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A complementary method for production of tetraploid Crassostrea gigas using crosses between diploids and tetraploids with cytochalasin B treatments ArchiMer
Mccombie, Helen; Ledu, Christophe; Phelipot, Pascal; Lapegue, Sylvie; Boudry, Pierre; Gerard, Andre.
We present a new method to produce tetraploid Crassostrea gigas by cytochalasin B inhibition of polar body 2 expulsion in diploid females crossed with tetraploid males. This offers a means of direct introgression of genetic characters from selected diploid to tetraploid lines, avoiding a triploid step. Offspring larval ploidy shifted over time and depended on size, with tetraploids more frequent among the smaller larvae and triploids among the large. Viable tetraploids were found at 4 and 6 months, indicating the technique was successful. The possibility that gynogenesis occurred was tested by microsatellite analysis to confirm the presence of paternally inherited alleles. These were present in all animals of the 2n x 4n + CB (female first) cross. However,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Oyster breeding; Gynogenesis; Polar body; Cytochalasin B; Polyploidy; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/publication-632.pdf
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A karyotypic study of three southern Brazilian Asteraceae species using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a 45S rDNA probe and C-CMA3 banding Genet. Mol. Biol.
Fregonezi,Jéferson N.; Torezan,José M.D.; Vanzela,André L.L..
The Asteraceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, contains about 1,100 genera and 20,000 species, and is well known for its extensive karyotypic variation. In this study, conventional Feulgen staining, C-CMA3 banding, and fluorescence in situ hybridization with a 45S rDNA probe were used to determine the chromosome number and the number and physical position of GC-rich heterochromatin and 45S rDNA sites in three Asteraceae weed species (Crepis japonica, Galinsoga parviflora and Chaptalia nutans). The three species exhibited karyotype differences in the chromosome number and shape, as a commom feature of Asteraceae. However, the 45S rDNA sites always occurred on the short chromosomal arms, associated with GC-heterochromatin. Althought of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: CMA3; FISH; Heterochromatin; Polyploidy; 45S rDNA.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572004000200016
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A new approach for obtaining rapid uniformity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) via a 3x x 2x cross Genet. Mol. Biol.
Xing,Shaochen; Cai,Yuhong; Zhou,Kaida.
A triploid (2n = 3x = 36) rice plant was obtained by screening a twin seedling population in which each seed germinated to two or three sprouts that were then crossed with diploid plants. One diploid plant was chosen among the various F1 progenies and developed into an F2 population via self-pollination. Compared with the control variety Shanyou 63, this F2 population had a stable agronomical performance in field trials, as confirmed by the F-test. The stability of the F2 population was further substantiated by molecular analysis with simple sequence repeat markers. Specifically, of 160 markers assayed, 37 (covering all 12 chromosomes) were polymorphic between the parental lines. Testing the F1 hybrid individually with these markers showed that each PCR...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: F-test; Polyploidy; Rice; SSR marker; Stability.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572010000200020
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Arachis hoehnei, the probable B genome donor of Arachis hypogaea based on crossability, cytogenetical and molecular studies Open Agri
Mallikarjuna, N..
Palavras-chave: Genomes; Hybrids; Polyploidy; Cytogenetics; DNA; Groundnuts; Mosses; Genetic polymorphism; Polymorphism; Genetic improvement.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/openaccess/?q=node/3177
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Biotechnology applied to Annona species: a review Rev. Bras. Frutic.
Encina,Carlos Lopez; Martin,Elisabeth Carmona; Lopez,Antonio Arana; Padilla,Isabel Maria Gonzalez.
Annonaceae is an ancient family of plants including approximately 50 genera growing worldwide in a quite restricted area with specific agroclimatic requirements. Only few species of this family has been cultivated and exploited commercially and most of them belonging to the genus Annona such as A. muricata, A. squamosa, the hybrid A. cherimola x A. squamosa and specially Annona cherimola: the cherimoya, commercially cultivated in Spain, Chile, California, Florida, México, Australia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, New Zealand and several countries in South and Central America. The cherimoya shows a high degree of heterozygosis, and to obtain homogeneous and productive orchards it is necessary to avoid the propagation by seeds of this species. Additionally, the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Annona; In vitro; Micropropagation; Protoplasts; Organogenesis; Polyploidy.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-29452014000500002
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Chromosomal and morphological studies of diploid and polyploid cytotypes of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae) Genet. Mol. Biol.
Oliveira,Vanessa M. de; Forni-Martins,Eliana R.; Magalhães,Pedro M.; Alves,Marcos N..
