epigenetics; Metastasis; Methylation; Polymorphism.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602014000100003
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Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer Biol. Res.
Akram,Muhammad; Iqbal,Mehwish; Daniyal,Muhammad; Khan,Asmat Ullah.
Abstract Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Breast cancer; Chemotherapy; Gene therapy; Stem cell therapy.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602017000100504
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BRCA1 and BRCA2 rearrangements in Brazilian individuals with Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome Genet. Mol. Biol.
Ewald,Ingrid Petroni; Cossio,Silvia Liliana; Palmero,Edenir Inez; Pinheiro,Manuela; Nascimento,Ivana Lucia de Oliveira; Machado,Taisa Manuela Bonfim; Sandes,Kiyoko Abe; Toralles,Betânia; Garicochea,Bernardo; Izetti,Patricia; Pereira,Maria Luiza Saraiva; Bock,Hugo; Vargas,Fernando Regla; Moreira,Miguel Ângelo Martins; Peixoto,Ana; Teixeira,Manuel R.; Ashton-Prolla,Patricia.
Abstract Approximately 5-10% of breast cancers are caused by germline mutations in high penetrance predisposition genes. Among these, BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are associated with the Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome, are the most frequently affected genes. Recent studies confirm that gene rearrangements, especially in BRCA1, are responsible for a significant proportion of mutations in certain populations. In this study we determined the prevalence of BRCA rearrangements in 145 unrelated Brazilian individuals at risk for HBOC syndrome who had not been previously tested for BRCA mutations. Using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and a specific PCR-based protocol to identify a Portuguese founder BRCA2 mutation, we...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Breast cancer; Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome; Gene rearrangements; BRCA gene.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572016000200223
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BRCA1 and BRCA2mutations in breast cancer patients from Venezuela Biol. Res.
Lara,Karlena; Consigliere,Nigmet; Pérez,Jorge; Porco,Antonietta.
A sample of 58 familial breast cancer patients from Venezuela were screened for germline mutations in the coding sequences and exon-intron boundaries of BRCA1 (MIM no. 113705) and BRCA2 (MIM no. 600185) genes by using conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis. Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutations were not found in any of the samples. We identified 6 (10.3%) and 4 (6.9%) patients carrying germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Four pathogenic mutations were found in BRCA1, one is a novel mutation (c.951_952insA), while the other three had been previously reported (c.1129_1135insA, c.4603G>T and IVS20+1G>A). We also found 4 pathogenic mutations in BRCA2, two novel mutations (c.2732_2733insA and c.3870_3873delG) and two that have been...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: BRCA genes; Breast cancer; Screening mutations.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602012000200003
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BRCA1 mutations in Brazilian patients Genet. Mol. Biol.
Lourenço,Juliano Javert; Vargas,Fernando R.; Bines,José; Santos,Elizete M.; Lasmar,Cezar A. P.; Costa,Célia H.; Teixeira,Eliane M. B.; Maia,Maria C. M.; Coura,Fátima; Silva,Carlos H. D.; Moreira,Miguel A. M..
BRCA1 mutations are known to be responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers in women with early onset and a family history of the disease. In this paper we present a mutational survey conducted in 47 Brazilian patients with breast/ovarian cancer, selected based on age at diagnosis, family history, tumor laterality, and presence of breast cancer in male patients. All 22 coding exons and intron-exon junctions were sequenced. Constitutional mutations were found in seven families, consisting of one insertion (insC5382) in exon 20 (four patients), one four base-pair deletion (3450-3453delCAAG) in exon 11 resulting in a premature stop codon (one patient), one transition (IVS17+2T> C) in intron 17 affecting a mRNA splicing site (one...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: BRCA1; Breast cancer; Ovarian cancer.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572004000400006
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Breast Cancer Prediction Using Dominance-based Feature Filtering Approach: A Comparative Investigation in Machine Learning Archetype BABT
Atrey,Kushangi; Sharma,Yogesh; Bodhey,Narendra K.; Singh,Bikesh Kumar.
Abstract Breast cancer is the most commonly witnessed cancer amongst women around the world. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) have been playing a significant role in early detection of breast tumors hence to curb the overall mortality rate. This work presents an enhanced empirical study of impact of dominance-based filtering approach on performances of various state-of-the-art classifiers. The feature dominance level is proportional to the difference in means of benign and malignant tumors. The experiments were done on original Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset (WBCD) with total nine features. It is found that the classifiers’ performances for top 4 and top 5 dominant-based features are almost equivalent to performances for all nine features. Artificial neural...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Breast cancer; Computer aided diagnosis; Dominance-based filtering; Machine learning.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132019000100611
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BthTX-I from Bothrops jararacussu induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines and decreases cancer stem cell subpopulation J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Bezerra,Patrícia Heloise Alves; Ferreira,Isadora Marques; Franceschi,Beatriz Tinoco; Bianchini,Francine; Ambrósio,Luciana; Cintra,Adélia Cristina O.; Sampaio,Suely Vilela; Castro,Fabíola Attié de; Torqueti,Maria Regina.
