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Registros recuperados: 36
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Agricultural Economics Education in Ukrainian Agricultural Universities: An Efficiency Analysis Using Data Envelopment Analysis AgEcon
Lissitsa, Alexej; Coelli, Tim J.; Rao, D.S. Prasada.
Ukraine's transition from a centrally-planned to a market economy has had a profound effect upon its agricultural sector and agricultural universities. A substantial reduction in state financing has forced universities to adopt a range of survival strategies, with varying degrees of success. In this paper we use data envelopment analysis to examine the technical efficiency of 44 agricultural economics programs from 19 Ukrainian universities during the 2002/03 academic year. Our empirical results indicate wide disparities in performance, ranging from 36% to 100% technical efficiency. A second-stage analysis suggests that factors such as student demand, commercial activities and staff quality help explain a portion of this variation.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Higher education; Ukraine; Efficiency; Data envelopment analysis; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; I21; C14; Q16.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24482
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Asistencia docente y rendimiento escolar: el caso del Programa META AgEcon
Cueto, Santiago; Torero, Maximo; Deustua, Juan Leon y Jose.
A mediados del 2003 el Ministerio de Educación inició un programa piloto cuyo objetivo fue incrementar la asistencia diaria y la permanencia en clase de los docentes a través de un sistema de incentivos para los maestros en algunas zonas rurales del Perú. Los docentes que lograran la META (nombre con el que fue rebautizado el programa Mejor Educación a través de más Tiempo en el Aula el 2004) recibirían un incentivo monetario. El programa fue continuado durante el año 2004, pero además de la asistencia docente, se recogieron datos sobre el rendimiento de los estudiantes en comprensión de lectura y matemática (las pruebas fueron administradas a inicios y fin del año escolar, de modo que se pudiera estimar el crecimiento en rendimiento). El estudio encontró...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Docentes; Rendimiento escolar; Teachers; Academic achievement; Peru; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; I21.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45861
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Changes in Returns to Education in India, 1983-94: By Gender, Age-Cohort and Location AgEcon
Duraisamy, P..
There is hardly any estimate of the returns to schooling in India based on a national level representative data for the recent period. This paper provides estimates of the returns to education in India by gender, age cohort and location (by rural-urban) for the most recent period 1993/4, and also evaluates the changes in returns over a period of time from 1983-94 using a large national level household survey data. The data show that the returns to education increases up to the secondary level and declines thereafter. There is evidence of substantial gender and rural-urban differences in the returns to schooling. The returns to women's education for the primary and middle levels have declined while those for secondary and college levels have increased...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rate of return; Human capital; India; Labor and Human Capital; J31; I21.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28505
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De quinto de primaria al fin de la secundaria en seis años: un estudio longitudinal en Puno AgEcon
Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zevallos, Alvaro; Sugimaru, Claudia.
El presente estudio reporta los resultados de un diseño longitudinal en el que se siguió a 304 estudiantes de zonas urbanas y rurales de Puno. Los estudiantes incluidos se encontraban en quinto grado de primaria en el 2000 y debían estar en quinto de secundaria (el fin de la educación básica) en el 2006, cuando se los volvió a encuestar y entrevistar. Se logró volver a entrevistar a 76% de los estudiantes de la muestra original; del resto, la mayoría había migrado fuera de Puno, de acuerdo con reportes de amigos y familiares. De los entrevistados, 69% habían avanzado sin repetir, 13% habían abandonado la escuela y el resto habían repetido uno o más grados. Por un lado, los resultados sugieren que el rendimiento en una prueba estandarizada de matemática en...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rendimiento escolar; Desercion escolar; Educacion secundaria; Puno; Peru; Academic achievement; Student drop out; Secondary education; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; I21.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59690
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Determinants of Poverty among U.S. Farm Households AgEcon
El-Osta, Hisham S.; Morehart, Mitchell J..
This research uses data from the 2004 Agricultural Resource Management Survey and probit regression to examine the determinants of poverty among U.S. farm households. The findings reveal, among others, the importance of a livelihood strategy that combines participation in government programs and off-farm work in lowering poverty rates. Findings also show the importance of educational attainment of the farm operator in mitigating poverty, but only when poverty is measured on a relative rather than an absolute basis. Policy recommendations are provided in the context of these findings.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Composite measure of economic well-being; Government programs; Off-farm work; Poverty; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics; Labor and Human Capital; J23; J24; D3; I21; I32; C81.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45037
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Determinants of School Attainment of Boys and Girls in Turkey AgEcon
Tansel, Aysit.
This study investigates the determinants of school attainments of boys and girls in Turkey. Although high levels of enrollments have been achieved at the primary school level for both boys and girls in much of Turkey, substantial regional differences remain. In particular, in the Southeastern region, girls begin to drop out of school around the third grade. Only half of the primary school graduates register at the middle level. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of educational attainments at the primary, middle and high school levels. Attainments of boys and girls are examined separately so as to shed light on the causes for the significantly lower level of attainment for girls. Understanding the constraints causing the large...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: School attainments; Gender; Turkey; Labor and Human Capital; I21; J16.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28519
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Discussion: Human Capital and Rural Economic Development AgEcon
Barefield, Alan.