In this study, we examined the chromosome number and some morphological features of strains of Stevia rebaudiana. The chromosomes were analyzed during mitosis and diakinesis, and the tetrad normality and pollen viability were also assessed. In addition, stomata and pollen were measured and some plant features were studied morphometrically. All of the strains had 2n = 22, except for two, which had 2n = 33 and 2n = 44. Pairing at diakinesis was n = 11II for all of the diploid strains, whereas the triploid and tetraploid strains had n = 11III and n = 11IV, respectively. Triploid and tetraploid plants had a lower tetrad normality rate than the diploids. All of the strains had inviable pollen. Thus, the higher the ploidy number, the greater the size of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Asteraceae; Pollen; Polyploidy; Stevia rebaudiana; Stevioside; Stomata.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572004000200015
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Chromosome characterization and variability in some Iridaceae from Northeastern Brazil Genet. Mol. Biol.
Alves,Lânia Isis F.; Lima,Saulo Antônio A.; Felix,Leonardo P..
The chromosomes of 15 species of Iridaceae of the genera Alophia, Cipura, Eleutherine, Neomarica and Trimezia (subfamily Iridoideae) were examined after conventional Giemsa staining. The karyotypes of Alophia drummondii (2n = 14+1B, 28, 42 and 56), Cipura paludosa (2n = 14), C. xanthomelas (2n = 28) and Eleutherine bulbosa (2n = 12) were asymmetric; Neomarica candida, N. caerulea, N. humilis, N. glauca, N. gracilis, N. northiana and Neomarica sp. (2n = 18); N. cf. paradoxa (2n = 28), Trimezia fosteriana (2n = 52), T. martinicensis (2n = 54) and T. connata (2n = 82) were all generally symmetric. New diploid numbers of 2n = 56 for Alophia drummondii, 2n = 18 for N. candida, N. humilis, N. glauca, and N. gracilis, 2n = 28 for N. cf. paradoxa, and 2n = 82 for...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Iridaceae; Disploidy; Karyotypic evolution; Polyploidy; Asymmetrical karyotype.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572011000200016
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Chromosome studies in Orchidaceae from Argentina Genet. Mol. Biol.
Daviña,Julio Rubén; Grabiele,Mauro; Cerutti,Juan Carlos; Hojsgaard,Diego Hernán; Almada,Rubén Dario; Insaurralde,Irma Stella; Honfi,Ana Isabel.
The center of diversity of Argentinean orchids is in the northeast region of the country. Chromosome numbers and karyotype features of 43 species belonging to 28 genera are presented here. Five chromosome records are the first ones at the genus level; these taxa are Aspidogyne kuckzinskii (2n = 42), Eurystyles actinosophila (2n = 56), Skeptrostachys paraguayensis (2n = 46), Stigmatosema polyaden (2n = 40) and Zygostates alleniana (2n = 54). In addition, a chromosome number is presented for the first time for 15 species: Corymborkis flava (2n = 56), Cyclopogon callophyllus (2n = 28), C. oliganthus (2n = 64), Cyrtopodium hatschbachii (2n = 46), C. palmifrons (2n = 46), Galeandra beyrichii (2n = 54), Habenaria bractescens (2n = 44), Oncidium edwallii (2n =...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Chromosome number; Karyotype features; Polyploidy; Karyology; Orchids; South America.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572009000400024
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Complete asynapsis resulting in 2n pollen formation in Paspalum jesuiticum Parodi (Poaceae). Repositório Alice
BERNARDO FILHO, R. A.; SANTOS, A. C. C.; SOUZA, F. H. D. de; VALLS, J. F. M.; PAGLIARINI, M. S..
Tipo: Separatas Palavras-chave: Poaceae; Hexaploidy; Interspecific hybridization; Meiosis; Polyploidy.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/994921
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Contribution of Additive and Dominance Effects on Agronomical and Nutritional Traits, and Multivariate Selection on Urochloa spp. Hybrids. Repositório Alice
MATIAS, F. I.; BARRIOS, S. C. L.; BEARARI, L. M.; MEIRELES, K. G. X.; MATEUS, R. G.; AMARAL, P. N. C. do; ALVES, G. F.; VALLE, C. B. do; FRITSCHE-NETO, R..
A tropical forage breeding program contains several peculiarities, especially when it involves polyploid species and facultative apomixis. Urochloa spp. are excellent perennial forages, and the identification of superior genotypes depends on the selection of many characteristics under complex genetic control, with high cost and time-consuming evaluation. Therefore, the use of tools such as multivariate analysis and diallel analyses could contribute to improving the efficiency of breeding programs. Thus, the objectives were to estimate (i) the contribution of additive and nonadditive effects on agronomical and nutritional traits in a population of interspecific hybrids of Urochloa spp., originated from a partial diallel between five apomictic and four...
Tipo: Artigo de periódico Palavras-chave: Forrageira Tropical; Apomixia; Gramínea Perene; Controle Genético; Hibrido; Cruzamento Animal; Livestock; Grasslands; Breeding; Urochloa; Perennials; Polyploidy; Hybrids.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1106550
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Cytological and genome size data analyzed in a phylogenetic frame: Evolutionary implications concerning Sisyrinchium taxa (Iridaceae: Iridoideae) Genet. Mol. Biol.
