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Registros recuperados: 26
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Cross-Border Intellectual Property Rights: Contract Enforcement and Absorptive Capacity AgEcon
Naghavi, Alireza; Tsai, Yingyi.
Current version uploaded April 2013.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; TRIPS; Nash Bargaining; Contract Enforcement; Development; Absorptive Capacity; Monitoring; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34; F13; F53; D78; L10; O33; C70.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122864
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Developing Countries and the Multilateral Trading System After Doha AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
The Fourth Session of the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001, launched a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) and a work programme (WP) for the WTO involving the negotiating agenda and steps for meeting the challenges facing the multilateral trading system. The paper evaluates the WP, in particular, whether it would redress the unfavourable balance between benefits and costs to developing countries DCs of the agreement that concluded the previous (Uruguay) round of MTN. It discusses the failure of the third session in Seattle to launch a new round in December 1999, and also documents the unfavourable balance. While concluding that with adequate preparation, the negotiators could...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: World Trade Organization (WTO); Multilateral trade negotiations; Developing countries; Antidumping; Trade Related Intellectual Property Services (TRIPS); Trade and labour standards; Trade and environment; Preferential trade agreements; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; F15; F16; F18; O19; O34.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28496
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Does Intellectual Property Protection Spur Technological Change? AgEcon
Kanwar, Sunil; Evenson, Robert E..
Of the diverse factors motivating technological change, one factor that has received increasing attention in the recent past has been the protection of intellectual property rights. Given fairly recent changes in the international policy ethos where a regime of stronger intellectual property protection has become a fait accompli for most developing countries, it is of some significance to ask whether more stringent protection of intellectual property does indeed encourage innovation. And this is the question which this paper examines, utilising cross-country panel data on R&D investment, patent protection and other country-specific characteristics spanning the period 1981-1990. The evidence unambiguously indicates the significance of intellectual...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Technological change; Economic growth; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34; O31.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28432
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Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines AgEcon
Rubbelke, Dirk T.G.; Weiss, Pia.
We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on innovation activities. In addition, we find that price-based policy instruments are more effective in fostering innovations in the wind turbine technology when energy markets are fully open to competition. In contrast, non-price-based policy instruments such as grants or...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Renewable Energy; Market Structure; Wind Turbines; Innovation; Patents; Technological Change; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q55; Q58; O34; O38.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102569
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Export, Assembly-line FDI or FDI with the Possibility of Technology Diffusion: Optimal Entry Mode for Multinationals AgEcon
Banerjee (Chatterjee), Tanmoyee; Mitra, Nilanjana.
The paper tries to evaluate the optimal entry mode of a Multinational Company that is choosing among export, fragmented production structure with assembly-line FDI in LDC or complete production in LDC with FDI. The results show that if the plant installation cost is sufficiently high then the firm will find it profitable to export the finished product to the LDC market and the Government will not exercise any IPR restriction. If plant installation cost is below a certain critical level the MNC chooses complete LDC production with FDI over assembly-line FDI if the IPR restriction is strong, where the model assumes that a fake producer can copy the product if complete production takes place in LDC. In such a situation government will choose to protect IPR if...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Export; Assembly-line FDI; FDI with Complete Production; IPR Protection; L11; O34.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42145
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Impact of Foreign Intellectual Property Rights Protection on U.S. Exports and FDI AgEcon
Gu, Weishi.
This version of the paper is subject to changes.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Export; FDI; Technology transfer; Intellectual property rights; GMM; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C33; F21; F23; F14; O34; K33.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49414
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Impacts of Geographical Indications - Review of Methods and Empirical Evidences AgEcon
Barjolle, Dominique; Paus, Marguerite; Perret, Anna O..
This paper focuses on methods for assessing the territorial impact (economic, social and environmental) of geographical indication systems. First, in a review of methods, methodological difficulties and choices are discussed and major studies are briefly presented. We highlight that it is necessary to identify a clear reference point and a relevant set of indicators and that this question has led to an active and rich research corpus. In a second part, we present some of the results of a recent European research program, SINER-GI. We analyze the impacts of 14 case studies in a common methodology. The results show significant differences of the priorities of the stakeholders between established geographical indications and geographical indications in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Geographical Indications; Territorial impact; Food chains; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; O34; Q13; R58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51737
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Improving the Energy-Efficiency of Buildings: The Impact of Environmental Policy on Technological Innovation AgEcon
Noailly, Joelle.
