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Registros recuperados: 29
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A bortermelés struktúrájának változásai AgEcon
Brazsil, David.
A szőlő-bor vertikum termelési oldalán jelentős koncentrációs folyamatok kez¬dődtek. A koncentráció egyik motorja a befektetők, akik az 1980-as évektől jelentek meg nagy számban az ágazatban. Stratégiájukat alapvetően az alapanyaghoz való hozzáférés, a terjeszkedési lehetőség, a márkaépítés és a disztribúciós csatornákhoz való hozzáférés határozza meg. Magyarországon a koncentrációs folyamatokat a jogi-gazdasági környezet erősen befolyásolta. ------------------------------------- Significant concentration processes have begun in the production side of the grape and wine business. These are in part driven by the investors who appeared in large numbers in this field after the eighties. Their strategy is basically determined by their access to raw...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Szőlő-bor ágazat; Liberalizáció; Oligopólium; Befektetés; Viticulture and winemaking; Liberalisation; Oligopoly; Investment; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92504
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A CLASSROOM EXPERIMENT ON OLIGOPOLIES AgEcon
Nelson, Robert G.; Beil, Richard O., Jr..
This experiment demonstrates principles of decision-making in dynamic oligopolies, especially the difficulties in forming and maintaining cartels. As an illustration of firm behavior under imperfect competition, the game distinguishes between procedurally rational choices and substantively rational decisions in the context of collusive, Cournot, and competitive equilibria. The paper discusses results from an actual classroom exercise and suggests some additional variations in institutional details. Instructions for students and a spreadsheet program for producing payoff tables are provided in the appendices.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Teaching; Experimental economics; Oligopoly; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15353
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Bidding for WIC infant formula contracts: Do non-WIC customers subsidize WIC customers? AgEcon
Davis, David E..
Although the WIC food assistance program purchases over one-half of all US infant formula, I find the program has little impact on the prices paid by non-WIC customers. I estimate infant-formula marginal cost and find that it is low compared to price, implying large price-cost markups. But, the WIC program is not to blame. Instead large price-cost markups are likely due to customer’s price insensitivity. WIC’s impact on non-WIC customers comes through an increase in sales owing to a WIC “spill-over” effect. The WIC approved brand attains a prominence in the market that makes it a natural choice for non-WIC customers, which makes attaining WIC approval valuable to firms. Firms bid with rebates to attain exclusive WIC approved status which results in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Price cost margins; WIC; Oligopoly; Food Assistance; Infant Formula; Auctions; Contracts; Consumer/Household Economics; Health Economics and Policy; Industrial Organization; L11; L113; I18; D12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102457
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Buyer Alliances as Countervailing Power in WIC Infant-Formula Auctions AgEcon
Davis, David E..
State WIC agencies in infant-formula procurement auctions receive lower bids and final prices when they are in buyer’s alliances than when they are unallied. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) uses an auction to procure infant formula. Manufacturers bid on the right to be an agency’s sole supplier by offering a rebate on formula sold through WIC. A theoretical model of rebates shows that bidders may shade their bids and extract surplus from agencies. An empirical estimation shows that bids are lower to alliances suggesting that alliances countervail the power of bidders to extract surplus.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Auctions; Food assistance; Countervailing power; Buyer concentration; Oligopoly; WIC.; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Industrial Organization; L13; D43; D44; Q18; I18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123863
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COST PASS THROUGH IN THE CASE OF SEQUENTIAL OLIGOPOLY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE FLUID MILK MARKET AgEcon
Dhar, Tirtha Pratim; Cotterill, Ronald W..
We estimate the cost pass through rates (CPTR) in the Boston fluid milk market while taking into account strategic conduct (Vertical Nash, Vertical Stackleberg) between retailers and processors. By using structural demand and supply specification we estimate and test for the pass through rates at different stages of fluid milk marketing channels. Processors have higher pass through rates than retailers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost Pass Through Rate; Oligopoly; Retail; Marketing Channel; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21535
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Equilibrio de un oligopolio con empresa dominante: Una aplicación al mercado de la carne de cerdo en Chile AgEcon
Marchant, Ricardo.
Published by Asociación de Economistas Agrarios de Chile
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Monopoly power; Oligopoly; Pork market; Residual demand elasticity; Industrial Organization; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97356
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ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE ADVERTISING STRATEGIES AgEcon
Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry S.; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
AgEcon Search copy replaced with 1999 version 02/02/06.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Strategies; Noncooperative games; Oligopoly; Generalized maximum entropy; Beverages; Marketing; C13; C35; C72; L13; L66.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25057
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ESTIMATING MARKET POWER AND PRICING CONDUCT IN A PRODUCT-DIFFERENTIATED OLIGOPOLY: THE CASE OF THE DOMESTIC SPAGHETTI SAUCE INDUSTRY AgEcon
Vickner, Steven S.; Davies, Stephen P..
