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Application of multiaxial reinforcements in the marine industry. ArchiMer
Taby, J; Hoyning, B.
Knitted multiaxial reinforcement are today more and more commonly used in the production of marine vessels. This is due to superior strength compared to traditional reinforcements such as woven roving and chopped strand mat. Strength properties in different resins are documented, and multiaxial and woven reinforcements are compared. Special attention is paid to interlaminar properties, and it is apparent that no intermediate layers of chopped strand mat are necessary when using multiaxial reinforcement. Methods of analysis are discussed, the influence of fibre orientation on strength and stiffness of structures is described, and a case study reveals considerable weight and cost saving potential.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Matériaux composites; Renforts multiaxiaux; Tissus cousus.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1061.pdf
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Aspects de conception et de construction d'un bateau d'assaut en composites ArchiMer
Kader, A; Yaakob, O; Samian, Y.
To help spur the defence industry in Malaysia, the Government is encouraging indigenous research and development effort. This paper describes the development of a prototype fibreglass assault boat at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The boat, designed for riverine and coastal water operations was modelled on aluminium boats currently used by the Malaysian Armed Forces. The completed boat has been evaluated and some minor modifications will be made on the final prototype to be built soon.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Malaysia; Ship technology; Fibre glass; Ship design; Glass reinforced plastics; Composite materials; Conception; Fibre de verre; Construction; Bateau d'assaut.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1057.pdf
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Correlation essais-calcul pour materiaux composites en application marine ArchiMer
Choqueuse, Dominique; Davies, Peter; Bigourdan, Benoit.
The use of finite element calculations is valuable in the design of composite structures, but few examples of correlations between measured behaviour and finite element calculations are currently available. After definition of a representative type of structure (a stiffened sandwich boat hull), and construction of a test set-up allowing the loading of such panels (uniform pressure loading of 1 m by 2 m panels), modelling was performed in four laboratories using different finite element codes. The results obtained (deflections and strains) have been correlated with test results. A satisfactory correlation is obtained for deflections (differences around 20% for the central deflection) but the correlation between measured and calculated strains is less...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Tests; Materials testing; Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Raidisseur; Mousse PVC; Panneau sandwich; Clément fini; Pression répartie.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1046.pdf
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Evaluation expérimentale et théorique du comportement de panneaux de superstructures en composites ArchiMer
Damonte, R; Iaccarino, R; Puccini, G; Rizzuto, E; Tedeschi, R.
Composite materials represent for shipbuilding industries a possible way to improve the competitiveness of products, particularly in the field of high technology vessels where high strength and stiffness to weight ratios allow increased payload capacity to be obtained, improved performances and lower propulsion costs. In fact with these materials the designer can obtain considerable saving in structural weights, easier production and assembly techniques for complex shapes structures, and better long term performances of the structures when exposed to the marine environment. Unfortunately potentially wide application of F.R.P. structures is restrained by a general lack of knowledge on the mechanical and physical behaviour of these structures. In this...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Evaluation; Ship design; Numerical analysis; Glass reinforced plastics; Ship technology; Composite materials; Etude expérimentale; Etude numérique; Panneaux sandwich; Superstructures navales.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1085.pdf
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Flambement global et local des materiaux composites: Application aux mats de voiliers ArchiMer
Devaux, H.
The mast-rigging combination of a yacht is the structural element which transmits the aerodynamic forces on the sails to the yacht's structure. This load transmission element is in general made up of a mast, a long, thin tube, and the rigging which is a collection of cables linking the mast to the deck. These elements are long, often longer than the hull, with a high centre of gravity and it is essential to obtain as low a mass as possible, both for safety and performance. This search for weight gain imposes the use of lighter and lighter materials: wood, then aluminium alloys and most recently, since the early 1980's, composite materials. The use of the latter is the subject of this paper.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Composite materials; Deformation; Ship design; Ship technology; Eléments finis; Gréement; Mât; Flambement.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1078.pdf
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Innovations and technical-economic aspects of structural and non-structural applications of composite materials on large passenger vessels and merchant ships. ArchiMer
Maccari, A; Farolfi, F.
