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A glimpse of the future in animal nutrition science. 2. Current and future solutions R. Bras. Zootec.
Tedeschi,Luis Orlindo; Fonseca,Mozart Alves; Muir,James Pierre; Poppi,Dennis P.; Carstens,Gordon E.; Angerer,Jay P.; Fox,Danny Gene.
ABSTRACT Despite tremendous advancements in the livestock sector, additional opportunities exist to improve even further livestock production around the globe. Forecasting is not an exact science and it relies heavily on past and current knowledge. Improvements in the nutritional sciences (both human and animal) include a better understanding of agents that cause deterioration of human health, improving the quality of animal products, applying effective fetal programming, developing new feeds and feeding strategies, and revisiting longstanding technologies. Improvements in the understanding of the rumen microbiome will enable scientists to increase the fermentation efficiency and, hopefully, select microbial species of greater interest. Improvements in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Forecasting; Livestock; Ruminant; Solutions; Production; Vision.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982017000500452
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A magyar agrárgazdaság napjainkban AgEcon
Kapronczai, Istvan.
Áchim L. András parasztpolitikus a nagybirtok elleni harc jelentős vezetője a XIX–XX. század fordulóján. A cikk a halálának centenáriuma alkalmából tartott emlékkonferencián elhangzott előadás alapján készült azzal az igénnyel, hogy bemutassa napjaink magyar agrárgazdaságát, és megkíséreljen párhuzamot vonni a 100 évvel ezelőtti kor, illetve a mai agrárgazdasággal szemben álló kihívások között. A 100 évvel ezelőtti viszonyok és a maiak között meglepő párhuzamok rajzolódtak ki: földosztás, a nagybirtokok parcellázása; a kisparasztok (családi gazdaságok) preferálása a nagybirtokkal szemben; szegény emberek (munkanélküliek) állami munkába történő bevonása; igazságos adó- (támogatási) rendszer igénye; törekvés hatásos érdekképviseletek létrehozására. Mindezek...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Áchim L. András; Birtokpolitika; Nemzetgazdasági szerep; Üzemszerkezet; Versenyképesség; Jövőkép; András L. Áchim; Land estate policy; Role in the national economy; Farm structure; Competitiveness; Vision; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119939
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A mezőgazdasági termelők motivációi az állati termékek előállításában AgEcon
Beladi, Katalin; Kertesz, Robert; Dudas, Gyula.
A magyar állattenyésztés helyzete 2004 óta is folyamatosan romlik. A mezőgaz¬dasági kibocsátásból való részesedése több év óta 37-38 százalék körül stagnál, az állatállomány csökken. Mindez szorosan összefügg azzal, hogy a fontosabb ágazatok jövedelemhelyzete bizonytalan, és az évek közötti hullámzása is jelentős. A felvásárlási árak gyakran nem fedezik a termékek költségeit, és csak az állami támogatásokkal jutnak minimális nyereséghez a gazdaságok. Az átlagos értékek hátterében eltérő termelési színvonalon gazdálkodó vállalkozások húzódnak meg: versenyképesen és jövedelmezően termelők, és az eseményekkel sodródó, többnyire veszteségesen ter¬melők. Főleg ez utóbbiakkal kapcsolatban jogosan merül fel a kérdés, hogy vajon mi motiválja tevékenységüket? Az...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Állattartás; Jövedelemhiány; Jövőkép; Termelői motiváció; Animal husbandry; Lack of income; Vision; Motivation of producers; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92490
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A six-rhabdomere, open rhabdom arrangement in the eye of the chrysanthemum beetle Phytoecia rufiventris: some ecophysiological predictions based on eye anatomy Biocell
Meyer-Rochow,Victor Benno; Mishra,Monalisa.
We are describing a rhabdom organization of the eye of the chrysanthemum beetle Phytoecia rufiventris that to date has not been described from any other insect. In cerambycid beetles free rhabdomeres, forming a circular, open rhabdom, surround a central rhabdom made up of the rhabdomeres of one or two cells. In Phytoecia rufiventris the central rhabdomeres are missing throughout the eye and the microvilli of the outer 6 rhabdomeres are regularly oriented in three directions. Following the classification of rhabdom types suggested by Wachmann (1979), we suggest to name the rhabdom arrangement seen in the retina of Phytoecia rufiventris "Grundmuster 3". This pattern ought to facilitate polarization sensitivity and movement perception, features that agree...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Compound eye; Retina; Vision; Polarization sensitivity.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-95452009000200006
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Embrapa Amazonìa Occidental: quiénes somos y que hacemos. Infoteca-e
EMBRAPA AMAZONÍA OCCIDENTAL..
