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A Gestão do conhecimento para o desenvolvimento de inovações em micro e pequenas empresas. Repositório Alice
OLIVEIRA, C. L. R. DE.
bitstream/item/184255/1/DISSERTACAO-cibele-lopes-rizzuto-de-oliveira.pdf
Tipo: Tese/dissertação (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Gestão do Conhecimento; Inovação; Patente; Information management; Patents; Innovation adoption.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1097264
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ACCESSING OTHER PEOPLE'S TECHNOLOGY: DO NON-PROFIT AGENCIES NEED IT? HOW TO OBTAIN IT AgEcon
Nottenburg, Carol; Pardey, Philip G.; Wright, Brian D..
As patents and other forms of intellectual property become more pervasive in the next generation of biotechnologies, designing policies and practices to ensure sufficient freedom to operate (i.e., the ability to practice or use an innovation) will be crucial for non-profit agencies in the developed and developing world, especially those intent on developing improved seed varieties and other technologies destined for commercial release. Are non-profits exempt from intellectual property claims? What constitutes infringement of a patent? How does a non-profit establish its freedom to operate? We address these issues in this paper and evaluate various options for accessing other people’s technologies. Options include cross- licensing agreements, research-only...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research; Agricultural biotechnologies; Patents; Intellectual property; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16099
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Agricultural Sustainability and the Introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
In order to cater for the predicted growth in global population and aspirations for increased living standards, the world needs to increase substantially its level of agricultural production and sustain agriculture’s increased productivity. New technologies may enable this to occur but they also bring with them increased sustainability problems. There are many complex dimensions to achieving agricultural sustainability such as deciding on what agricultural attributes are worth sustaining and considering what trade-offs in objectives are required. These issues are discussed from a conceptual point of view. It is also shown using economic theory that market-based agriculture limits the opportunity for individual farmers to adopt sustainable agricultural...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural development; Agricultural sustainability; Biodiversity; Co-evolution; Economic sustainability; Genetically modified organisms; GMOs; Monopolisation; Patents; Social sustainability.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q000; Q010; Q200; Q300; Q500; Q570.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55335
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Cereus jamacaru DC. (Cactaceae): From 17 th century naturalists to modern day scientific and technological prospecting Acta Botanica
Silva,Luana Fernanda Costa Raulino; Valle,Luci de Senna; Nascimento,Ana Regina Campos; Medeiros,Maria Franco Trindade.
ABSTRACT Mandacaru (Cereus jamacaru DC - Cactaceae) possesses peculiar physiological and morphological characteristics that allow it to withstand long periods of scarcity and to adapt to different environments. Several uses have also been reported for the species from the 17th century to the present day. Given this history and the importance of the usage of mandacaru, the present investigation aimed to gather information about its uses from different documentary sources, and to perform a comparative analysis between past and present uses. Historia Naturalis Brasiliae by Piso and Marcgrave (17th century) served as the primary source, while information on labels of exsicates in botanical collections, basic scientific literature, and applications for patent...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cereus jamacaru; Mandacaru; Medicinal potential; Forage use; Seventeenth century; Patents; Historical ethnobotany.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062019000200191
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China's Reformed Science and Technology System: An Overview and Assessment AgEcon
Gao, Zhicun; Tisdell, Clement A..
Starting from the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, this article provides background on China’s science and technology (S&T) system and the perceived growing urgency of reforming it in order to support continuing economic growth in China. The need for reform became even more pressing once China commenced its market-oriented economic reforms in 1979. Comparative data are provided on China’s S&T sector, the processes of reforming China’s S&T system is outlined and discussed as well as changing patterns in the source of funds for its S & T research. China’s evolving technology market is given particular attention as well as its establishment of a patent system. The importance of closer ties between technology...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: China; Economic reforms; Patents; Research and development; Science and technology policy; Technology markets; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90528
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Do Technology Shocks Shift Output? An Empirical Analysis of a Two Factor Model AgEcon
Ulku, Hulya.
This study identifies the effect of technology shocks on aggregate output using confirmatory factor analysis employed by Griliches, Hall and Pakes (1991). The analysis is based on the assumptions that there are two distinct shocks in an economy, demand and technology shocks, and that the patent data contain additional information on technology shocks. The findings show that, while the patent and R&D data do not contain significant information on technology shocks in the full sample of OECD countries, they do have significant information on these shocks in the G13 countries. The results suggest that, in the G13 countries technology shocks can explain almost all of the unexpected changes in patent stock, half of those in R&D stock and a quarter of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technology shocks; Innovation; R&D; Patents; Output; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30547
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ECONOMIC ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AgEcon
Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Harwood, Joy L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Dunahay, Terry; Heisey, Paul W.; Hoffman, Linwood A.; Klotz-Ingram, Cassandra; Lin, William W.; Mitchell, Lorraine; McBride, William D.; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge.