Burchardt,Paula; Souza-Chies,Tatiana T.; Chauveau,Olivier; Callegari-Jacques,Sidia M.; Brisolara-Corrêa,Lauís; Inácio,Camila Dellanhese; Eggers,Lilian; Siljak-Yakovlev,Sonja; de Campos,José Marcello Salabert; Kaltchuk-Santos,Eliane.
Abstract Sisyrinchium is the largest genus of Iridaceae in the Americas and has the greatest amount of cytological data available. This study aimed at investigating how genomes evolved in this genus. Chromosome number, genome size and altitude from species of sect. Viperella were analyzed in a phylogenetic context. Meiotic and pollen analyses were performed to assess reproductive success of natural populations, especially from those polyploid taxa. Character optimizations revealed that the common ancestor of sect. Viperella was probably diploid (2n = 2x =18) with two subsequent polyplodization events. Total DNA content (2C) varied considerably across the phylogeny with larger genomes detected mainly in polyploid species. Altitude also varied across the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ancestral chromosome number; DNA content; Meiotic behavior; Pollen viability; Polyploidy.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572018000200288
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Duplicação cromossômica como alternativa para ganhos de produtividade em mandioca. Repositório Alice
SILVEIRA, D. M. de S.; SANTOS, K. C. F. dos; CARVALHO, M. de J. da S. de; SOUZA, A. da S.; OLIVEIRA, E. J. de.
A obtenção bem sucedida de cultivares tetraploides e triploides de culturas vegetativamente reproduzidas incita a produção artificial de variedades triploides de mandioca, que têm revelado maiores rendimentos de raízes e amido, um resultado relevante em razão do crescente interesse na exploração industrial da mandioca.
Tipo: Parte de livro Palavras-chave: Mandioca; Poliploidia; Cariotipo; Colchicina; Cassava; Polyploidy; Colchicine.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1005075
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Ecological setup, ploidy diversity, and reproductive biology of Paspalum modestum, a promising wetland forage grass from South America Genet. Mol. Biol.
Karunarathne,Piyal; Feduzka,Cristian; Diego,Hojsgaard.
Abstract With ever-rising demand for food, forage breeding for intensification of cattle production is also taking a leap. In South America, cattle production systems are displaced to marginal areas poorly exploited with cultivated pastures yet with high potential for growing stocking rates. This places the need for using native genetic resources to breed locally adapted plant genotypes that benefits from better forage quality, yield, and lesser threat to the local biodiversity. Paspalum modestum Mez is a grass species that produces quality forage and grows in marginal areas like estuaries and floodplains, suitable for introduction in breeding programs. In this study we characterize the species' reproductive biology and ecological preferences needed...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Apomixis; Ecological niche; Plant breeding; Polyploidy; Sexuality.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572020000300304
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Effects of cytochalasin B on fertilization and ploidy in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Ledu, Christophe; Mccombie, Helen.
The effects of cytochalasin B on fertilization and ploidy in Crassostrea gigas were examined in a controlled experiment. This enabled us to better understand why variable ploidy results have been found with the retention of polar bodies in previous studies on bivalve mollusks, and what the interaction with fertilization may be. By looking at the early development of Crassostrea gigas embryos with sequential samples stained using Hoechst 33258, a fluorescent DNA-specific dye, we compared normal evolution of fertilized eggs with that obtained with cytochalasin B treatment. In treated eggs, embryos with both three and four pronuclei were found after the second meiotic division. When embryos had three pronuclei, these were identified as the female pronucleus...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Fertilization; Cytochalasin B; Polar body; Polyploidy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/publication-2845.pdf
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Exploitation of wild relatives of pigeonpea and chickpea for resistance to Helicoverpa armigera Open Agri
Mallikarjuna, N.,( Nalini Mallikarjuna ).
Palavras-chave: Pigeonpeas; Chickpeas; Hybridization; Genes; Gene pools; Interspecific hybridization; Hybrids; Genomes; Gene transfer; Polyploidy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/openaccess/?q=node/3283
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First cytomolecular characterization of three Neotropical woody bamboos (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) suggests ancient diploidized karyotypes Acta Botanica
Zappelini,Julia; Souza,Luiz Gustavo; Guerra,Miguel Pedro; Pescador,Rosete.
