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Registros recuperados: 14
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A Global Hunger Index: Measurement Concept, Ranking of Countries, and Trends AgEcon
Wiesmann, Doris M..
Progress in combating hunger and undernutrition has been lagging for decades. Best practices to fight hunger and undernutrition have been available for a long while, but lack of political will among leaders and a lack of political power among the poor have hampered their implementation. Since indices have proven to be powerful tools for advocacy and are able to capture multifaceted phenomena, the Global Hunger Index (GHI) was developed to increase attention to the hunger problem and mobilize the political will to speed up urgently needed progress in the fight against hunger. The GHI captures three dimensions of hunger: insufficient availability of food, shortfalls in the nutritional status of children, and child mortality, which is to a large extent...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Hunger; Undernutrition; Child malnutrition; Child mortality; Food availability; Indicators; HIV/AIDS; Conflict; War; Developing countries; Countries in transition; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55891
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Effect of lead acetate on neurobehavioral development of rats BJMBR
Mello,C.F.; Kraemer,C.K.; Filippin,A.; Morsch,V.M.; Rodrigues,A.L.S.; Martins,A.F.; Rubin,M.A..
We investigated the effects of lead exposure during the pre- and postnatal period on the neurobehavioral development of female Wistar rats (70-75 days of age, 120-150 g) using a protocol of lead intoxication that does not affect weight gain. Wistar rats were submitted to lead acetate intoxication by giving their dams 1.0 mM lead acetate. Control dams received deionized water. Growth and neuromotor development were assessed by monitoring daily the following parameters in 20 litters: body weight, ear unfolding, incisor eruption, eye opening, righting, palmar grasp, negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance and startle reflex. Spontaneous alternation was assessed on postnatal day 17 using a T maze. The animals' ability to equilibrate on a beaker rim was measured on...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Lead; Neurobehavioral development; Undernutrition; Heavy metal intoxication; Teratology; Rat.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1998000700010
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Effects of pregnancy and protein-energy malnutrition on monooxygenase O-dealkylation activity in rat liver microsomes BJMBR
Kuriyama,S.N.; De-Oliveira,A.C.A.X.; Fidalgo-Neto,A.A.; Paumgartten,F.J.R..
Xenobiotic metabolism is influenced by a variety of physiological and environmental factors including pregnancy and nutritional status of the individual. Pregnancy has generally been reported to cause a depression of hepatic monooxygenase activities. Low-protein diets and protein-energy malnutrition have also been associated with a reduced activity of monooxygenases in nonpregnant animals. We investigated the combined effects of pregnancy and protein-energy malnutrition on liver monooxygenase O-dealkylation activity. On pregnancy day 0 rats were assigned at random to a group fed ad libitum (well-nourished, WN) or to a malnourished group (MN) which received half of the WN food intake (12 g/day). WN and MN rats were killed on days 0 (nonpregnant), 11 or 20...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Cytochrome P450; Monooxygenases; Xenobiotic metabolism; Undernutrition; Gestation; Biotransformation.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2000000100014
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Effects of Preweaning Polysensorial Enrichment upon Development of the Parietal Cortical Plate of Undernourished Rats: A Stereological Study International Journal of Morphology
González,Héctor; Adaro,Luis; Hernández,Alejandro; Fernández,Víctor.
This investigation was undertaken in order to quantify the effects of early polysensorial enrichment on the development of cortical pyramids, located in the parietal cortex of rats simultaneously submitted to protein-energy undernutrition. A short period of stimulation during suckling significantly decreases the cellular density in the cortical plate (phylogenetic-ontogenetic evolutionary index). Results suggest that the cerebral cortex develops according to a sophisticated neuronal network, which exhibits a notable degree of structural specificity, regulated by genetic and environmental clues. The most obvious prediction is that environmental influences are probably transduced as a structural expression in the developing parietal cortical plate.
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Environmental enrichment; Cortical gradients; Undernutrition; Parietal cortex; Stereology.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022014000400016
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Effects of Protein and Energy Restricted Diet During Lactation Leads to Persistent Morphological Changes on Tibia Growth in the Weaned Pups International Journal of Morphology
Fernandes,Rodrigo M. P.; Abreu,Antonio V.; Schanaider,Alberto; Soares Jr.,Edivaldo R.; Pejanha,Gustavo C.A.; Babinski,Marcio A.; Ramos,Cristiane F..