Considerable interest is presently being shown in research, design and practical application of composite materials within Fincantieri Merchant Shipbuilding Division. This paper is intended to discuss the state-of-the-art and the innovations in hull, outfitting and accommodation applications, where traditional steel or light alloy can be successfully replaced by composites. The impact on design and production is outlined, with an overview of the economic effects of these materials on technology, production and safety requirements, which remain an open subject for the future possible developments.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Safety devices; Accommodation; Ship technology; Ship design; Ship hulls; Composite materials; Economie; Sécurité; Cabine; Equipement; Coque; Matériau composite.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1053.pdf
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La conception de structures navales en sandwich: Un probleme inverse ArchiMer
Holm, D; Esping, B; Romell, O; Campion, F.
An integrated approach is introduced for the solution of the inverse problem: which are the lamina orientation, laminate constitution, core quality and thickness combination ensuring specified objective(s) to be reached? The optimal solution is obtained using mathematically stringent optimization methods (the Method of Moving Asymptotes, MMA) coupled with finite element analysis, interactive graphic pre- and post-processing and parametric modelling, as implemented in OASIS-ALADDIN. This approach has been applied to the optimal design of the hull structure of a Surface Effect Ship made of GRP-sandwich. The objective was to minimize the weight of the ship by determining the optimum skin and core thicknesses of structural members of the hull as well as web...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Finite element method; Glass reinforced plastics; Ship hulls; Safety devices; Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Sandwich; Composite; Problème inverse; Sensibilité; Optimisation.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1054.pdf
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La conception et l'architecture navale en composite dans l'industrie de la plaisance ArchiMer
Dolto, G.
This paper gives a brief overview of design with composite materials for the pleasure boat industry. The dimensioning of sail and motor boats is described and material properties are discussed from the point of view of a naval architect.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Yachting; Mechanical properties; Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Propriétés mécaniques; Bateau de plaisance; Echantillonnage; Dimensionnement; Conception.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1051.pdf
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La conception structurale preliminaire de navires en ames sandwich ArchiMer
Previte, C.
Fiberglass laminate design is of deep concern to marine designers and engineers. This presentation summarizes the topic of core selection for marine structures. It provides a schematic approach to de-complicating laminate design, reviews the attributes of different types of Polimex cores and outlines the principal causes of sandwich failure. For sake of brevity engineering analysis and formulas have been greatly abbreviated.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Deterioration; Failures; Composite materials; Ship design; Ship technology; Fibre glass; Rupture; Conception; PVC; Sandwich.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1059.pdf
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La construction navale optimisée. Le choix de matériaux d'âme et la fabrication sont étroitement liés ArchiMer
Gellhorn (von), E; Mittelmann, G.
Sandwich panels with a facing of laminated fibre reinforced plastics are now established boatbuilding materials. In the last few years they have begun to replace the traditional metal and wood in ship and marine construction. Today's materials are usually selected on the basis of minimum cost and simplicity of construction. This is often contrary to the demands of the owner who wants an inexpensive, safe, easy-care and long-lasting ship. The requirements of boatbuilder and operator can easily be satisfied if the combination of the best choice of materials and new, rationalized construction methods are considered. Taking the construction of the boat "Sandwich" as an example we will demonstrate the increased importance of the tough rigid linear PVC foam core...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Costs; Ship technology; Ship design; Glass reinforced plastics; Composite materials; Coûts; Production; Sandwich PVC linéaire; Ame.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1063.pdf
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L'analyse structurale par methode d'elements finis d'une coque en composite ArchiMer
Simeone, M; Davies, Peter.
In the last two decades, the Finite Element Method has been growing as a powerful tool for the structural analysis of the ship hull, but in nautical construction the use of this method has been related mainly to steel or aluminium hulls. In a metallic structure the material is homogeneous and isotropic and the plate, or the stiffened plate, behaves as an orthotropic plate, which means orthogonally anisotropic with three mutually perpendicular planes of symmetry; on the contrary, when considering a composite hull panel the scheme ought to be different, because there arise two different problems, which ensue from the structural characteristics of the composite sandwich panel. Firstly, the Element Stiffness Matrix must take into account the natural anisotropy...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ship technology; Ship design; Ship hulls; Composite materials; Coque en composite; Sandwich; Eléments finis.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1072.pdf
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Le comportement en fluage, en fatigue et la tenue au feu de composites sandwichs ArchiMer
Chevalier, J.