Agricultural biotechnology has been advancing very rapidly, and while it presents many promises, it also poses as many questions. Many dimensions to agricultural biotechnology need to be considered to adequately inform public policy. Policy is made more difficult by the fact that agricultural biotechnology encompasses many policy issues addressed in very different ways. We have identified several key areas — agricultural research policy, industry structure, production and marketing, consumer issues, and future world food demand — where agricultural biotechnology is dramatically affecting the public policy agenda. This report focuses on the economic aspects of these issues and addresses some current and timely issues as well as longer term issues.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Economics; Adoption; Patents; Research policy; Markets; Market segmentation; Identity preservation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33735
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Efficiency Improving Fossil Fuel Technologies for Electricity Generation: Data Selection and Trends AgEcon
Lanzi, Elisa; Verdolini, Elena; Hascic, Ivan.
This paper studies innovation dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important means of mitigating climate change impacts. Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. We find that patenting in efficiency improving technologies has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. We also find that majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in non-OECD or BRIC countries. Conversely, non-OECD and BRIC countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically. This result shows that there is significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency improving technologies for electricity production. This flow of know-how is likely to contribute to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Technological Innovation; Energy; Patents; Fossil Fuels; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q32; Q4; Q55.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99688
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Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines AgEcon
Rubbelke, Dirk T.G.; Weiss, Pia.
We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on innovation activities. In addition, we find that price-based policy instruments are more effective in fostering innovations in the wind turbine technology when energy markets are fully open to competition. In contrast, non-price-based policy instruments such as grants or...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Renewable Energy; Market Structure; Wind Turbines; Innovation; Patents; Technological Change; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q55; Q58; O34; O38.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102569
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Estrategias sobre innovacion en las empresas multinacionales agroalimentarias AgEcon
Rama, Ruth; Alfranca, Oscar; von Tunzelmann, Nicholas.
Las multinacionales agroalimentarias son las principales innovadoras del sector agroalimentario mundial y agentes económicos fundamentales del cambio tecnológico en el sector agroalimentario español. El estudio del comportamiento innovador de las multinacionales agroalimentarias presenta interés puesto que el 50% de la tecnología relacionada mundialmente con la alimentación procede de este tipo de empresas. Basándonos en una muestra de más de 16.000 patentes concedidas, entre 1969-94, a las mayores empresas multinacionales alimentarias y en los resultados de diversos estudios recientes, este trabajo aborda algunos de los principales aspectos de la innovación en estos importantes agentes económicos, tales como la globalización de sus actividades...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agrifood multinational; Patents; Innovation; Food industry; Agribusiness; F23; L66.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28793
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GOVERNMENT PATENTING AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AgEcon
Heisey, Paul W.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; King, John L..
Intellectual property rights such as patents protect new inventions from imitation and competition. Patents' major objective is to provide incentives for invention, sacrificing short-term market efficiency for long-term economic gains. Although patents are primarily granted to private firms, policy changes over the last 25 years have resulted in greater use of patenting by the public sector. This study examines government patenting behavior by analyzing case studies of patenting and licensing by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ARS uses patenting and licensing as a means of technology transfer in cases in which a technology requires additional development by a private sector partner to yield a marketable...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Patents; Licenses; Intellectual property rights; Technology transfer; Agricultural Research Service; Agricultural research and development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33597
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Improving the Energy-Efficiency of Buildings: The Impact of Environmental Policy on Technological Innovation AgEcon
Noailly, Joelle.
This paper investigates the impact of alternative environmental policy instruments on technological innovations aiming to improve energy-efficiency in buildings. The empirical analysis focuses on three main types of policy instruments, namely regulatory energy standards in buildings codes, energy taxes as captured by energy prices and specific governmental energy R&D expenditures. Technological innovation is measured using patent counts for specific technologies related to energy-efficiency in buildings (e.g. insulation, high-efficiency boilers, energy-saving lightings). The estimates for seven European countries over the 1989-2004 period imply that a strengthening of 10% of the minimum insulation standards for walls would increase the likelihood to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Technological Change; Patents; Energy-Efficiency; Buildings; Environmental Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O31; O34; Q55.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94777
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Increasing Canada's International Competitiveness: Is There a Link between Skilled Immigrants and Innovation? AgEcon
Partridge, Jamie; Furtan, William Hartley.
We use an augmented national ideas production function to examine skilled immigrants' impact on Canadian innovation at the provincial level. Empirically, this model was tested using Canadian data by province on innovation flow over an 11 year time period, where innovation flow is defined in terms of international (U.S.) patents. It was found that skilled immigrants, who are proficient in either English or French, have a significant and positive impact on innovation flow in their home province. Further, in examining skilled immigrants by source region, it was found that skilled immigrants from developed countries have the greatest impact on their home province's innovation flow. This is true of North American/European skilled immigrants for all skill-level...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Canada; Endogenous technological change; Innovation; National ideas; Production function; Patents; Skilled immigrants; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6504
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Industry-Science Connections in Agriculture: Do public science collaborations and knowledge flows contribute to firm-level agricultural research productivity? AgEcon
Toole, Andrew A.; King, John L..
