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Registros recuperados: 11
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A diagnostic procedure for applying the social-ecological systems framework in diverse cases Ecology and Society
Hinkel, Jochen; Global Climate Forum (GCF), Berlin, Germany; hinkel@globalclimateforum.org; Cox, Michael E.; Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, New Hampshire; michael.e.cox@dartmouth.edu; Binder, Claudia R.; University of Munich, Germany; claudia.binder@geographie.uni-muenchen.de; Falk, Thomas; University of Marburg, Germany; falkt@staff.uni-marburg.de.
The framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems (SES) framework of Elinor Ostrom is a multitier collection of concepts and variables that have proven to be relevant for understanding outcomes in diverse SES. The first tier of this framework includes the concepts resource system (RS) and resource units (RU), which are then further characterized through lower tier variables such as clarity of system boundaries and mobility. The long-term goal of framework development is to derive conclusions about which combinations of variables explain outcomes across diverse types of SES. This will only be possible if the concepts and variables of the framework can be made operational unambiguously for the different types of SES, which, however,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Common-pool resource; Commons; Complex commons; Public good; Resource system; Resource unit; SES; Social-ecological system; Social-ecological system framework; Sustainability.
Ano: 2015
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Agriculture production versus biodiversity protection: what role for north-south unconditional transfers ? Inra
Aulong, S.; FIGUIERES, C.; Thoyer, S.; INRA, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (FRA).
In developing countries, biodiversity is often threatened by the development of agricultural production: it is often the case that natural habitats are destroyed by the conversion of forests, wetlands or natural pastures into arable land. There is a trade-off between revenues generated by agricultural production and services supplied by unspoilt natural capital (ecological services, possibility to develop biodiversity-related tourism activities). Whereas agricultural profits are private, biodiversity produces various types of benefits, some of them have global public good characteristics - they benefit all nations without exclusion and without rivalry - while others are regional inputs in the production functions of neighbouring countries. The purpose of...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Conservation policy; North-south income transfers; Public good; Neutrality theorem.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20076b4f881a&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2007/05/
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Biosecurity and Infectious Animal Disease AgEcon
Hennessy, David A..
The spatial dimension of agricultural production is important when a communicable disease enters a region. This paper considers two sorts of biosecurity risk that producers can seek to protect against. One concerns the risk of spread: that neighboring producers do not take due care in protecting against being infected by a disease already in the region. In this case, producer efforts substitute with those of near neighbors. For representative spatial production structures, we characterize Nash equilibrium protection levels and show how spatial production structure matters. The other sort of risk concerns entry: that producers do not take due care in preventing the disease from entering the region. In this case, producer heterogeneity has subtle effects on...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Circle and line topologies; Complements and substitutes; Epidemic; Public good; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18434
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Designing a Voluntary Beef Checkoff AgEcon
Norwood, F. Bailey; Winn, Chris; Chung, Chanjin; Ward, Clement E..
Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court considered whether the mandatory fees imposed by the beef checkoff violates the First Amendment. As a precaution, many states began forming voluntary beef checkoffs, where funds would be raised through voluntary contributions. This study conducted a survey of Oklahoma cattle producers to determine what type ofvoluntary checkoff design would receive the greatest support. The most popular checkoff placed a large emphasis on advertising and a slightly lower checkoff fee. The survey also tested the ability of a provision point mechanism to limit free-riding. The mechanism was not as effective as in other studies which used laboratory experiments.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Beef marketing; Checkoff; Free-rider; Provision point mechanism; Public good; Agricultural and Food Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10149
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Estimating Hypothetical Bias in Economically Emergent Africa: A Generic Public Good Experiment AgEcon
Caplan, Arthur J.; Aadland, David; Macharia, Anthony.
This paper reports results from a contingent valuation based public good experiment conducted in the African nation of Botswana. In a sample of university students, we find evidence that stated willingness to contribute to a public good in a hypothetical setting is higher than actual contribution levels. However, results from regression analysis suggest that this is true only in the second round of the experiment, when participants making actual contributions have learned to significantly lower their contribution levels. As globalization expands markets, and economies such as Botswana’s continue to modernize, there is a growing need to understand how hypothetical bias will influence the valuation of public goods.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Hypothetical bias; Public good; Willingness to pay; Botswana; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90836
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Industry-mandated testing to improve food safety: the new US marketing order for pistachios AgEcon
Brunke, Henrich; Alston, Julian M.; Gray, Richard S.; Sumner, Daniel A..