This paper develops a simultaneous-equations panel data econometric model to obtain point estimates of market power and pricing conduct in a representative product-differentiated, oligopolistic food market. The importance of this class of markets is recognized given its prevalence in the food and fiber system, especially for final consumer food products. The $1.3 billion domestic spaghetti sauce industry is featured. Although the results indicate firms exert limited market power, a portion of this power is derived from tacit price collusion. A higher degree of price collusion was found among brands within a market segment than between segments.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Market power; Oligopoly; Pricing conduct; Product differentiation; Marketing.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15137
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Firm-Level Competition in Price and Variety AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Consumer product manufacturers often compete in dynamic, multi-firm oligopolies using multiple strategic tools. While existing empirical models of strategic interaction typically consider only parts of the more general problem, this paper presents a more comprehensive alternative. Marketing decision are dynamically optimal, consistent with optimal consumer choice, and responsive to rival decisions. Using a single-market case study that consists of five years of four-weekly data on ready-to-eat cereal sales, prices, and new brand introductions, we test several hypotheses regarding the nature of strategic interaction among several rival manufacturers. We find that cereal manufacturers price and introduce new brands cooperatively in the same period, but...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cereal; Differentiated products; Dynamics; Oligopoly; Product line rivalry; Strategic interaction; Demand and Price Analysis; D43; L13; L66; M31; Q13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43788
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How Does Advertising Affect Market Performance? The Case of Generic Advertising AgEcon
Hamilton, Stephen F.; Richards, Timothy J.; Stiegert, Kyle W..
The effect of advertising on market performance has been a long-standing debate. Advertising that increases the dispersion of consumers’ valuations for advertised goods raises the market power of firms, while advertising that decreases the dispersion of consumers’ valuations leads to narrower price-cost margins and superior performance in markets for advertised goods. Numerous challenges confound the empirical identification of advertising effects on market performance. This paper proposes a simple method that relies on the revealed preferences of firms participating in generic advertising programs. Generic advertising programs provide a unique window through which to observe advertising effects on market performance, because changes in the dispersion of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Advertising; Oligopoly; Marketing; L1; M37.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49187
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Imperfect Competition in the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Industry AgEcon
Requillart, Vincent; Simioni, Michel; Varela Irimia, Xose Luis.
Do retailers exert market power in the fresh fruit and vegetables markets? In the EU countries, as the retail industry distributes a significant part of fruit and vegetables, a non competitive behavior might have significant impact on consumption, on surplus and welfare. In this paper, we shed some light on the degree of non-competitive distortions in the French fresh fruit and vegetable markets. We analyze the market of tomato. The analysis is based on aggregate data on final consumption and prices at both shipper and consumer levels in France. The structural model is composed of a system of demand equations, supply equations and pricing equations which include terms that capture the oligopoly and oligopsony power of the retail sector and that account for...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Oligopsony; Oligopoly; Retail industry; Fruit and vegetable markets.; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58116
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Imperfect competition in the fresh tomato industry AgEcon
Requillart, Vincent; Simioni, Michel; Varela Irimia, Xose Luis.
In this paper, we analyse the market power of the retail industry in the French tomato market. Following the methods developed in the New Empirical Industrial Organization, we develop a structural model of this industry. The analysis is based on detailed data on final consumption and prices at both shipper and consumer levels for two types of tomatoes in France. The structural model is composed of a system of demand equations, supply equations and pricing equations which include terms which capture the oligopoly and oligopsony power of the retail sector. We show that i) elasticity of demand varies during the year ii) the retail sector exercise only a ‘moderate’ market power iii) the exercise of market power decreases over time iv) If markets were...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Oligopoly; Oligopsony; Fresh products; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44279
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Input Production Joint Venture AgEcon
Rossini, Gianpaolo; Vergari, Cecilia.
In many industries it is quite common to observe firms delegating the production of essential inputs to independent ventures jointly established with competing rivals. The diffusion of this arrangement and the favourable stance of competition authorities call for the assessment of the social and private desirability of Input Production Joint Ventures (IPJV), which represent a form of input production cooperation, not investigated so far. IPJV can be seen as an intermediate organizational setting lying between the two extremes of vertical integration and vertical separation. Our investigation is based on an oligopoly model with horizontally differentiated goods. We characterize the conditions under which IPJV is privately optimal finding that firms’...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Input Production Joint Venture; Horizontal Differentiation; Oligopoly; Production Economics; L24; L42.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55288
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MARKET COMPETITION AND METROPOLITAN-AREA GROCERY PRICES AgEcon
Binkley, James K.; Connor, John M..
This paper examines the relationship of 1987 retail grocery prices to supermarket sales concentration across 95 U.S. metropolitan areas. The regression model incorporates a large number of population, retail-cost, and retail competition factors and separate prices by type of grocery item. We find that the concentration-price relationship is sensitive to item type: positive for packaged, branded, dry groceries and unrelated for produce, meat, and dairy product prices. As for market rivalry, we find that small grocery stores provide no grocery price competition for supermarkets. However, branded grocery prices are driven down by fast-food places and by rapid price churning, whereas for unbranded foods the presence of warehouse stores places downward...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Retail grocery trade; Pricing policy; Variable price merchandising; Market competition; Category management; Market structure; Sales concentration; Price discrimination; Price rivalry; Oligopoly; Food demand; Food prices; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25988
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Market Concentration of the Processed Food in Korea AgEcon
Kim, Sounghun.
