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Registros recuperados: 23
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Agriculture biologique et changement climatique : principales conclusions du colloque de Clermont-Ferrand (2008) Inra
Aubert, C; Bellon, S.; Benoit, M.; Capitaine, M; Seguin, B.; Warlop, F; Valleix, S.
Ce colloque a confirmé que l’agriculture biologique émet moins de gaz à effet de serre (GES) par unité de surface que l’agriculture conventionnelle, et que nos habitudes alimentaires ont un fort impact sur les facteurs intervenant sur le changement climatique. Il a par ailleurs apporté un éclairage nouveau et desinformations originales dans de nombreux domaines. En matière de mitigation des émissions de GES par l’agriculture biologique, les deux atouts principaux de cette dernière, tels qu’ils sont ressortis de ce colloque, sont la séquestration de carbone dans le sol et la non utilisation d’azote de synthèse. Des pistes d’amélioration des pratiques et des orientations de recherche sont identifiées.
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: GAZ A EFFET DE SERRE; METHANE; SEQUESTRATION DE CARBONE; PROTOXYDE D'AZOTE CLIMATE CHANGE; GREENHOUSE GAS; CARBON STORAGE; ORGANIC FARMING; NITROGEN PROTOXYDE.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20096cd2069a&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/02/
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Agronomy for sustainable agriculture. A review Inra
Lichtfouse, E.; Navarrete, M.; Debaeke, P.; Souchere, V.; Alberola, C.; Ménassieu, J..
Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Starving people in poor nations, obesity in rich nations, increasing food prices, on-going climate changes, increasing fuel and transportation costs, flaws of the global market, worldwide pesticide pollution, pest adaptation and resistance, loss of soil fertility and organic carbon, soil erosion, decreasing biodiversity, desertification, and so on. Despite unprecedented advances in sciences allowing us to visit planets and disclose subatomic particles, serious terrestrial issues about food show clearly that conventional agriculture is no longer suited to feeding humans and preserving ecosystems....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: AGROECOLOGIE; LUTTE PHYTOSANITAIRE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE; CLIMATE CHANGE; BIODIVERSITY; ORGANIC FARMING; PEST CONTROL; FOOD QUALITY; WATER; SOIL; PESTICIDE; FARMING SYSTEM.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2009c24da860&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/06/
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Assessment of the susceptibility to pests and diseases of 36 apple cultivars in 4 low-input organic orchards in France Inra
Parveaud, C.E.; Gomez, C.; Libourel, G.; Romet, L.; Warlop, F.; Simon, S.; Brun, L.; Pouzoulet, D.; Delebecq, A.; Tournant, L.; Oste, S.; Laurens, F..
One of the keystones of the organic orchard is the cultivar choice as one element of pest and disease control. However, few exhaustive data sets concerning the cultivar susceptibility to pests and diseases are available for growers. In order to identify cultivars adapted to organic production methods, the susceptibility to scab, aphids and powdery mildew and the agronomic properties of 36 cultivars were assessed in four French sites under different pedo-climatic conditions. Different levels of susceptibility to scab were observed for 23 scab Vf-resistant and 13 other cultivars. In the North of Frence where Vf resistance is overcome, the Vf cultivars displayed different levels of scab severity. A high variability in the susceptibility to aphids was observed...
Tipo: Meeting Paper Palavras-chave: ORGANIC FARMING; PEST CONTROL; DISEASE CONTROL; FRUIT TREE; SCAB ; APHIDS ; POWDERY MILDEW ; APPLE CULTIVAR .
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20102e7f2231&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/04/
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Back to the future: long-term trajectories in organic farms in the south of France Inra
Bellon, S.; Poudou, S.; SAUTEREAU, N..
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: ORGANIC FARMING; CONVENTIONALISATION.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2009c104845f&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/02/
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Comparaison de différentes techniques de travail du sol en agriculture biologique : effet de la structure et de la localisation des résidus sur les microorganismes du sol et leurs activités de minéralisation du carbone et de l'azote Inra
Vian, J.F..