One of the most critical elements of a nation’s social infrastructure is its system of education. Concerns with accessibility, achievement, and choice are significant elements in determining the quality of life for all communities, but most especially for rural communities where resources, and in many cases, opportunities, are perceived to be less plentiful than for their urban and suburban counterparts.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Education; Pre-kindergarten; Discipline; Community colleges; Rural; Economic development; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; I21; R11.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53090
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Do Rural Community Colleges Supply Unique Educational Benefits? AgEcon
Mykerezi, Elton; Kostandini, Genti; Mills, Bradford F..
Community colleges likely draw to college individuals who would otherwise not attend due to their low costs and open admission requirements. This is labeled as the democratization effect. They may also divert individuals away from 4-year to terminal 2-year college degrees (the diversion effect). This study estimates democratization and diversion effects separately for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan youth using nationally representative data and models that account for endogenous institution selection. We find the democratization effect to exceed the diversion effect of community colleges for both metro and nonmetro youth. The democratization-diversion ratio is slightly higher for urban youth.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural; Colleges; Education; Diversion; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; I21; R0.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53086
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Does Close Count? School Proximity, School Quality, and Residential Property Values AgEcon
Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Espey, Molly; Lin, Huiyan.
This study jointly estimates the impact of school quality and school proximity on residential property values in Greenville, South Carolina. While quality is found to be capitalized into residential property values, the degree of capitalization depends on school level and proximity to each school for which the house is zoned for attendance. In general, there is positive value associated with closer proximity to schools of all levels, and negative value associated with a significantly longer than average distance to schools. In terms of quality rankings, excellence at the elementary and high school levels has the strongest impact on property values.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Hedonics; Park proximity; School proximity; School quality; Land Economics/Use; I21; O18; R21.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6609
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Education and Socioeconomic Well-Being in Racially Diverse Rural Counties AgEcon
Mykerezi, Elton; Mills, Bradford F.; Gomes, Sonya.
This paper examines trends in the socioeconomic well-being in rural counties where Black residents represent one third or more of the population. These racially diverse rural counties (RDRCs) are located exclusively in the rural South and generally have low levels of economic well-being. On a positive note, college education levels in RDRCs are found to have increased rapidly between 1990 and 2000. Regression analysis suggests that these increases were in part due to the concentration of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in the region. Local investments in K-12 education are also found to be linked to county education levels.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Blacks; Public education; Public investment; Rural South; R12; I21; R53.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37959
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Effects on School Enrollment and Performance of a Conditional Transfers Program in Mexico AgEcon
Dubois, Pierre; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
We study the effects of a conditional transfers program on school enrollment and performance in Mexico. We provide a theoretical framework for analyzing the dynamic educational decision and process including the endogeneity and uncertainty of performance (passing grades) and the effect of a conditional cash transfer program for children enrolled at school. Careful identification of the program impact on this model is studied. This framework is used to study the Mexican social program Progresa in which a randomized experiment has been implemented and allows us to identify the effect of the conditional cash transfer program on enrollment and performance at school. Using the rules of the conditional program, we can explain the different incentive effects...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Education demand; Schooling decisions; School performance; Dynamic decisions; Treatment effects; Transfer program; Randomized experiment; Mexico.; Labor and Human Capital; C14; C25; D91; H52; H53; I21; I28; J24.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25064
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Family Background, School Quality, Ability and Student Achievement in Rural China –Identification Using Famine-Generated Instruments AgEcon
Chen, Qihui.
This paper investigates the determinants of academic achievement in basic education (grade 1-9) for a sample of children (aged 9-12 in 2000) from rural China. A set of instrumental variable generated by the Great Famine in China, 1958-1961, is used to instrument an error-ridden measure of child innate ability, the cognitive ability score of each sampled child. Empirical results indicate strong effects of family background variables such as household income and parental education. Father’s education has significantly positive effect on academic achievements for both boys and girls, while mother’s education only matters for girls. Consistent with the common findings in the literature, most of school quality variables do not have significantly positive...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Student achievement; School quality; Ability; Famine in China 1958-1961; Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Public Economics; J24; I21; D13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49429
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Farm Productivity and Efficiency in Rural Bangladesh: The Role of Education Revisited AgEcon
Asadullah, M. Niaz; Rahman, Sanzidur.
This paper reassesses the debate over the role of education in farm pro duction in Bangladesh using a large dataset on rice producing hous eholds from 141 villages. Average and stochastic production frontier functions are estimated to ascertain the effect of education on productivity and efficiency. A full set of proxies for farm education stock variables are incorporated to investigate the 'internal' as well as 'external' returns to education. The external effect is investigated in the context of rural neighborhoods. Our analysis reveals that in addition to raising rice productivity and boosting potential output, household education significantly reduces production inefficiencies. However, we are unable to find any evidence of externality benefit of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Returns to education; Stochastic production frontier; Bangladesh; Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis; I21; Q12; N5.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25482
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Female Household-Headship in Rural Bangladesh: Incidence, Determinants and Impact on Children's Schooling AgEcon
Joshi, Shareen.