Portfólio da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental.
Tipo: Fôlder / Folheto / Cartilha (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Missión; Vision.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/890308
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Gap effect and reaction time distribution: simple vs choice manual responses BJMBR
Machado-Pinheiro,W.; Gawryszewski,L.G.; Ribeiro-do-Valle,L.E..
It is well known that saccadic reaction times (SRT) are reduced when the target is preceded by the offset of the fixation point (FP) - the gap effect. Some authors have proposed that the FP offset also allows the saccadic system to generate a separate population of SRT, the express saccades. Nevertheless, there is no agreement as to whether the gap effect and express responses are also present for manual reaction times (MRT). We tested the gap effect and the MRT distribution in two different conditions, i.e., simple and choice MRT. In the choice MRT condition, subjects need to identify the side of the stimulus and to select the appropriate response, while in the simple MRT these stages are not necessary. We report that the gap effect was present in both...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Attention; Reaction time; Gap effect; Vision; Express responses.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1998001000012
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Long distance communication in the human brain: timing constraints for inter-hemispheric synchrony and the origin of brain lateralization Biol. Res.
ABOITIZ,FRANCISCO; LÓPEZ,JAVIER; MONTIEL,JUAN.
Analysis of corpus callosum fiber composition reveals that inter-hemispheric transmission time may put constraints on the development of inter-hemispheric synchronic ensembles, especially in species with large brains like humans. In order to overcome this limitation, a subset of large-diameter callosal fibers are specialized for fast inter-hemispheric transmission, particularly in large-brained species. Nevertheless, the constraints on fast inter-hemispheric communication in large-brained species can somehow contribute to the development of ipsilateral, intrahemispheric networks, which might promote the development of brain lateralization.
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Axon; Brain lateralization; Corpus callosum; Inter-hemispheric transfer; Synchrony; Vision.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602003000100007
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Microanatomical characteristics of marginal ommatidia in three different size-classes of the semi-terrestrial isopod Ligia exotica (Crustacea; Isopoda) Biocell
Keskinen,Essi; Takaku,Yasuharu; Meyer-Rochow,Benno; Hariyama,Takahiko.
The aims of this paper have been (a) to characterize marginal ommatidia from different eyeregions through a detailed description of their distinct ultrastructural features in three different size-classes ofL. exotica, and (b) to compare microanatomical characteristics of the marginal ommatidia with those of ommatidia of the same eye, but located further centrally. On the basis of transverse as well as longitudinal sections we conclude that new ommatidia are added from a crescentic dorso-anterio-ventral edge of the eye and that maturing ommatidia go through a sequence in which originally the nuclei of cone -, pigment-, and retinula cells are arranged in three separate layers. At the beginning of the microvillar development, the organization of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Crustaceans; Eye; Retina; Vision; Growth; Moulting; Ultrastructure.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-95452002000300006
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Morphological Study of the Eye Bulb of the Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini (Elasmobranch: Carcharhinidae) International Journal of Morphology
Muriana,C. B; Vasconcelos,B. V; Leandro,R. M; Malavasi,C. E; Amorim,A. F; Rici,R. E. G; Maria,D. A; Miglino,M. A; Ferreira,A.O.
The hammerhead sharks shows a head laterally expanded with eyes and nostrils on the edges, which gives the species a hammer appearance. Another strand of studies indicates that the hypothesis of head shape alterations for better adaptions in the sensorial system with the development of structures associated to binocular sight and others sensorial organs. Given the variety of characteristics, the study aim was to describe the anatomical constitution of the hammerhead shark eye bulb. The bulb and its annexes exenteration was performed, and further dissection; the morphological description of the muscle insertions and eye bulb components were based on direct observation and were further photographed and catalogued. The eye bulb fragments and its annexes were...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Cartilaginous fish; Chondrichthyes; Vision; Microscopy; Morphology.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022017000100045
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The attentional modulation of the flash-lag effect BJMBR
Baldo,M.V.C.; Namba,J..