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal protein and energy restriction during lactation on the body weight and tibiae dimensions of pups at aging. At parturition, Wistar rat dams were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) control group (C) - free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 23% protein, 2) protein-energy restricted group (PR) - free access to an isoenergetic, protein-restricted diet containing 8% protein, and 3) energy-restricted group (ER) - fed restricted amounts of a standard laboratory diet. At weaning, all pups were separated of dams and received free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 23% protein until 180 days when the rats were anesthetized and sacrificed. The dimensions of excised...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Growth and development; Morphometry; Rats; Tibia; Undernutrition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022007000300016
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Emerging Challenges for Food and Nutrition Policy in Developing Countries AgEcon
Stamoulis, Kostas G.; Pingali, Prabhu L.; Shetty, Prakash.
As the income and the average caloric intake of developing country populations increase, a relative shift in diets is taking place. The general pattern of change can be described as a shift towards more 'westernized' diets and away from traditional ones. Accompanying this dietary trend are the substantial and rapid changes in food production, retailing and distribution systems. After reviewing these combined shifts and changes, the paper discusses the implications for rural poverty and food security, food safety and quality but also for diet-related non-communicable diseases and the related, emerging challenges for policymakers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Food policy; Food systems; Nutrition; Food insecurity; Undernutrition; Malnutrition; Urbanization; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12000
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Food restriction induces in vivo ventricular dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats without impairment of in vitro myocardial contractility BJMBR
Okoshi,K.; Fioretto,J.R.; Okoshi,M.P.; Cicogna,A.C.; Aragon,F.F.; Matsubara,L.S.; Matsubara,B.B..
Cardiac structures, function, and myocardial contractility are affected by food restriction (FR). There are few experiments associating undernutrition with hypertension. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of FR on the cardiac response to hypertension in a genetic model of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Five-month-old SHR were fed a control or a calorie-restricted diet for 90 days. Global left ventricle (LV) systolic function was evaluated in vivo by transthoracic echocardiogram and myocardial contractility and diastolic function were assessed in vitro in an isovolumetrically beating isolated heart (Langendorff preparation). FR reduced LV systolic function (control (mean ± SD): 58.9 ± 8.2; FR: 50.8 ± 4.8%, N =...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Undernutrition; Isolated heart; Echocardiogram; Langendorff preparation; Ventricular remodeling.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2004000400019
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Impact of acute undernutrition on growth, ileal morphology and nutrient transport in a murine model BJMBR
Sampaio,I.C.; Medeiros,P.H.Q.S.; Rodrigues,F.A.P.; Cavalcante,P.A.; Ribeiro,S.A.; Oliveira,J.S.; Prata,M.M.G.; Costa,D.V.S.; Fonseca,S.G.C.; Guedes,M.M.; Soares,A.M.; Brito,G.A.C.; Havt,A.; Moore,S.R.; Lima,A.A.M..
Undernutrition represents a major public health challenge for middle- and low-income countries. This study aimed to evaluate whether a multideficient Northeast Brazil regional basic diet (RBD) induces acute morphological and functional changes in the ileum of mice. Swiss mice (∼25 g) were allocated into two groups: i) control mice were fed a standard diet and II) undernourished mice were fed the RBD. After 7 days, mice were killed and the ileum collected for evaluation of electrophysiological parameters (Ussing chambers), transcription (RT-qPCR) and protein expression (western blotting) of intestinal transporters and tight junctions. Body weight gain was significantly decreased in the undernourished group, which also showed decreased crypt depth but no...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Undernutrition; Ion transport; Intestinal absorption.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2016001000607
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Leite instável não-ácido e composição do leite de vacas Jersey sob restrição alimentar. Repositório Alice
ZANELA, M.B.; FISCHER, V.; RIBEIRO, M.E.R.; BARBOSA, R.S.; MARQUES, L.T.; STUMPF JUNIOR, W.; ZANELA, C..