This paper uses data from Matlab, Bangladesh to examine the characteristics of female-headed households and estimate the impact of female-headship on children’'s schooling. Female householdheads in Matlab fall into two broad groups: widows and married women, most of whom are wives of migrants. These women differ from each other not only in their current socio-economic circumstances, but also in their backgrounds and circumstances prior to getting married. To identify the effects of female-headship on children’'s outcomes, I use a two-stage least squares strategy that controls for the possible endogeneity of both types of female-headship. Results indicate that children residing in households headed by married women have stronger schooling attainments than...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Female-headed Households; Widowhood; Migration; Schooling; Labor and Human Capital; J12; J13; J16; I21; O15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28424
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Female Schooling, Non-Market Productivity, and Labor Market Participation in Nigeria AgEcon
Aromolaran, Adebayo B..
Economists have argued that increasing female schooling positively influences the labor supply of married women by inducing a faster rise in market productivity relative to non-market productivity. I use the Nigerian Labor Force Survey to investigate how own and husband’s schooling affect women’s labor market participation. I find that additional years of postsecondary education increases wage market participation probability by as much as 15.2%. A marginal increase in primary schooling has no effect on probability of wage employment, but could enhance participation rates in self-employment by about 5.40%. These effects are likely to be stronger when a woman is married to a more educated spouse. The results suggest that primary education is more productive...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Nigeria; Female schooling; Women’s labor market participation; Non-market productivity; Labor and Human Capital; I21; J22; J24; O15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28451
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Fertility, Child Work and Schooling Consequences of Family Planning Programs: Evidence from an Experiment in Rural Bangladesh AgEcon
Sinha, Nistha.
Despite the attractiveness of experiments from the perspective of program evaluation, there have been very few program experiments in the area of family planning. This paper evaluates an ongoing family planning program experiment in rural Bangladesh. The paper estimates the effect of mothers'’ program exposure on fertility and children’'s time allocation. The results show that while the program was effective in reducing fertility, it had no significant impact on children’'s school enrollment. However, the program appears to have significantly raised boys'’ participation in the labor force.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility; Child labor; School enrollment; Program evaluation; Labor and Human Capital; J13; J22; I21.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28457
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Formando microempresarias: impacto de la capacitación empresarial en las instituciones de microfinanzas y sus socias AgEcon
Karlan, Dean S.; Valdivia, Martin.
Los debates académicos y de políticas acerca de la actividad microempresarial se centran frecuentemente en las restricciones crediticias, asumiendo que los negocios se manejan de manera óptima dadas esas y otras restricciones. Los microempresarios, sin embargo, raramente tienen capacitación formal en gestión empresarial. Por su parte, un número creciente de instituciones de microfinanzas (IMF), en el Perú y el mundo, procura construir el capital humano de estos microempresarios para mejorar sus niveles de vida, contribuyendo a su misión de reducir la pobreza. Con ayuda de un diseño experimental, en este estudio medimos el impacto marginal de agregar un componente de capacitación en gestión empresarial a un programa de servicios financieros que atiende a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microempresarios; Microfinanzas; Pequeñas empresas; Mujeres; Capacitacion; Small enterprises; Training; Women; Peru; Financial Economics; C93; D12; D13; D21; I21; J24; O12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91358
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GUIDE FOR PROGRAM EVALUATION AgEcon
Roucan-Kane, Maud; Suttles, Joseph.
Extension programs must be evaluated in order to assess their value to participants, institutions, funders, and all other stakeholders. Evaluations can be especially useful when the program has specific objectives that are measurable, either qualitatively and quantitatively. There are many different methods and formats for evaluation, and choosing the correct evaluation can be critical to ensuring the accuracy and relevance of the evaluation results. Considerable thought must be put into determining the correct method for an evaluation, and they must always be focused on the specific objectives of the extension program. After administering an evaluation, the results should be communicated back to the stakeholders of the program in an effective manner...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Extension program; Evaluation; LOGIC; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; Q16; I21; I23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48538
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How Homophily Affects Learning and Diffusion in Networks AgEcon
Golub, Benjamin; Jackson, Matthew O..
We examine how three different communication processes operating through social networks are affected by homophily - the tendency of individuals to associate with others similar to themselves. Homophily has no effect if messages are broadcast or sent via shortest paths; only connection density matters. In contrast, homophily substantially slows learning based on repeated averaging of neighbors' information and Markovian diffusion processes such as the Google random surfer model. Indeed, the latter processes are strongly affected by homophily but completely independent of connection density, provided this density exceeds a low threshold. We obtain these results by establishing new results on the spectra of large random graphs and relating the spectra to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Networks; Learning; Diffusion; Homophily; Friendships; Social Networks; Random Graphs; Mixing Time; Convergence; Speed of Learning; Speed of Convergence; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D83; D85; I21; J15; Z13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50718
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Human Capital, Schooling and Health Returns AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population’s child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Health; Productivity; Human capital; Schooling; Returns; Labor and Human Capital; J24; I12; I21.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28475
Registros recuperados: 36
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