Depuis quelques décennies, le labour, comme mode de travail du sol, tend à diminuer au profit de différents modes de préparation du sol, allant du travail du sol réduit sans retournement jusqu'au semis direct. De tels modes alternatifs de travail du sol méritent une étude approfondie avant leur diffusion en agriculture biologique (AB) car ils peuvent occasionner des problèmes de nutrition des cultures et une dégradation de la structure du sol au cours des premières années de leur application. L'objectif de ce travail a donc été d'étudier les modifications que génèrent l'adoption de différentes techniques de travail du sol en AB sur la structure du sol, la répartition des résidus de culture et des microorganismes au sein du profil cultural, puis d'en...
Tipo: Thesis Palavras-chave: TRAVAIL DU SOL; AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE; STRUCTURE DU SOL; BIOMASSE MICROBIENNE; ACTIVITES POTENTIELLES DE MINERALISATION DU C ET N; STRUCTURE DES COMMUNAUTES MICROBIENNES SOIL TILLAGE; ORGANIC FARMING; SOIL STRUCTURE; SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS; POTENTIAL ACTIVITY OF C AND N MINERALIZATION; SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20105e11b82&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/07/
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Conventionalisation? Organic farmers bite back Inra
Blanc, J.; Darnhofer, I.; Bellon, S..
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: CONTRACTUALISATION RURAL DEVELOPMENT; CONVENTIONALISATION; ORGANIC FARMING; FARMERS PRACTICES.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2009150f181c&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/02/
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Conversion to organic farming: a multidimensional research object at the crossroads of agricultural and social sciences. A review Inra
Lamine, C.; Bellon, S..
Literature on the conversion from intensive to organic farming is scarce. However, both the conversion of farmers to organic farming and of consumers to organic food are the driving forces for the development of the organic sector. In this review, we combine agricultural and social scientists' viewpoints for a critical appraisal of literature on conversion to organic food and farming. First, a brief historical retrospective enables us to refer the scientific production to the institutional and economic context over the past decades. Secondly, we review the methods used to analyse conversion in agricultural and social sciences, and show that emphasis is most often laid upon the effects of conversion and the motivations to convert, on the basis of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: STRATEGIE DE MARCHE; SOCIOLOGIE ENVIRONNEMENTALE; QUALITE DES PRODUITS; ALIMENTATION HUMAINE ORGANIC FOOD; ORGANIC FARMING; CONVERSION; TRANSITION; CONVENTIONALISATION THESIS; INTERDISCIPLINARITY; REDESIGN.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD200938c1936&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/06/
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Converting to organic horticulture as socio-technical trajectories Inra
Bellon, S.; Perrot, N.; Navarrete, M.; Fauriel, J.; Lamine, C..
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: ORGANIC FARMING; SOCIAL SCIENCES; MARKETING.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2007b85d44bb&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/02/
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Earthworm community in conventional, organic and direct seeding with living mulch cropping systems Inra
Pelosi, C.; Bertrand, M.; Roger-Estrade, J..
The loss of biodiversity by intensification of agricultural practices is a major environmental issue that calls for the design of new cropping systems. For instance, negative effects of tillage on earthworm populations have been reported. However, few field studies have compared full cropping systems. Here, we assessed diversity, density and biomass of earthworm populations for 3 years. We use a combinedmethod involving a diluted solution of allyl isothiocyanate to expel earthworms followed by hand sorting. In a long-term trial, we compared 3 systems: (1) a conventional system, (2) a direct seeding living mulch-based cropping system, named a living mulch cropping system, and (3) an organic system. These three cropping systems differed in terms of soil...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: CROPPING SYSTEM; EARTHWORMS; SOIL TILLAGE; ORGANIC FARMING; CONVENTIONAL; CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD200938a38b78&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/06/
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Eco-design and co-design : application to fruit production in Europe Inra
Bellon, S.; Fauriel, J.; Hemptine, J.L.; Jamar, L.; Lauri, P.E.; Lateur, M.; Libourel, G.; Simon, S..
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: FRUIT QUALITY; INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT; BIOLOGICAL CONTROL; ORGANIC FARMING; SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20097b688ad7&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/02/
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Ecological, technical and social innovation processes in conservation agriculture research position and first results of the ANR funded program PEPITES Inra
De Tourdonnet, S.; Triomphe, B.; Scopel, E..