This paper investigates the impact of alternative environmental policy instruments on technological innovations aiming to improve energy-efficiency in buildings. The empirical analysis focuses on three main types of policy instruments, namely regulatory energy standards in buildings codes, energy taxes as captured by energy prices and specific governmental energy R&D expenditures. Technological innovation is measured using patent counts for specific technologies related to energy-efficiency in buildings (e.g. insulation, high-efficiency boilers, energy-saving lightings). The estimates for seven European countries over the 1989-2004 period imply that a strengthening of 10% of the minimum insulation standards for walls would increase the likelihood to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Technological Change; Patents; Energy-Efficiency; Buildings; Environmental Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O31; O34; Q55.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94777
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India's Reform of External Sector Policies and Future Multilateral Trade Negotiations AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
I evaluate India's transition from an inward-oriented development strategy to greater participation in the world economy. While tariff rates have decreased significantly over the past decade, India is still one of the more autarkic countries. Despite improvement over the past in export performance, India continues to lag behind its South- and East Asian neighbors. Second, official debt flows have been largely replaced by foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment in the 1990s. India's ability to attract FDI would be greatly enhanced by further reforms. I argue that India's participation in a future round of multilateral trade negotiations would benefit India. I outline the further reforms most needed: reform of labour and bankruptcy laws,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: India; Antidumping; Developing countries; Economic reform; Export performance; Foreign direct investment; Intellectual property rights; Multilateral trade negotiations; Quantitative restrictions; Real exchange rate; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; F15; F21; F35; H54; K31; O34; O38; O53; P11.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28428
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Intellectual Property and Biodiversity: When and Where are Property Rights Important? AgEcon
Sarr, Mare; Swanson, Timothy.
An important issue in the life sciences industries concerns the nature of the incentive mechanism that should govern the production of innovation within this R&D sector. We look at the specific problem of coordinating the supply of inputs across very different agents - North and South - that must each supply inputs in order to generate innovations from the industry. The current arrangement in this industry provides for a single property right at “end of the pipeline”, i.e. where marketing of the innovation occurs. This property rights scenario raises two problems, one of efficiency and one of equity. The key question asked here pertains to the number and placement of property rights that should be instituted to address this property rights failure....
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity Prospecting; Traditional Knowledge; Genetic Resources; Intellectual Property Rights; Sequential R&D; Production Economics; Q56; O34; L24.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119101
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Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in Developing Countries: Evidence from Panel Data AgEcon
Leger, Andreanne.
The determinants of innovation and the role of intellectual property rights in different countries are not well understood. This paper estimates the determinants of innovation using a new panel dataset. It compares different panel estimation methods appropriate for finite size samples. Past R&D investments have a positive and significant impact on current innovation, while openness to trade has a negative and significant impact on innovation in developing countries and population size has a negative and significant impact on innovation in industrialized countries. Intellectual property protection is not significant for any of the groups. We discuss econometric issues and the policy implication of these results.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Innovation; Intellectual property rights; Developing countries; Dynamic panel; General method of moments; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O30; O34; C23.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25328
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Intellectual Property Rights and Their Impacts in Developing Countries: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Breeding in Mexico AgEcon
Leger, Andreanne.
There is little empirical evidence concerning the effects of intellectual property rights (IPR) on a technologically advanced developing country. Complete enumeration of the Mexican maize breeding industry showed that, contrary to the hypothesis that IPR would provide, in a technologically advanced developing country, incentives for R&D and innovation, IPR play no role for the industry in general, but that they are important for certain breeders' categories. The paper presents the theory on IPR and a short background on the Mexican maize breeding industry. The analysis of the interviews with maize breeders leads to the conclusion that the theory on IPR should be revised and take into account the characteristics of developing countries critical for the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Developing Country; Empirical Evidence; Transaction costs; Mexico; Maize; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34; Q16; O31; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18835
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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND TRADE: ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS, MEDICINALS AND BOTANICALS, AND PHARMACEUTICALS AgEcon
Smith, Pamela J..
We examine the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on US exports of biological, medicinal, botanical, and pharmaceutical products. We find that: (1) strong IPRs enhance monopoly power of US exports in countries with weak imitative abilities; and (2) strong IPRs expand markets for US exports in countries with strong imitative abilities.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Exports; Biotechnologies; Medicinals; Botanicals; Pharmaceuticals; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; F10; F13; Q16; Q17; K55; O34.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21525
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Intellectual Property Rights, Migration, and Diaspora AgEcon
Naghavi, Alireza; Strozzi, Chiara.