If a dot is flashed in perfect alignment with a pair of dots rotating around the visual fixation point, most observers perceive the rotating dots as being ahead of the flashing dot (flash-lag effect). This perceptual effect has been interpreted to result from the perceptual extrapolation of the moving dots, the differential visual latencies between flashing and moving stimuli, as well as the modulation of attentional mechanisms. Here we attempted to uncouple the attentional effects brought about by the spatial predictability of the flashing dot from the sensory effects dependent on its visual eccentricity. The stimulus was a pair of dots rotating clockwise around the fixation point. Another dot was flashed at either the upper right or the lower left of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Attention; Flash-lag effect; Vision; Psychophysics.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2002000800014
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The control of deliberate waiting strategies in a stop-signal task BJMBR
Sylwan,R.P..
To inhibit an ongoing flow of thoughts or actions has been largely considered to be a crucial executive function, and the stop-signal paradigm makes inhibitory control measurable. Stop-signal tasks usually combine two concurrent tasks, i.e., manual responses to a primary task (go-task) are occasionally countermanded by a stimulus which signals participants to inhibit their response in that trial (stop-task). Participants are always instructed not to wait for the stop-signal, since waiting strategies cause the response times to be unstable, invalidating the data. The aim of the present study was to experimentally control the strategies of waiting deliberately for the stop-signal in a stop-task by means of an algorithm that measured the variation in the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Attention; Stop-task; Reaction time; Vision; Executive functions; Laterality.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2004000600011
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The early facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus depends on target stimulus features BJMBR
Azevedo,E.L.; Squella,S.A.F.; Ribeiro-do-Valle,L.E..
We investigated the dependency of the early facilitatory effect of a prime stimulus (S1) on the physical characteristics of the target stimulus (S2). A go-no go reaction time paradigm was used. The S1 was a gray ring and the S2s were a white vertical line, a white horizontal line, a white cross and a white small ring, all inside a white ring with the same dimensions as the S1. S1 onset-S2 onset asynchrony was 100 ms. The stimuli appeared randomly in any one of the quadrants of a monitor screen. The S2 could occur at the same position as the S1 or at a different one. We observed a strong facilitatory effect when the vertical line or the horizontal line was the go stimulus and no effect when the cross was the go stimulus. These results show that the features...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Priming; Attention; Forward masking; Vision; Reaction time.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2001000600017
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The modulation of simple reaction time by the spatial probability of a visual stimulus BJMBR
Carreiro,L.R.R.; Haddad Jr.,H.; Baldo,M.V.C..
Simple reaction time (SRT) in response to visual stimuli can be influenced by many stimulus features. The speed and accuracy with which observers respond to a visual stimulus may be improved by prior knowledge about the stimulus location, which can be obtained by manipulating the spatial probability of the stimulus. However, when higher spatial probability is achieved by holding constant the stimulus location throughout successive trials, the resulting improvement in performance can also be due to local sensory facilitation caused by the recurrent spatial location of a visual target (position priming). The main objective of the present investigation was to quantitatively evaluate the modulation of SRT by the spatial probability structure of a visual...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Simple reaction time; Spatial probability; Vision; Attention.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2003000700011
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Visual maps in the adult primate cerebral cortex: some implications for brain development and evolution BJMBR
Rosa,M.G.P..
In this paper, the topology of cortical visuotopic maps in adult primates is reviewed, with emphasis on recent studies. The observed visuotopic organisation can be summarised with reference to two basic rules. First, adjacent radial columns in the cortex represent partially overlapping regions of the visual field, irrespective of whether these columns are part of the same or different cortical areas. This primary rule is seldom, if ever, violated. Second, adjacent regions of the visual field tend to be represented in adjacent radial columns of a same area. This rule is not as rigid as the first, as many cortical areas form discontinuous, second-order representations of the visual field. A developmental model based on these physiological observations, and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Primate; Vision; Receptive fields; Cortical areas; Development; Specification.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2002001200008
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