Les techniques culturales sans labour et l'Agriculture de Conservation (AC), fondées sur une perturbation minimale du sol, le maintien d'une couverture végétale en surface et une diversification des rotations et associations de cultures, se développent rapidement au nord et au sud. Leur émergence procède souvent d'un processus d'innovation original, fondé sur un apprentissage permanent et adaptatif au sein de réseaux sociotechniques novateurs, qui bouscule les schémas linéaires de conception et transfert des innovations. Les modifications du fonctionnement de l'agrosystème en AC sont susceptibles de fournir des services écosystémiques, mais la mise en œuvre délicate de ces techniques peut en diminuer les performances, notamment en augmentant la dépendance...
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: NON LABOUR; PLANTE DE COUVERTURE; SERVICE ECOLOGIQUE; RESEAU SOCIOTECHNIQUE; APPROCHE PARTICIPATIVE; PARTENARIAT NO-TILLAGE; COVER CROP; ORGANIC FARMING; ECOLOGICAL SERVICE; SOCIOTECHNICAL NETWORK; INTERDISCIPLINARITY; PARTICIPATORY APPROACH; INVOLVMENT OF SKATEHOLDERS.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2011fdbeab6b&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/04/
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Emerging agroscience Inra
Lichtfouse, E.; Hamelin, M.; Navarrete, M.; Debaeke, P.; Henri, A..
Climate change and the recent financial crisis clearly show that humans have entered the anthropocene, an unprecedented era of fast and possibly dangerous changes. Unprecedented changes call for unprecedented thinking. Indeed, agricultural research has been for too long driven solely by the need for higher yields using classical agrosciences, whatever the adverse ecological effects. Agricultural research needs the input of other sciences such as ecological, economic, social and political sciences. These social sciences emerged in agricultural research a few decades ago, but there are currently no precise trends and data on the speed of emergence of specific topics. Therefore, here we report: (1) an analysis of the emergence of topics in the journal...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE; PLANTE TRANSGENIQUE; SOCIOLOGIE; BIODIVERSITE AGRICULTURE; CLIMATE CHANGE; BIOFUEL; TRANSGENIC PLANTS; BIODIVERSITY; SOCIOLOGY; ORGANIC FARMING; CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE; URBAN AGRICULTURE; INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE; CARBON SEQUESTRATION; SOIL CARBON; CROP ROTATION; NO TILLAGE; BENEFICIAL MICROBES; CITATION ANALYSIS; TOPIC EMERGENCE ANALYSIS; MOST-CITED ARTICLES; MOST-DOWNLOADED ARTICLES.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD201155fe34e6&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/04/
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Évaluation des sources d'espèces et des déterminants de la diversité végétale des parcelles agricoles Inra
Gaujour, E..
L'un des moyens pour faire face à la réduction de l'utilisation d'intrants de synthèse est de favoriser durablement les services agro-écologiques de la diversité végétale. Pour cela, l'agriculteur devra adapter ses modes de gestion. Ma thèse s'inscrit dans l'objectif finalisé d'apporter à l'agriculteur, de l'aide à la gestion de cette diversité végétale sur le territoire de son exploitation. Je me suis fixé 2 objectifs de recherche : i) vérifier si les interchamps et le stock semencier constituent des sources d'espèces pour le centre des parcelles agricoles et ii) quantifier l'influence de la dynamique de deux grands groupes de facteurs, représentée sous la forme de trajectoires de parcelles, sur la diversité végétale : les pratiques agricoles et les...
Tipo: Thesis Palavras-chave: STOCK SEMENCIER DU SOL; ZONE INTERCHAMPS; ANALYSE DE CO-INERTIE; ANALYSE TRIADIQUE PARTIELLE; CHAMP CULTIVE; GRADIENT DE VEGETATION; MÉTHODE K-TABLEAUX; PRAIRIE PERMANENTE; SYSTÈME DE PRODUCTION AGRICOLE; TRAJECTOIRE DE PARCELLE; TRAIT FONCTIONNEL CO-INERTIA ANALYSIS; CROP FIELD; FIELD PATH; FUNCTIONAL TRAIT; K-TABLE METHOD; LANDSCAPE; ORGANIC FARMING; PARITAL TRIADIC ANALYSIS; PERMANENT GRASSLAND; SYSTEM OF FARMING PRODUCTION; VEGETATION GRADIENT .