Prior research identifies a direct positive link between the stock of public scientific knowledge and agricultural productivity; however, an indirect contribution to agricultural productivity is also possible when this stock facilitates private sector invention. This study examines how “connectedness” between the stock of public scientific knowledge and private firms influences firm-level research productivity. Bibliographic information identifies the nature and degree to which firms use public agricultural science through citations and collaborations on scientific papers. Fixed effects models show that greater citations and collaborations with university researchers are associated with greater agricultural research productivity.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Public science; Research productivity; Patents; Citations; Collaboration; R&D; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q16; O31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103211
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Innovative Behavior and Spatial Location - Using Patent Counts and Geographic Location To Estimate Innovative Spillins AgEcon
Miranowski, John A.; Monchuk, Daniel C..
In this paper we examine the relation between geographic location and innovative behavior. Knowledge spillins, as opposed to knowledge spillovers, are modeled as an externality which exists between geographically close economic agents and enters the representative inventor production function explicitly from neighboring regions. To proxy new innovative behavior and new knowledge generated we use counts of patent filings per county. The proposed geographic spillin is tested for the US Midwestern States of Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota using a newly constructed data set and implementing spatial statistical methods. The data set is comprised of primary inventor utility patent filings per county for the years...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Patents; Spatial Econometrics; Innovative Spillins; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18226
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Intellectual Property Rights and Crop-Improving R&D under Adaptive Destruction AgEcon
Yerokhin, Oleg; Moschini, GianCarlo.
This paper studies how the strength of intellectual property rights (IPRs) affects investments in biological innovations when the value of an innovation is stochastically reduced to zero because of the evolution of pest resistance. We frame the problem as a research and development (R&D) investment game in a duopoly model of sequential innovation. We characterize the incentives to invest in R&D under two competing IPR regimes, which differ in their treatment of the follow-on innovations that become necessary because of pest adaptation. Depending on the magnitude of the R&D cost, ex ante firms might prefer an intellectual property regime with or without a "research exemption" provision. The study of the welfare function that also accounts for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biological resistance; Intellectual property rights; Markov perfect equilibrium; Patents; Research exemption; R&D; Sequential innovation; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10008
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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: RETROSPECT AND PROSPECTS AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
This paper analyzes the main economic issues of intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection in the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO). A retrospective view on the establishment of the TRIPS (trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights) Agreement, a still controversial accomplishment of the Uruguay Round of trade liberalization, is provided. The paper reviews the economic rationale for the harmonization of IPRs, drawing both on economic theory considerations as well as emerging empirical evidence. The logic of linking IPR protection and trade in the context of the WTO is also re-examined. Some specific attention is devoted to the implications of TRIPS for agricultural and biotechnology innovations. The impact that IPR protection can...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Copyrights; Cross-border externalities; Intellectual property; International trade; Patents; Trademarks; TRIPS; WTO; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18369
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Linking Environmental and Innovation Policy AgEcon
Gerlagh, Reyer; Kverndokk, Snorre; Rosendahl, Knut Einar.
This paper addresses the timing and interdependence between innovation and environmental policy in a model of research and development (R&D). On a first-best path the environmental tax is set at the Pigouvian level, independent of innovation policy. With infinite patent lifetime, the R&D subsidy should be constant and independent of the state of the environment. However, with finite patent lifetime, optimal innovation policy depends on the stage of the environmental problem. In the early stages of an environmental problem, abatement research should be subsidized at a high level and this subsidy should fall monotonically over time to stimulate initial R&D investments. Alternatively, with a constant R&D subsidy, patents’ length should...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Research and Development; Innovation Subsidies; Patents; H21; O30; Q42.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37847
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Panorama tecnológico de biorreatores para pesquisa de transformação de resíduos sólidos em fertilizantes orgânicos. Infoteca-e
INACIO, C. de T.; GOUVEA, S. P.; LAFORET, M. R. C..
Com a finalidade de se realizar um levantamento da atividade de patenteamento de invenções nas categorias de biorreatores - que operam por meio da atividade microbiológica, aeróbica e em escala de teste de bancada ou piloto -, foi estabelecido o estudo de panorama de tecnologias publicadas em documentos de patente. Dentre os principais indicadores desse estudo, foram empregadas as variáveis da evolução temporal dos depósitos de patentes, das áreas de conhecimento das tecnologias, bem como dos países de origem desses depósitos.
Tipo: Documentos (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Biorreatores; Biotecnologia; Patente; Biotechnology; Patents.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/1096703
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Patent application in biotechnology at subclass C12N in Brazil at the period of 2001 to 2005 BABT
Buttow,Mônica Elisa; Steindel,Mário.
An analysis of Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial (INPI) patent database from 2001 to 2005 showed that less than 5% of the total patent deposited in the subclass C12N, which referred to "Microorganisms or Enzymes, Compositions thereof, Propagating, Preserving or Maintaining Microorganisms, Mutation or Genetic Engineering, Culture Media", were from national depositors. In contrast, more than 34% of all these deposits came from the United States of America during the same period. Among the national depositors, public universities and government research institutions contributed with 83% over all the deposits, demonstrating that research and development in the field of Biotechnology in Brazil has been concentrated within Brazilian public...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Patents; Biotechnology; Intellectual Property; Technologic Innovation.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132012000300003
Registros recuperados: 28
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