In this paper we study theoretically and empirically the role of the interaction between skilled migration and intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection in determining innovation in developing countries (South). We show that although emigration from the South may directly result in the well-known concept of brain drain, it also causes a brain gain effect, the extent of which depends on the level of IPRs protection in the sending country. We argue this to come from a diaspora channel through which the knowledge acquired by emigrants abroad can flow back to the South and enhance the skills of the remaining workers there. By increasing the size of the innovation sector and the skill-intensity of emigration, IPRs protection makes it more likely for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Migration; Technology transfer; Brain gain; Diaspora; Labor and Human Capital; O34; F22; O33; J24; J61.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115817
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Intellectual Property Rights, Product Complexity, and the Organization of Multinational Firms (Previously titled: International Sourcing, Product Complexity and Intellectual Property Rights) AgEcon
Naghavi, Alireza; Spies, Julia; Toubal, Farid.
Current version uploaded April 2013.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Sourcing Decision; Product Complexity; Intellectual Property Rights; Fractional Logit Estimation; Production Economics; F12; F23; O34.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119100
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Measuring the Contribution of Genetic Characteristics as an Indicator of Innovation: The Case of Corn in the USA, 1990-2009 AgEcon
Nolan, Elizabeth; Santos, Paulo.
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regimes for plant breeding are generally justified on the basis that they encourage innovation. Introduction of IPR regimes for plant varieties in the United States has led to increased concentration, but it is less clear whether IPRs have promoted useful innovation, as measured by productivity of available corn hybrids. There are difficulties in finding a satisfactory measure of innovation in plant breeding, and in this paper we propose a procedure. Results from the annual corn hybrid trials conducted by 11 US universities over the 20 years from 1990 to 2009, at 365 separate locations in the 11 states, have been collated. This set of unbalanced panel data for grain corn hybrid trials has been used in a fixed effects...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Hybrid seed corn; GM traits; Varietal change; Fixed effects; Random effects; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O33; O34.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61333
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Modeling Agricultural Innovation in a Rapidly Developing Country: The Case of Chinese Pesticide Industry AgEcon
Shi, Guanming; Pray, Carl E..
Technology and innovation play an increasingly important role in the economic development of both developed and developing countries. We investigate how policy and market factors influence firms’ (or other potential innovators’) decisions on innovation or imitation by developing a conceptual model and then empirically testing it using pesticide innovation data from a rapidly developing country, China. We find that the government encouraged local innovation by opening regions to more international trade, more investment in public research and education, strengthening intellectual property right (IPR) enforcement, and limiting the role of foreign inventors. However, the role of the extension of patent life in the early 1990s has little impact. Theory and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Innovation; Pesticide; China; Patent; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O31; O34; O38.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103744
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Optimal Patentability Requirements with Fragmented Property Rights AgEcon
Denicolo, Vincenzo; Halmenschlager, Christine.
We study the effect of the fragmentation of intellectual property rights on optimal patent design. The major finding is that when several complementary innovative components must be assembled to operate a new technology, the patentability requirements should be stronger than in the case of stand-alone innovation. This reduces the fragmentation of intellectual property, which is socially costly. However, to preserve the incentives to innovate, if a patent is granted the strength of protection should be generally higher than in the stand-alone case.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; Fragmentation; Patent Requirements; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O3; O34.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98051
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Organizational-legal aspects of scientific-technical and innovative development of Uzbekistan in globalization era AgEcon
Alimov, Avaz; Vapaeva, Guzal.
Efficient protection of intellectual property provides not only commercialization of objects, but also activization of innovative activity as a whole, stimulation of national and international investments into economy. The paper describes features of legal protection institutions in Uzbekistan.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Science and innovative activity; Legal issues; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94531
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Patents, Spillovers, and Competition in Biotechnology AgEcon
Austin, David H..
I perform an event study on 600+ patents awarded primarily to 20 leading biotechnology firms and find significant changes in market values at the time of the awards. Adjusting for partial anticipation of events, I estimate that core technology patents in highly contested research areas are expected to generate between $13 and $21 million of economic value. They also generate spillover benefits for the patentee's rivals-presumably including knowledge transfers-valued at $3 to $6 million per firm. Awardees may appropriate only half of private benefits, although I observe negative spillovers for some high-profile awards. Most patents have no significant market impact.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Patent value; Spillover; Competition; Event study; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; G14; O31; O34; L65.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10808
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