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD201190443371&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/01/
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Evaluation of the STICS crop model within the INTERCROP EU project to simulate pea-barley intercropping systems Inra
Launay, M.; Brisson, N.; Corre-Hellou, G.; Dibet, A.; Crozat, Y.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Kasyanova, E.; Monti, M.; Dahlmann, C..
This work is devoted to the evaluation and utilization of the STICS intercrop/sole crop model taking into account the European environmental variability within an organic farming framework. The model ability to simulate intercropping systems was evaluated on the network of the INTERCROP EU project experiments. We first realized the difficulty to simulate relevant absolute production values in spite of a satisfactorily phase of parameterisation in conventional farming experiments. We attributed most of the discrepancies between simulations and measurements to the non accounting of biotic stresses. However, the relative values and in particular the Land Equivalent Ratios draw to the same results for simulation and observation, i.e. the global advantage of...
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: MODELE DE CULTURE CROP MODEL; INTERCROPPING; PEA; BARLEY; ORGANIC FARMING.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD201124411962&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/03/
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Farm meat marketing in cattle suckler breeding : Economic results and impacts on breeding system management Inra
Ingrand, S.; Veysset, P.; Limon, M..
In response to the bovine crises of 1996 and 2000, and also to the poorly structuredorganic beef market chain, direct marketing of beef to consumers by the farmer hasdeveloped. We studied the impact of this marketing system on economic performanceand farming practices. The results show that direct marketing can generate addedvalue, despite the extra costs. Farmers have made the necessary changes to theirpractices, and have adapted their herd management. Through strengthening the linkbetween the farm and the outside world, direct marketing offers an alternative to theexpansion of farms, making it possible to support a greater workforce with the samestructure.
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: SYSTEME D'ELEVAGE; ELEVAGE DE BOVIN ALLAITANT; VIANDE BOVINE; VENTE DIRECTE BEEF; SUCKLER CATTLE; DIRECT MARKETING; ORGANIC FARMING.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2008754664e0&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/03/
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Farmers adoption of integrated crop protection and organic farming: Do moral and social concerns matter Inra
Mzoughi, N..
We investigate empirically the role of moral and social concerns in farmers' decision to adopt integrated crop protection (IP) and organic farming (OF). A survey questionnaire has been sent to 1286 fruit-growers and vegetable producers located in the French areas of Alpes de Haute Provence, Hautes-Alpes and Vaucluse. Analysis of individual responses (N = 243) shows that, although economic concerns play a strong role, a significant number of respondents give high importance to moral and social ones. We also examine how these considerations matter according to different crop protection strategies, that is, conventional farming, IP and OF. Using a multinomial logistic regression, we find that (1) social concerns (e.g., showing to others one's environmental...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: INTEGRATED PROTECTION; ORGANIC FARMING; SOCIAL AND MORAL CONSERNS.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD201113d0a4cd&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/05/
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Farmers adoption of integrated crop protection and organic farming: do moral and social incentives matter Inra
Mzoughi, N..
We use survey data to provide some empirical information about considerations regarding moral and social incentives among a sample of French fruit-growers and vegetable producers(N=243). Our results show that, beyond the strong role played by economic incentives, a significant number of respondents give high importance to moral and social incentives. We also examine how these behaviors matter according to different crop protection strategies, that is, conventional farming, integrated crop protection (IP) and organic farming (OF). Using a multinomial logistic regression, we find that (1) social incentives (e.g., showing to others one’s environmental commitment) drive both IP and OF adoption, (2) moral incentives (e.g., do not feel guilty about one’s...
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: FARMERS; INCENTIVES; INTEGRATED PROTECTION; ORGANIC FARMING.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20107a103ad3&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/02/
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Innovations et performances environnementales en production caprine et ovine : Expertise Elevage-Environnement à l’INRA Inra
Bocquier, F.; Benoit, M.; Laignel, G.; Dedieu, B.; Cournut, S.; Fiorelli, C.; Jouven, M.; Moulin, C.H.; Aubron, C.; Lurette, A.; Lapeyronie, P.; Hassoun, P.; Meuret, M.; Agreil, C.; Napoleone, M.; Hoste, H.; Friggens, N.; Tichit, M.; Gonzalez Garcia, E.; Hazard, D.; François, D.; Pellicer Rubio, M.; Guillouet, P.; Boissard, K.; Fabre-Nys, C.; Debus, N.; Teyssier, J.; Tournadre, H.; Migaud, M.; Malpaux, B.; Chemineau, P.; Bodin, L.; Prache, S.; Bouix, J.; Barillet, F.; Boutonnet, J.P.; Chia, E.; Lasseur, J.; Etienne, M.; Gibon, A.; Choisis, J.P.; Labatut, J.; Paoli, J.C.; Santucci, P..
