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Algebraic Reconstruction and Post-Processing in Incomplete Data Computed Tomography: from X-rays to Laser Beams InTech
Alexander B. Konovalov; Dmitry V. Mogilenskikh; Vitaly V. Vlasov; Andrey N. Kiselev.
In this chapter we consider two examples of algebraic reconstruction in incomplete data computed tomography: few-view X-ray computed tomography and one-step diffuse optical tomography. Multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique optimizing the entropy allows the better quality of tomograms to be obtained. It is shown that, to enhance the convergence of iterative reconstruction procedure and to minimize the artifact level on tomograms, the conventional formulas of solution correction should be modified. The presented results of reconstruction demonstrate the efficiency of the following our modifications: (a) To calculate the weight matrix, we use not the lines but the narrow strips which provide the sufficient filling of the reconstruction area. (b)...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/algebraic_reconstruction_and_post-processing_in_incomplete_data_computed_tomography__from_x-rays_to_
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Anisotropic Filtering Techniques applied to Fingerprints InTech
Shlomo Greenberg; Daniel Kogan.
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Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Segmentation and Pattern Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/anisotropic_filtering_techniques_applied_to_fingerprints
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Ant Colonies for Performance Optimization of Multi-components Systems Subject to Random Failures InTech
Nabil Nahas; Mustapha Nourelfath; Daoud Ait-Kadi.
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Swarm Intelligence; Focus on Ant and Particle Swarm Optimization.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/ant_colonies_for_performance_optimization_of_multi-components_systems_subject_to_random_failures
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Articulated Hand Tracking by ICA-based Hand Model and Multiple Cameras InTech
Makoto Kato; Gang Xu; Yen-Wei Chen.
In this chapter, we proposed three new approaches, the ICA-based hand model, articulated hand motion tracking by multiple cameras, and Particle filtering with prediction. The ICA-based hand model is the ICA-based representation of hand articulation for tracking hand-finger gestures in image sequences. The dimensionality of the hand motion space is reduced by PCA and then ICA is applied to extract the local feature vectors. In the ICAbased model, each of the first five basis vectors corresponds to a particular finger motion, because the joints in each finger have stronger dependencies than the joints across different fingers. In the ICA-based model, hand poses can be represented by five parameters with each parameter corresponding to a particular finger...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Scene Reconstruction Pose Estimation and Tracking.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/articulated_hand_tracking_by_ica-based_hand_model_and_multiple_cameras
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Balance-Keeping Control of Upright Standing in Biped Human Beings and its Application for Stability Assessment InTech
Yifa Jiang Hidenori Kimura.
Upright standing is a simple and basic posture of human beings. However, the relatively large mass of the upper body and its elevated position in relation to the area of support during standing accentuate the importance of an accurate control of trunk movements for the maintenance of equilibrium. The kinematics and control strategy of the central nervous system have been studied in recent decade, which brought a PID control algorithm to model the balance-keeping in upright standing and had successfully interpreted the phenomenon of spontaneously body sway. Modeling the human body as two-link inverted pendulum system, we successfully identified parameters of individual’s PID parameters and make this model analyzable and practicable. The simulation results,...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots: New Developments.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/balance-keeping_control_of_upright_standing_in_biped_human_beings_and_its_application_for_stability_
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Bilinear Time Delay Neural Network System for Humanoid Robot Software InTech
Fumio Nagashima.
In this chapter, I describe the neural network suitable for building the total humanoid robot software system and show some applications. This method is characterized by • uniform implementation for wide variety of applications • simplicity for dynamically structure modification The software system becomes flexible by these characteristics. Now, I’m working on the general learning technique for this neural network. There is a possibility free from NFL problem (Wolper, 1997). This chapter is originally written for the RSJ paper in Japanese (Nagashima, 2006).
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/bilinear_time_delay_neural_network_system_for_humanoid_robot_software
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Climbing Robots InTech
Majid M. Moghadam; Mojtaba Ahmadi.
It can be concluded that the MSRox mechanism works properly and can be used for traversing stairs and obstacles and passing over any uneven terrain.
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Bioinspiration and Robotics Walking and Climbing Robots.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/climbing_robots
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Competence Based Taxonomy of Supplier Firms in the Automotive Industry InTech
Krisztina Demeter; Andrea Gelei; Istvan Jenei.