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar na incidência do leite instável não-ácido (LINA) e na composição do leite de vacas Jersey. Foi realizado um experimento piloto de indução ao LINA, com oito vacas Jersey em lactação, confinadas e separadas em dois grupos, às quais havia sido fornecida uma dieta equilibrada ad libitum. Em dois períodos de 18 dias, foram fornecidos dois tratamentos com 100 e 60% das exigências nutricionais. Foram realizados os testes de acidez titulável e do álcool 76%; pH, densidade, crioscopia, caseína, gordura, proteína bruta, lactose, extrato seco total, número de células somáticas e produção de leite foram determinados. A restrição alimentar aumenta a ocorrência de LINA e diminui a produção de leite e...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Estabilidade do leite; Subnutrição; Teste do álcool/etanol; Vacas em lactação; Milk stability; Undernutrition; Alcohol/etanol test; Lactation cows.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/118977
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Maternal Food Restriction During Lactation Reduces Mandible Growth of the Female Offspring in Adulthood: Experimental and Morphometric Analysis International Journal of Morphology
Degani Junior,Hugo V. M; Nunes,Viviane A; Bezerra,Ewerton C; Ramos,Cristiane F; Rodrigues,Mauro R; Abidu-Figueiredo,Marcelo; Cardoso,Gilberto P; Babinski,Marcio A.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal protein and energy restriction during lactation on mandible dimensions of pups (female) at aging. At parturition, Wistar rat dams were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) control group (C) - free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 23% protein, 2) protein-energy restricted group (PER) - free access to an isoenergetic, protein-restricted diet containing 8% protein, and 3) energy-restricted group (ER) ­ fed with restricted amounts of a standard laboratory diet. At weaning (d21), all pups were separated of dams and received free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 23% protein until 90 days (d90), when the rats were anesthetized and sacrificed. The dimensions of...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Growth and development; Morphometry; Rats; Mandible; Undernutrition.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022011000200050
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Maternal Malnutrition Diet During Lactation Period Leads to Incomplete Catch-Up Growth in Femur of the Pups at Adulthood International Journal of Morphology
Babinski,Monique S. D; Ramos,Cristiane F; Fernandes,Rodrigo M. P; Cardoso,Gilberto P; Babinski,Marcio A.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal protein and energy restriction during lactation, analyzing on morphological dimensions whether there was catch-up growth through normative nutrition restored, as well as on mechanical axis of femur of the offspring at adulthood. At parturition, Wistar rat dams were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) control group (C) - free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 23 % protein, 2) protein-energy restricted group (PER) - free access to an isoenergetic, protein-restricted diet containing 8 % protein, and 3) energy-restricted group (ER) ­ fed with restricted amounts of a standard laboratory diet. At weaning, all pups were separated of dams and received free access to a standard...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Rats; Femur; Undernutrition; Growth; Morphometry.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022016000100011
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Morphometric and ultrastructural analysis of different pituitary cell populations in undernourished monkeys BJMBR
Cónsole,G.M.; Jurado,S.B.; Oyhenart,E.; Ferese,C.; Pucciarelli,H.; Gómez Dumm,C.L.A..
Undernutrition elicited by a low-protein diet determines a marked reduction of hypophyseal activity and affects the function of the respective target organs. The objective of the present investigation was to study the ultrastructural and quantitative immunohistochemical changes of the different pituitary cell populations in undernourished monkeys that had been previously shown to have significant changes in craniofacial growth. Twenty Saimiri sciureus boliviensis monkeys of both sexes were used. The animals were born in captivity and were separated into two groups at one year of age, i.e., control and undernourished animals. The monkeys were fed ad libitum a 20% (control group) and a 10% (experimental group) protein diet for two years. Pituitaries were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pituitary gland; Quantitative immunohistochemistry; Ultrastructure; Undernutrition; Squirrel monkeys.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2001000100008
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Recognition memory and DNA damage in undernourished young rats Anais da ABC (AABC)
MOLZ,PATRÍCIA; ELLWANGER,JOEL H.; ZENKNER,FERNANDA F.; CAMPOS,DEIVIS DE; PRÁ,DANIEL; PUTZKE,MARISA T.L.; FRANKE,SILVIA I.R..
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the recognition memory and the levels of DNA damage (blood and hippocampus) in undernourished young Wistar rats. The experiment was conducted along 14-week with rodents divided in control group (CG, n=8) and undernourished group (UG, n=12) which was submitted to caloric restriction. Nutritional status for undernutrition was defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) ≤0.45g/cm2 and by weighting the organs/tissue (liver, spleen, intestine, peritoneal fat, kidney and encephalon). The Novel Object Recognition Test assessed recognition memory and the Comet Assay evaluated the levels of DNA damage. Student t test, 2-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation analysis were used and the significance level was of p<0.05. The UG showed lower BMI and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: DNA damage; Memory; Nutritional status; Undernutrition; Wistar rats.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652016000501863
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The Challenge of Hunger: The 2008 Global Hunger Index. AgEcon
von Grebmer, Klaus; Fritschel, Heidi; Nestorova, Bella; Olofinbiyi, Tolulope; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul; Yohannes, Yisehac.
With high food prices threatening the food security of millions of vulnerable households around the world, hunger and malnutrition are back in the headlines. The world is making only slow progress in reducing food insecurity, according to the Global Hunger Index (GHI). Some regions—in particular South and Southeast Asia, the Near East and North Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean—have made significant headway in combating hunger and malnutrition since 1990, but in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, the GHI remains high. Moreover, progress in Sub-Saharan Africa since 1990 has been marginal. The GHI is a tool developed by IFPRI for regularly tracking the state of global hunger and malnutrition. This year’s index reflects data until 2006—the most...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; Hunger; Undernutrition; Child mortality; Malnutrition in children; Food availability; Indicators; HIV/AIDS; Conflict war; Developing countries; Transitional economies; Countries in transition malnutrition measurement evaluation.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46014
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