Les systèmes d’élevage ovins et les caprins, comme les autres productions animales, sont confrontés aux multiples défis environnementaux : limiter les nuisances et contribuer positivement à l’entretien ou à l’amélioration du milieu. Les travaux de l’INRA, et de ses partenaires, se sont largement impliqués dans ces questions en considérant ces élevages de petits ruminants comme faisant partie d‘agroécosystèmes complexes. Cette synthèse collective rassemble, en privilégiant les niveaux d’approche, les actions dans lesquels l’INRA intervient. Considérant tout d’abord les grandes tendances sur les effectifs d’animaux et leur répartition géographique, les adaptations ou les disparitions de ces élevages se repèrent par les approches technico-économiques. Dans ce...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: SHEEP; GOAT; SMALL-RUMINANT; MEAT PRODUCTION; DAIRY PRODUCTS; FARMING SYSTEM; ORGANIC FARMING; CONCENTRATE; FERTILIZERS; HORMONES; SEASONAL BREEDING; GRAZING; NATURAL PASTURES; RANGELANDS; PASTORAL RESOURCE; SYLVO-PASTORAL; TRANSHUMANCE; SOIL FERTILITY; BIODIVERSITY; ECOSYSTEMIC SERVICE; GLOBAL EFFICIENCY; GREENHOUSE GAS; TERRITORIES; LANDSCAPE; LABOUR; INNOVATION; INVENTION TRANSFER; ANIMAL SELECTION; PRECISION FARMING; ECOLOGICAL INTENSIFICATION; MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD201176bcaa27&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/04/
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Is organic farming more liveable ? A survey of dairy farmers in the East of France Inra
Hellec, F.; Blouet, A..
As we observed it in the Eastern France, organic dairy breeders usually say that they are "more at ease with themselves" than their conventional colleagues. They feel that their farms are more liveable. In this article, we try to understand the different meanings of such an assertion. As it was repeated in different circumstances, we analysed it at a social construction, which informs us about professional identity of French organic farmers. Our aim is to assess if these farmers form a different social group than the conventional producers, and if they are able to change the frontiers and the culture of the agricultural profession. This article is based on a sociological study led in the Vosges on dairy breeders who convert to organic over the past...
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: ORGANIC FARMING; DAIRY CATTLE; SOCIOLOGY OF PROFESSIONS; LIFE STORIES.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2011d2e4f1e4&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/04/
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Maîtriser la reproduction en élevage ovin biologique : influence de facteurs d’élevage sur l’efficacité de l’effet bélier Inra
Tournadre, H.; Pellicer Rubio, M.; Bocquier, F..
Une des façons d’améliorer l’efficacité de l’effet bélier est de se placer dans de bonnes conditions d’élevage. Ainsi, la proportion de brebis dont l’ovulation est induite augmente lorsque la date d’introduction des mâles est plus tardive (55% en avril vs 81% fin mai, p<0,05) et avec l’allongement de l’intervalle entre le tarissement et la mise en lutte : de 29% à 84% (p<0,001) pour des intervalles respectifs de 22 et 86 jours. La fertilité de ces brebis est également meilleure fin mai qu’en avril (86% vs 39%, p<0,01) et lorsque l’intervalle écoulé depuis le tarissement est accru : respectivement 55% et 81% (p=0,09). Enfin, le moment d’apparition des premières ovulations fertiles est retardé chez les brebis en état corporel faible car elles...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: EFFET MALE; ELEVAGE BIOLOGIQUE; SAISON SEXUELLE; NIVEAU ALIMENTAIRE RAM EFFECT; SEASONAL ANOESTRUS; ORGANIC FARMING; FEEDING LEVEL.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20093bb9b20d&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/06/
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