ABSTRACT Although karyotype features are useful data for evolutionary studies, cytogenetic data in Bambusoideae are mainly based only on chromosome counts. The first comparative cytogenetic analysis of three Neotropical woody bamboo species - Guadua chacoensis, G. angustifolia and Chusquea tenella - was undertaken based on new and reviewed chromosome counts, CMA/DAPI double staining, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 35S and 5S rDNA probes, and genome size estimation. The two species of Guadua were found to have 2n = 46 chromosomes, while the first record for C. tenella was 2n = 44. Only one pair of CMA+/DAPI- was detected on the terminal region of metacentric chromosomes in all three species. Likewise, one pair of 5S and 35S rDNA sites was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Chusquea; Cytogenetics; Diploidization; Evolution; Guadua; Polyploidy.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062020000400673
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Genetic improvement and selection in shellfish : a review based on oyster research and production ArchiMer
Boudry, Pierre; Barre, Marc; Gerard, Andre.
Despite the economic importance of shellfish, genetic improvement has not yet had a great impact on these species. Shellfish farming is traditionally based on wild species whose natural populations are often overexploited and do not fulfil market demand. Up to now, the most effective answer 10 disease problems or for the improvement of productivity has been the introduction of new species. However, the introduction of new species is constrained by their ecological impact and is also limited by the availability 01 suitable species. Genetic improvement of local species should therefore be of great importance as a viable alternative for the long term sustainability 01 the shellfish Industry. The different approaches 10 genetic improvement include...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Selective breeding; Hybridization; Polyploidy; Introduction; Oyter; Sélection; Hybridation; Polyploïdie; Introduction; Huîtres.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1998/publication-2740.pdf
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Genetic Mapping With Allele Dosage Information in Tetraploid Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R. D. Webster Reveals Insights Into Spittlebug (Notozulia entreriana Berg) Resistance. Repositório Alice
FERREIRA, R. C. U.; LARA, L. A. de C.; CHIARI, L.; BARRIOS, S. C. L.; VALLE, C. B. do; VALERIO, J. R.; TORRES, F. Z. V.; GARCIA, A. A. F.; SOUZA, A. P. de.
Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R. D. Webster is one of the most important African forage grasses in Brazilian beef production. Currently available genetic-genomic resources for this species are restricted mainly due to polyploidy and apomixis. Therefore, crucial genomic-molecular studies such as the construction of genetic maps and the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are very challenging and consequently affect the advancement of molecular breeding. The objectives of this work were to (i) construct an integrated U. decumbens genetic map for a full-sibling progeny using GBS-based markers with allele dosage information, (ii) detect QTLs for spittlebug (Notozulia entreriana) resistance, and (iii) seek putative candidate genes involved in defense against...
Tipo: Artigo de periódico Palavras-chave: Allele dosage; Linkage map; Signalgrass; SNP; Brachiaria; Polyploidy; Quantitative traits.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1106558
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Genomic selection in tropical forage grasses: current status and future applications. Repositório Alice
SIMEÃO, R. M.; RESENDE, M. D. V. de; ALVES, R. S.; PESSOA-FILHO, M.; AZEVEDO, A. L. S.; JONES, C. S.; PEREIRA, J. F.; MACHADO, J. C..
The world population is expected to be larger and wealthier over the next few decades and will require more animal products, such as milk and beef. Tropical regions have great potential to meet this growing global demand, where pasturelands play a major role in supporting increased animal production. Better forage is required in consonance with improved sustainability as the planted area should not increase and larger areas cultivated with one or a few forage species should be avoided. Although, conventional tropical forage breeding has successfully released well-adapted and high-yielding cultivars over the last few decades, genetic gains from these programs have been low in view of the growing food demand worldwide. To guarantee their future impact on...
Tipo: Artigo de periódico Palavras-chave: Seleção assistida; Seleção genômica; Brachiaria; Apomixia; Poliploidia; Gramínea; Apomixis; Marker-assisted selection; Polyploidy.
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1133333
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Genomic Selection with Allele Dosage in Panicum maximum Jacq. Repositório Alice
LARA, L. A. de C.; SANTOS, M. F.; JANK, L.; CHIARI, L.; VILELA, M. de M.; AMADEU, R. R.; SANTOS, J. P. R. dos; SILVA, F. G. da; ZENG, Z.-B.; GARCIA, A. A. F..
Genomic selection is an efficient approach to get shorter breeding cycles in recurrent selection programs and greater genetic gains with selection of superior individuals. Despite advances in genotyping techniques, genetic studies for polyploid species have been limited to a rough approximation of studies in diploid species. The major challenge is to distinguish the different types of heterozygotes present in polyploid populations. In this work, we evaluated different genomic prediction models applied to a recurrent selection population of 530 genotypes of Panicum maximum, an autotetraploid forage grass. We ,also investigated the effect of the allele dosage in the prediction, i.e., considering tetraploid (GS-TD) or diploid (GS-DD) allele dosage. A...
Tipo: Artigo de periódico Palavras-chave: Plant breeding; Guinea; Genotyping; Polyploidy; Genomics; Prediction.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1117941
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