Food safety shocks can threaten the health of consumers, create havoc within an industry and result in severe losses to producers. Governments often attempt to aid food safety by mandating standards and inspection of food products to supplement the efforts by private firms and industries. This article assesses a form of collective action that falls between typical government mandates and purely private action. The California pistachio industry recently established a U.S. federal marketing order, which sets quality standards and inspection to reduce the likelihood of dangerous or poor quality pistachios. Simulation results indicate that, across the full range of parameters used in the analysis, the benefit-cost analysis was always favorable to the new...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Food safety; Food scare; Collective action; Marketing orders; Pistachios; Public good; Food regulations; Cost-benefit analysis; Agribusiness; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97502
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Locust Control in Transition: The Loss and Reinvention of Collective Action in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan Ecology and Society
Toleubayev, Kazbek; Wageningen University, The Netherlands; Kazbek.Toleubayev@wur.nl; Jansen, Kees; Wageningen University, The Netherlands; Kees.Jansen@wur.nl; van Huis, Arnold; Wageningen University, The Netherlands; Arnold.vanHuis@wur.nl.
The inability to organize collective action for pest control can lead to severe problems. This paper focuses on the locust management system in Kazakhstan since the formation of the Soviet State. During the Transition Period after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Plant Protection Service disintegrated. The principles of central planning were replaced with individualistic approaches with little state involvement in pest control activities or pesticide regulation. The financial and ideological reasons for dismantling the existing pest control system did not recognize the potential impact that policy-induced changes in agro-ecological conditions and control practices would have on pest development. Nature hit back at the induced institutional change that...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Collective action; Institutional change; Kazakhstan; Knowledge; Land use; Locust; Plant protection; Public good; Soviet Union; Transition period..
Ano: 2007
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MULTIFUNCTIONALITY AND NON-AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OF PUBLIC GOODS AgEcon
le Cotty, Tristan; Voituriez, Tancrede.
When public goods are joint outputs of agricultural production, there is a trade-off between agricultural and non-agricultural provision of the public good. The principle of minimal price distortion in the reform of agricultural policies has led to a theoretical recommendation that public goods, if under-provided at agricultural free market level, should be promoted through non agricultural policies instead of agricultural policies. We show that the economies of scope between the agricultural production and the joint public good play a key role in determining the optimal way of providing this latter. If the policy designed is a non-agricultural policy, the production cost of the public good is higher than with an agricultural policy. If the policy designed...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Multifunctionality; Jointness; Coupled support; Protectionism; Public good; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25850
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Patents and Other Intellectual Property Rights AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
This article reviews intellectual property rights (IPRs), with some emphasis on the protection of agricultural and life sciences innovations. The main institutional features of IPRs are first discussed, along with a brief historical background and an articulation of the main rationale for the existence of such rights. This is followed by an overview of the principal economic issues related to IPRs. The main benefit/cost trade-offs of allowing patents and other IPRs are explained, and specific issues are then analyzed in some depth, including the scope of patent protection, the effects of patent races, and the problems arising when IPRs concern cumulative and/or complementary innovations. The economics of IPRs are further illustrated by considering...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Efficiency; Incentives; Innovation; Invention; Market failure; Monopoly; Property rights; Public good; Second best; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18466
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Priorities and Principles for Investment in Aquaculture Research by NSW Department of Primary Industries AgEcon
Gibson, Trevor S.; Allan, Geoff L.; File, Geoff; Mullen, John D.; Scott-Orr, Helen.
This review examined the characteristics of the main aquaculture industries in NSW with respect to current impediments to growth, market development and future opportunities. Within this context, it examined the nature, funding and impacts of the NSW Department of Primary Industries’ current and proposed investments in aquaculture R&D and industry development, as well as its alignment with DPI and industry priorities.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Aquaculture; Research evaluation; Public good; Agribusiness; Livestock Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q160.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37665
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The Use of Markets To Increase Private Investment in Environmental Stewardship AgEcon
Ribaudo, Marc; Hansen, LeRoy T.; Hellerstein, Daniel; Greene, Catherine R..
U.S. farmers and ranchers produce a wide variety of commodities for food, fuel, and fiber in response to market signals. Farms also contain significant amounts of natural resources that can provide a host of environmental services, including cleaner air and water, flood control, and improved wildlife habitat. Environmental services are often valued by society, but because they are a public good—that is, people can obtain them without paying for them—farmers and ranchers may not benefit financially from producing them. As a result, farmers and ranchers under-provide these services. This report explores the use of market mechanisms, such as emissions trading and eco-labels, to increase private investment in environmental stewardship. Such investments could...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Eco-labeling; Environmental service; Emissions trading; Market; Public good; Supply and demand; Transaction cost; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56473
Registros recuperados: 11
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