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AN OPTION PERSPECTIVE ON GENERATING AND MAINTAINING PLANT VARIETY RIGHTS IN CHINA AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Qian, Keming; Zhang, Yi.
Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years, in part to comply with their Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) obligations. Seeking and maintaining PVPs reserves options to an expected revenue stream from the future sale of protected varieties, the value of which varies for a host of reasons. In this paper we empirically examine the pattern of plant variety protection applications in China since its PVP laws were first introduced in 1997. We place those PVP rights in the context of China's present and likely future seed markets to identify the economic incentives and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Crop improvement; Option value; Seed markets; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13779
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Autoria na Web 2.0 no contexto da educação e a ética dos hackers. Repositório Alice
SOUZA, M. I. F.; SILVA, L. O.; ARAÚJO, I. C..
RESUMO - Este artigo discute a importância do exercício da autoria em ambiente virtual da Web 2.0, considerando que se trata de fundamento essencial à aprendizagem, no professor e no aluno. Autoria na Web 2.0 é apresentada como estratégia pedagógica para ambientes de aprendizagem virtuais, que se utilizam principalmente de ferramentas como blog, wiki e redes sociais. Embora não sejam determinantes, essas tecnologias digitais são condicionantes para que a aprendizagem e a autoria ocorram. Autoria na Web 2.0, além do estabelecimento de novos aparatos tecnológicos, requer novos modos de produção, nos quais prevaleça a postura ética dos hackers, favorecendo a participação, a colaboração, a liberdade e o compartilhamento.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Autoria; Aprendizagem; Ética dos hackers; Web 2.0; Learning; Intellectual property rights.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/886794
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Bases de dados: propriedade intelectual e implicações à pesquisa agrícola. Repositório Alice
MENDES, C. I. C.; BUAINAIN, A. M..
Resumo: Este trabalho tem por objetivo discutir a proteção jurídica às bases de dados e as implicações para atividades de P&D em institutos públicos de pesquisa agrícola. A metodologia utiliza consulta documental e análise do marco regulatório de propriedade intelectual aplicável à matéria. No âmbito internacional analisa-se a Convenção de Berna, o Acordo Trips e a Diretiva 96/9/CE, sobre proteção jurídica às bases de dados. Na esfera nacional, a lei no. 9.610/1998, de direitos autorais, e a lei no. 12.527/2011 de acesso à informação. Conclui-se que o marco legal, os princípios da razoabilidade e da segurança jurídicas, se aplicados adequadamente, oferecem base jurídica para que os conteúdos das bases de dados geradas por projetos de P&D não sejam...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Propriedade intelectual; E-science; Base de dados; Pesquisa agrícola; Databases; Intellectual property rights; Agricultural research.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1000907
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Biotech--Who Wins? Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the largest shares of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward GMOs and the issue of labelling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations; a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed. Emerging output-trait GMOs are...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23862
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CONCENTRATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL INPUT INDUSTRIES AgEcon
King, John L..
Consolidation in the agricultural biotechnology industry can both enhance and dampen market competition. This report examines the causes and consequences of industry consolidation and its effect on market efficiency. In some cases, concentration realizes economies of scale, which can improve market efficiency by driving down production costs. The protection of intellectual property rights is integral to the agricultural biotechnology marketplace, stimulating research and development, investment, and the development of substitute markets. However, excessively broad intellectual property rights can hinder the market for innovation. Recent data on mergers, acquisitions, and strategic collaborations in the agricultural biotechnology industry, as well as the...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Industry concentration; Consolidation; Biotechnology; Market efficiency; Market power; Intellectual property rights; Agricultural input industries; Mergers; Acquisitions; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33631
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Development of a molecular method for the identification of clone varieties of Coffea canephora via PCR. Repositório Alice
MATTOS, N. G.; ANDRADE, A. C..
Conilon coffee belongs to the Coffea canephora species, which is a diploid (2n = 2 × = 22), perennial, allogamous plant with a high genetic variability. Consequently, a plantation established from seeds will likely have plants with highly diversified characteristics. Accordingly, the production of cuttings is of great value for the success of crop implementation. Using clones produced from superior genotypes instead of seeds has some advantages such as lower implementation costs, higher productivity, higher uniformity of maturation, better grain quality, differentiated cycle of maturation and staggered harvest scheduling. Brazil is an important coffee producer, and the development of new varieties is important to maintain or even increase its production.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Coffea canephora; Genetic variability; New cultivar; Intellectual property rights; Clones; Brazil; Embrapa.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1084631
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Direito autoral na agropecuária: relato da experiência da Embrapa. Repositório Alice
MENDES, C. I. C.; RIBEIRO, P. G. G.; BUAINAIN, A. M..