In Korea, processed food markets have various shapes of structure: the markets of ice cream, special dietary food, noodles, sugar are highly concentrated, while the markets of gimchi, pickles, and ice are not very concentrated. The level of market concentration changes over time. These market structures and structural changes cause impacts on related industries as well as own industries. For the more successful policies, the paper suggests three ideas: to realize that each food processing industry has a different industry structure, to understand the relationship between the food processing industry and upstream and downstream industries and to take into account opinions from various sources before adopting new policies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Processed food market; Food processing industry; Market structure; Market concentration; CR4; CR10; Monopoly; Oligopoly; Korea; Korean; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45682
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MARKET POWER AND COST-EFFICIENCY EFFECTS OF THE MARKET CONCENTRATION IN THE U.S. NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY AgEcon
Kim, C.S.; Hallahan, Charles B.; Taylor, Harold; Schluter, Gerald E..
This article examines the effects of increasing market concentration level in the U.S. nitrogen fertilizer industry. Results indicate that the costs of market power are greater than the benefits of market concentration, in terms of manufacturing cost efficiency. To provide a stable nitrogen fertilizer supply at a relatively low price, it may be necessary to control natural gas price and/or reduce new import barriers from Middle East and former member states of the Soviet Union, where low cost gas is produced as a byproduct. Keywords: Nitrogen fertilizer, oligopoly, economies of size, market power, cost-efficiency.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nitrogen fertilizer; Oligopoly; Economies of size; Market power; Cost-efficiency.; Marketing.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19674
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Market Power in the Corn Sector: How Does It Affect the Impacts of the Ethanol Subsidy? AgEcon
Saitone, Tina L.; Sexton, Richard J.; Sexton, Steven E..
Market power is discussed in debates about subsidies for ethanol production. The structural conditions in the corn industry create a case for concerns about market power. We develop an analytical model for determining the production and price impacts and the distribution of benefits from the U.S ethanol subsidy when upstream sellers in the seed sector and downstream buyers in the processing sector may exercise market power. Results demonstrate that the impacts on prices and output are probably limited. Distribution impacts are much greater. Seed producers and corn processors with market power capture relatively large shares of subsidy benefits.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Corn ethanol; Market power; Oligopoly; Oilopsony; Subsidy; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42457
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Measuring Competition in the U.S. Airline Industry Using the Rosse-Panzar Test and Cross-Sectional Regression Analyses AgEcon
Fischer, Thorsten; Kamerschen, David R..
We employ the Rosse-Panzar test to assess market performance in selected airport-pairs originating from Atlanta. The Rosse-Panzar test stands in the tradition of the New Empirical Industrial Organization. It is based on the comparative statics of a reduced form revenue equation. Therefore, it is less powerful than structural models, but it offers the advantage of less stringent data requirements and reduces the risk of model misspecifications. The test statistic allows us in most airport-pairs to reject both conducts consistent with the Bertrand outcome, which is equivalent to perfect competition, and the collusive outcome, which is equivalent to joint profit-maximization. Rather, the test statistic suggests that behavior is consistent with a range of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Airlines; Oligopoly; Conduct; Price-cost margins; Lerner index; Rosse-Panzar test; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; L00; L40; L93.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44041
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Modeling Differentiated Quality Standards in the Agri-Food Sector: The Case of Meat Trade in the EU AgEcon
Rau, Marie-Luise; van Tongeren, Frank W..
This paper looks at trade impacts of quality related standards from the supply side of the exporting country. We argue that food quality standards imposed by an importing country have profound effects on the market structure of the exporting industry, and hence a significant impact on the supply response. For our analysis, we develop a stylized oligopoly model that allows for the co-existence of complying and non-complying suppliers. The model is applied to two alternative policy options to explore different mechanisms an importing county may use to enhance the quality of its imports. We take the Polish meat sector as an empirical example, since after Poland's accession to the EU the tight EU food quality standards indeed apply but the process of adjusting...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food quality standards; Trade; Market structure; Poland; Meat sector; Oligopoly; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; Q17; Q18; L1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25739
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Precos agricolas e teoria de mark-up. Repositório Alice
VIEIRA, R. de C. M. T.; TEIXEIRA FILHO, A. R..
O poder de mercado e o fator decisivo na determinacao do nivel de inflacao, na medida em que permite as empreas manter susas margens e elevar os precos autonomamente, independente do mercado. O setoragricola, embora tido como um setor perfeitamente competitivo, conta com um setor atacadista oligopolizado que manipula a oferta e pode criar artificialmente e a escassez. E um mercado em que poucos concorrentes sao responsaveis por parcela consideravel de abastecimento da populacao. Com estrutura concentrada de mercado, o setor atacadista e frequentemente apontado como grande responsavel pelo fenomeno inflacionario, particularmente atraves dos servicos comerciais de abastecimento. O objetivo do presente estudo e analisar a inflacao de precos agricolas...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Oligopólio; Inflacion; Inflação; Oligopoly.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/112338
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