ABSTRACT Background: Breast cancer is the neoplasm with both the highest incidence and mortality rate among women worldwide. Given the known snake venom cytotoxicity towards several tumor types, we evaluated the effects of BthTX-I from Bothrops jararacussu on MCF7, SKBR3, and MDAMB231 breast cancer cell lines. Methods: BthTX-I cytotoxicity was determined via MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide assay. Cell death was measured by a hypotonic fluorescent solution method, annexin-V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and by apoptotic/autophagic protein expression. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) were quantified by flow cytometry using anti-CD24-FITC and anti-CD44-APC antibodies and propidium iodide. Results: BthTX-I at 102 µg/mL induced...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Apoptosis; Bothropstoxin; Breast cancer; Cancer stem cells.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992019000100315
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C2- and C4-position 17β-estradiol metabolites and their relation to breast cancer Biocell
Joubert,Annie; Van Zyl,Hermia; Laurens,Johannes; Lottering,Mona-Liza.
C2- and C4-position 17β-estradiol metabolites play an important role in breast carcinogenesis. 2-Hydroxyestradiol and 4-hydroxyestradiol are implicated in tumorigenesis via two pathways. These pathways entail increased cell proliferation and the formation of reactive oxygen species that trigger an increase in the likelihood of deoxyribonucleic acid mutations. 2-Methoxyestradiol, a 17β-estradiol metabolite, however, causes induction of apoptosis in transformed and tumor cells; thus exhibiting an antiproliferative effect on tumor growth. The 4-hydroxyestradiol:2-methoxyestradiol and 2-hydroxyestradiol:2-methoxyestradiol ratios therefore ought to be taken into account as possible indicators of carcinogenesis.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Breast cancer; Estradiol metabolism; 2-methoxyestradiol.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-95452009000300001
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Cantharidin suppressed breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell growth and migration by inhibiting MAPK signaling pathway BJMBR
Gu,X.-D.; Xu,L.-L; Zhao,H.; Gu,J.-Z; Xie,X.-H.
As an active constituent of the beetle Mylabris used in traditional Chinese medicine, cantharidin is a potent and selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell fate. The role and possible mechanisms exerted by cantharidin in cell growth and metastasis of breast cancer were investigated in this study. Cantharidin was found to inhibit cell viability and clonogenic potential in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis revealed that cell percentage in G2/M phase decreased, whereas cells in S and G1 phases progressively accumulated with the increasing doses of cantharidin treatment. In a xenograft model of breast cancer, cantharidin inhibited tumor growth in a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cantharidin; Breast cancer; ERK/MAPK pathway; Growth; Migration; Invasion.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2017000700608
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c-erbB-2 expression and nuclear pleomorphism in canine mammary tumors BJMBR
Dutra,A.P.; Granja,N.V.M.; Schmitt,F.C.; Cassali,G.D..
The objective of the present investigation was to study the expression of c-erbB-2 and MIB-1 and try to associate them with morphological features of the cell such as nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count and histological grade in a series of 70 canine mammary gland tumors, 22 of them benign and 48 malignant. Tumors were collected at the Veterinary Hospital of UFMG (Brazil) and the Veterinary Faculty of Porto University (Portugal). c-erbB-2 expression was determined according to the guidelines provided by the manufacturer of the HercepTest system and nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count and histological grade according the Elston and Ellis grading system. The HercepTest is the FDA-approved in vitro diagnostic test marketed by Dako. It is a semi-quantitative...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Canine mammary tumors; Nuclear pleomorphism; Breast cancer; C-erbB-2 expression; MIB-1 expression.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2004001100013
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ChemT, an open-source software for building template-based chemical libraries IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Abreu, Rui M.V.; Froufe, Hugo J.C.; Daniel, Pedro O.M.; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R..