Neste capítulo apresenta-se a indústria criativa a partir da perspectiva de um agente público que atua com atividades de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação na agricultura e que gera e disponibiliza obras com direito de autor como instrumentos de difusão de seus resultados de pesquisa.
Tipo: Capítulo em livro científico (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Direito autoral; Licenças públicas; Licença Creative Commons; Copyright; Propriedade intelectual; Intellectual property rights.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1047070
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Direito autoral na agropecuária: relato da experiência da Embrapa. Repositório Alice
MENDES, C. I. C.; RIBEIRO, P. G. G.; BUAINAIN, A. M..
Neste capítulo apresenta-se a indústria criativa a partir da perspectiva de um agente público que atua com atividades de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação na agricultura e que gera e disponibiliza obras com direito de autor como instrumentos de difusão de seus resultados de pesquisa.
Tipo: Capítulo em livro científico (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Copyright; Direito autoral; Licença Creative Commons; Licenças públicas; Intellectual property rights; Propriedade intelectual.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1051690
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Do Stronger Intellectual Property Rights Protection Induce More Bilateral Trade? Evidence from China's Imports AgEcon
Awokuse, Titus O.; Yin, Hong.
Most of the previous studies on the effect of IPR protection on international trade have been from the perspective of major industrialized nations. However, much of the current debate on the effects of IPR protection involves large developing countries with high threat of imitation. This study contributes to the literature by analyzing the impact of the strengthening of patent laws in China on its bilateral trade flows. We estimate the effects of patent rights protection on China’s imports at the aggregate and detailed product categories for both OECD (developed) and non-OECD (developing) countries. The empirical results suggest that increased patent rights protection stimulate China’s imports, particularly in the knowledge-intensive product categories....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Patent laws; International trade; International Relations/Trade; F13; 034.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6143
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Does Intellectual Property Protection Spur Technological Change? AgEcon
Kanwar, Sunil; Evenson, Robert E..
Of the diverse factors motivating technological change, one factor that has received increasing attention in the recent past has been the protection of intellectual property rights. Given fairly recent changes in the international policy ethos where a regime of stronger intellectual property protection has become a fait accompli for most developing countries, it is of some significance to ask whether more stringent protection of intellectual property does indeed encourage innovation. And this is the question which this paper examines, utilising cross-country panel data on R&D investment, patent protection and other country-specific characteristics spanning the period 1981-1990. The evidence unambiguously indicates the significance of intellectual...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Technological change; Economic growth; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34; O31.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28432
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Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the larger share of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the issues of labeling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations, and a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18413
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Economics, Ecology and GMOs: Sustainability, Precaution and Related Issues AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Ecological, evolutionary and economic issues involved in introducing genetically modified organisms (GMOs), mainly in agriculture, are discussed. The ecological and evolutionary impacts identified hamper (economic) valuation of GMOs and their biosafety regulation and creates difficulties for planning for sustainable development. Assessment of the desirability of releasing GMOs is difficult because of lack of communal agreement about the risks involved, about how much precaution should be exercised given collective risks, and disagreement on the appropriate social criterion to apply. Changes in legal liability are not always economic and cannot eliminate the social conflict generated by GMOs. The economics of developing and marketing GMOs is explored,...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Biosafety; Genetically modified organisms; GMOs; Intellectual property rights; Market structure; Sustainable development; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122726
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Fatores de acesso aos bens culturais nos municípios brasileiros. Repositório Alice
BUAINAIN, A. M.; MENDES, C. I. C.; SILVA, A. B. de O. e; CARVALHO, S. M. P. de..
O artigo tem por objetivo discorrer sobre o acesso aos bens culturais nos municípios brasileiros, os fatores e o papel da propriedade intelectual para facilitá-lo ou restringi-lo. A metodologia inclui: a) revisão da literatura da indústria criativa, com base nos métodos desenvolvidos pela Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Comércio e Desenvolvimento (UNCTAD) e a Organização Mundial da Propriedade Intelectual (OMPI); e b) análise do Suplemento de Cultura da Pesquisa de Informações Básicas Municipais (MUNIC), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Os resultados indicam que a Lei de Direitos Autorais não é um obstáculo ao acesso aos bens culturais. Fatores pessoais e materiais, como educação formal, condições materiais, políticas públicas...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Lei de direito autoral; Propriedade intelectual; Acesso à informação; Indústria criativa; Acesso aos bens culturais; Intellectual property rights.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/971140
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Free software, copyleft and trends intellectual property. Repositório Alice
BUAINAIN, A. M.; MENDES, C. I. C..