Baltek Corp. is currently in the process of introducing 3 new products: density select material, AL-600/10 and DecoLite panels, that reduce weight and cost. Creep results on typical core materials have shown that only end-grain balsa (EGB) and 9.0 lb. Nomex honeycomb were capable of continuous operation at 160 F (71 degree C). In reverse bending fatigue studies, EGB has a fatigue limit 2-2.4 times that of the PVC foams. Finally, while EGB by itself is a ASTM E-84 Class 2 material, with the proper skins and resin system, it can easily meet Class 1 requirements.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Fatigue (materials); Creep; Fire; Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Feu; Nid d'abeille; PVC; Ame balsa; Sandwich; Composite.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1065.pdf
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Les preimpregnes dans le nautisme ArchiMer
Bernay, P.
Preimpregnated reinforcements (prepregs) in the nautical industry represent an opportunity for naval construction and an alternative method of fabricating composite structures. There prepregs include fibres, resins, their hardeners and a certain number of additives. One may consider them to be semi-products. Their characteristics allow the highest levels of performance and reliability to be attained.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Economics; Ship technology; Ship design; Safety devices; Composite materials; Enjeu économique; Nautique; Haute performance; Stratifié; Préimprégné.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1068.pdf
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Les travaux du groupement national materiaux composites en technologie navale ArchiMer
Baudin, M.
This communication presents a research programme concerned with the behaviour of composite materials used in marine structures, including properties, calculation methods, fire behaviour, and fabrication. Conclusions from this project will be presented in the form of recommendation cards which will help French manufacturers to obtain gains in productivity, competitiveness and quality.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Tests; Materials testing; Fire; Methodology; Mathematical models; Ship design; Ship technology; Composite materials.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1048.pdf
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Logiciels pour l'analyse et la conception de structures marines en composites: Problemes et perspectives ArchiMer
Papazoglou, V.
The rational procedure for the structural design of composite marine structures, including the determination of structural loading, material characterization, design criteria and performance of strength calculations, is first presented. This is followed by a critical analysis of the problems, limitations and future perspectives of the numerical tools necessary for the performance of analytical and design oriented calculations of composite marine structures.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Computers; Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Structure marine; Logiciel; Analyse; Composite.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1071.pdf
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Non-conventional vessels in Scandinavia made of composite materials. ArchiMer
Gullberg, O.
This paper presents the background to the development of composite materials in marine structures in the Scandinavian countries. The very first vessel constructed in composite materials in 1974 used a special sandwich technique, GRP sandwich, developed in Sweden. Since the the GRP sandwich technique has been the only ship hull construction method used in the Scandinavian countries. The construction method is briefly described, together with the material used. In the second part of the paper examples of the different types of vessels under construction are presented. Finally, in the conclusion some ideas of future development are outlined.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hovercraft; Ship technology; Ship hulls; Ship design; Composite materials; NES; Coussin d'air; MCMV; Sandwich GRP; Matériau composite.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1052.pdf
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Superstructures en matériaux composites ArchiMer
Lelan, J; Parneix, P; Gueguen, P.
Composite materials offer many advantages for the construction of metal hull ships' superstructures (lower weight, higher resistance to fire compared to aluminium alloy, integration of specific functions to the material ...). DCN Lorient has the most of these characteristics to build the "La Fayette" class frigate superstructures. This paper discusses the developments that were undertaken for the choice and validation of the technical solutions retained and particularly the connection to a metal hull. The difficulties to be resolved during the manufacturing and assembly of the superstructures on board the prototype are also discussed. This concept can be applied to other types of ships with metal hulls, by adapting the technological choices to the design...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Joints; Ship design; Ships; Ship technology; Composite materials; Assemblage acier/composite; Composite; Navire; Superstructure.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1067.pdf
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Un nid d'abeille utilisable dans les bateaux a grande diffusion ArchiMer
Filippi, R.
A recent product, now five years old, Nidaplast is an extruded polypropylene honeycomb, coated on both faces by a non-woven polyester. Its widespread uses extend from public buildings including water treatment plants through to the composites industry. To all these cases the honeycomb structure brings its well-known physical and mechanical properties of lightness and strength. In addition, the flexible coating on the faces allows easy fabrication which is not the case for normal honeycombs. The polypropylene offers chemical inertness and non-toxicity.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Polypropylène; Ame; Sandwich; Nid d'abeille.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1070.pdf
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