Mushrooms represent an unlimited source of compounds with antitumor and immunostimulating properties and mushroom intake as been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer. A large number of LMW (low molecular weight) compounds present in mushrooms have been identified including: phenolic acids, flavonoids, tocopherols, carotenoids, sugars and fatty acids. In order to evaluate which wild mushroom LMW compounds may be involved in anti-breast cancer activity we selected a representative dataset of 43 LMW compounds and performed molecular docking against 3 known protein targets involved in breast cancer (Aromatase, Estrone Sulfatase and 17β-HSD-1) using AutoDock4 as docking software. The estimated inhibition constants for all LMW compounds were determined and...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Mushrooms; Nutraceuticals; Breast cancer; Molecular Docking; AutoDock4.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/6231
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Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas BJMBR
Rosa,F.E.; Santos,R.M.; Rogatto,S.R.; Domingues,M.A.C..
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+) cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situhybridization (CISH), which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: CISH; Breast cancer; HER2; Immunohistochemistry; FISH.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2013000300207
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Clinical significance of miR-140-5p and miR-193b expression in patients with breast cancer and relationship to IGFBP5 Genet. Mol. Biol.
Güllü,Gökçe; Peker,Irem; Haholu,Aptullah; Eren,Fatih; Küçükodaci,Zafer; Güleç,Bülent; Baloglu,Hüseyin; Erzik,Can; Özer,Ayse; Akkiprik,Mustafa.
The functional role of IGFBP5 in breast cancer is complicated. Experimental and bioinformatics studies have shown that IGFBP5 is targeted by miR-140-5p and miR-193b, although this has not yet been proven in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of miR-140-5p and miR-193b in breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue and assess its correlation with IGFBP5 and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. IGFBP5 protein expression was analyzed immunohistochemically and IGFBP5, miR-140 and miR-193b mRNA expression levels were analyzed with real-time RT-PCR. Tumor tissue had higher miR-140-5p expression than adjacent normal tissue (p = 0.015). Samples with no immunohistochemical staining for IGFBP5 showed increased...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Breast cancer; ER alpha; IGFBP5; Micro RNA; MiR-140; MiR-193b.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572015000100021
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Clinicopathological significance of PTPN12 expression in human breast cancer BJMBR
Xunyi,Yuan; Zhentao,Yuan; Dandan,Jiang; Funian,Li.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene (TSG) that is frequently compromised in human triple-negative breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PTPN12 protein by patients with breast cancer in a Chinese population and the relationship between PTPN12 expression levels and patient clinicopathological features and prognosis. Additionally, we explored the underlying down-regulation mechanism from the perspective of an epigenetic alteration. We examined PTPN12 mRNA expression in five breast cancer cell lines using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and detected PTPN12 protein expression using immunohistochemistry in 150 primary invasive breast cancer cases...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Breast cancer; Tumor suppressor gene; PTPN12; Prognosis; Methylation.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2012001200033
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Co-culture of apoptotic breast cancer cells with immature dendritic cells: a novel approach for DC-based vaccination in breast cancer BJMBR
Zheng,Jin; Liu,Qiang; Yang,Jiandong; Ren,Qinyou; Cao,Wei; Yang,Jingyue; Yu,Zhaocai; Yu,Fang; Wu,Yanlan; Shi,Hengjun; Liu,Wenchao.
A dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine strategy could reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of breast cancer patients. However, while therapy-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells can enhance maturation and antigen presentation of DCs, whether this effect occurs in breast cancer is currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin (ADM)-induced apoptotic MCF-7 breast cancer cells on the activation of DCs. ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells could effectively induce immature DC (iDC) maturation. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of DC maturity marker CD83 was 23.3 in the ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cell group compared with 8.5 in the MCF-7 cell group. The MFI of DC co-stimulatory...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Breast cancer; Dendritic cells; Immunotherapy; Apoptosis; Doxorubicin.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2012000600006
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Cytogenetic description of breast fibroadenomas: alterations related solely to proliferation? BJMBR
Burbano,R.R.; Lima,E.M.; Khayat,A.S.; Barbieri Neto,J.; Cabral,I.R.; Bastos Jr.,L.; Bahia,M.O.; Casartelli,C..
Twelve breast fibroadenomas were analyzed cytogenetically and only four were found to have clonal alterations. The presence of chromosomal alterations in fibroadenomas must be the consequence of the proliferating process and must not be related to the etiology of this type of lesion. In contrast, the few fibroadenomas that exhibit chromosomal alterations are likely to be those presenting a risk of neoplastic transformation. Clonal numerical alterations involved chromosomes 8, 18, 19, and 21. Of the chromosomal alterations found in the present study, only monosomy of chromosomes 19 and 21 has been reported in breast fibroadenomas. The loss of chromosome 21 was the most frequent alteration found in our sample. The study of benign proliferations and their...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Fibroadenomas; Chromosome alterations; Breast cancer.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2001000800005
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