This article discusses the implications of the intellectual property system as applied to software, especially the use of patents, for innovation in developing countries; it also assesses thc possible consequences of the appearance of free software and a new intellectual property system in the innovation process in countries such as Brazil; finally, it attempts to analyse the new dimension of intellectual property as well as its context in the current debate on 'global patents' as opposed to a more flexible copyright system. Some of the questions discussed are: Is a more flexible copyright system an instrument to promote technological innovation? Does the reduction of the income of some software companies in developed countries point toward an exhaustion...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Propriedade intelectual; Software livre; Intellectual property rights.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/195
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GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROP INNOVATIONS AND PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION: TRADE AND WELFARE EFFECTS IN THE SOYBEAN COMPLEX AgEcon
Sobolevsky, Andrei; Moschini, GianCarlo; Lapan, Harvey E..
We develop a new partial equilibrium, four-region world trade model for the soybean complex comprising soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. In the model, some consumers view genetically modified Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and products as weakly inferior to conventional ones; the RR seed is patented and sold worldwide by a U.S. firm; and producers employ a costly segregation technology to separate conventional and biotech products in the supply chain. The calibrated model is solved for equilibrium prices, quantities, production patterns, trade flows, and welfare changes under different assumptions regarding regional government's production and trade policies, differentiated consumer tastes, and several other demand and supply parameters. Incomplete...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Differentiated demand; Food labeling; Genetically modified products; Identity preservation; Innovations; Intellectual property rights; International trade; Loan deficiency payments; Market failure; Monopoly; Roundup Ready soybeans; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18348
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Genetically Modified Crops: Risks and Promise Ecology and Society
Conway, Gordon; The Rockefeller Foundation; president@rockfound.org.
GM foods have the potential to provide significant benefits for developing countries. Over 800 million people are chronically undernourished, and 180 million children are severely underweight for their age. By 2020, there will be an extra two billion mouths to feed. Ecological approaches that underpin sustainable agriculture (e.g., integrated pest management) and participatory approaches that strengthen farmers' own experimentation and decision making are key. Biotechnology will be an essential partner, if yield ceilings are to be raised, if crops are to be grown without excessive reliance on pesticides, and if farmers on less favored lands are to be provided with crops that are resistant to drought and salinity, and that can use nitrogen and other...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.); Food security; Genetically modified rice; GM foods; Intellectual property rights; Marker-aided selection; Monsanto; Participatory approaches; Plant biotechnology; Plant variety protection; Terminator technology; Vitamin A deficiency.
Ano: 2000
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Gestão de tecnologias da indústria criativa numa instituição pública de P&D agrícola. Repositório Alice
MENDES, C. I. C.; BUAINAIN, A. M..
Este trabalho tem por objetivo relatar a experiência da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa) para a gestão tecnológica de bens protegidos pelo direito autoral - que integram o núcleo da indústria criativa - como veículos de difusão de suas tecnologias. A metodologia conta com análise da lei de direito autoral e da política de propriedade intelectual da Embrapa. São discutidos os procedimentos de proteção às obras de direito autoral das categorias: a) produção técnico- científica (obras literárias - artigos e livros); b) desenvolvimento de tecnologia (software, serviços de informação Web, imagem de satélite e mapa); c) obras para produção da imagem institucional (programas de TV, DVD, vídeo, fotografia e programa de rádio). A conclusão...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Propriedade intelectual; Direito autoral; Embrapa; Indústria criativa; Intellectual property rights.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/971143
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GOVERNMENT PATENTING AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AgEcon
Heisey, Paul W.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; King, John L..
Intellectual property rights such as patents protect new inventions from imitation and competition. Patents' major objective is to provide incentives for invention, sacrificing short-term market efficiency for long-term economic gains. Although patents are primarily granted to private firms, policy changes over the last 25 years have resulted in greater use of patenting by the public sector. This study examines government patenting behavior by analyzing case studies of patenting and licensing by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ARS uses patenting and licensing as a means of technology transfer in cases in which a technology requires additional development by a private sector partner to yield a marketable...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Patents; Licenses; Intellectual property rights; Technology transfer; Agricultural Research Service; Agricultural research and development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33597
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I diritti di proprietà intellettuale nel settore della registrazione. Repositório Alice
MELO, S. de S. C. de; CÂMARA, V. B.; OLIVEIRA, N. B. de.
bitstream/item/192805/1/proprieta-intellettuale.pdf
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Direito de propriedade intelectual; Intellectual property rights.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1105996
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Impact of Foreign Intellectual Property Rights Protection on U.S. Exports and FDI AgEcon
Gu, Weishi.
This version of the paper is subject to changes.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Export; FDI; Technology transfer; Intellectual property rights; GMM; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C33; F21; F23; F14; O34; K33.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49414
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