Companies can change place in this taxonomy. The best signal that they want to do that is the level of proactive thinking. Also, the lack of proactive thinking can lead to step back. Company 6, for example, lost its position as an innovation based supplier since it did not make efforts to make improvements is seat design. The build-up and characteristics of supplier types are summarized in Figure 2.
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Supply Chain.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/competence_based_taxonomy_of_supplier_firms_in_the_automotive_industry
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Engineering Change Management in Distruted Environment with PDM/PLM Support InTech
Joze Tavcar; Joze Duhovnik.
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Manufacturing the Future.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/engineering_change_management_in_distruted_environment_with_pdm_plm_support
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Frequency Domain Face Recognition InTech
Marios Savvides; Ramamurthy Bhagavatula; Yung-hui Li; Ramzi Abiantun.
We have shown through the course of this chapter that the Fourier or frequency domain of facial data contains significantly more useful information when processed than its spatial counterpart. The simple coupling of standard algorithms such as Eigenfaces and Fisherfaces with frequency domain representation of phase and magnitude spectrums, can result in noticeable improvements in performance as we have shown for pose and illumination tolerance. Evolving our intuition about the frequency domain leads us to the group of algorithms collectively referred as ACFs. Primarily originating from frequency domain interpretations of data, ACFs allow for significant discriminative ability while providing other attractive qualities such as shift invariance, noise...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Face Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/frequency_domain_face_recognition
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Lower-Limb Wearable Exoskeleton InTech
J.L. Pons; J.C. Moreno; F.J. Brunetti; E. Rocon.
The differences found in the patients' kinematic gait patterns during the application of functional compensation on the lower limb showed significant differences regarding the subjects' usual gait. In both patients rapid adaptations were observed and new motor commands were learnt necessary for managing the exoskeleton with the constraints imposed on the limb. The benefits of the correct release of the knee in both instances is clear evidence of approximating their gait patterns to the normality pattern depicted in Figure 27, with the compensations of the biomimetic actuation system by applying intermittent impedance (K1 and K2). The GAIT exoskeleton made it possible for patient S1 to walk for the first time without compensation with the hip movement,...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Rehabilitation Robotics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/lower-limb_wearable_exoskeleton
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Machining with Flexible Manipulators: Critical Issues and Solutions InTech
Jianjun Wang; Hui Zhang; Zengxi Pan.
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Industrial Robotics: Programming; Simulation and Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/machining_with_flexible_manipulators__critical_issues_and_solutions
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Novel Robotic Applications using Adaptable Compliant Actuation. An Implementation Towards Reduction of Energy Consumption for Legged Robots InTech
Bjorn Verrelst; Bram Vanderborght.
This publication discusses the importance of variable compliance for legged robots. Use of passive compliance in the actuation reduces reflected inertia which primarily is interesting
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robotics; Moving Intelligence.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/novel_robotic_applications_using_adaptable_compliant_actuation__an_implementation_towards_reduction_
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Omni-directional Mobile Microrobots on a Millimeter Scale for a Microassembly System InTech
Zhenbo Li; Jiapin Chen.
This chapter has presented the construction of an omni-directional mobile microrobot system, with the microrobot less than one cubic centimeter in volume and its unique dualwheels driven by electromagnetic micromotors, two millimeters in diameter, for purpose of microassembly in narrow space. The results show that the microrobot can move continuously or in stages with high precision under the two novel micro step control approaches, which is necessary for the microassembly mission. This omni-directional mobility and the high precision movement show that the omni-directional mobile microrobot will have many potential applications in micro fields. Although this work shows a good performance of a microrobot, there is still some further work needed for this...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robots: towards New Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/omni-directional_mobile_microrobots_on_a_millimeter_scale_for_a_microassembly_system
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Playing Games with Robots - A Method for Evaluating Human-Robot Interaction InTech
Min Xin; Ehud Sharlin.
From the description of our game-based HRI testbed above, we would like to provide some lessons learned in terms of the benefits and challenges of our approach and application. First and foremost, this testbed is relatively simple to construct and cost effective. Using readily available products such as the AIBO and the RolaBoardTM, we were able to rapidly construct and prototype our testbed. This again speaks to the flexible nature of games which can be created with whatever is easily assessable or modified to make implementation easier. Second, because the game has simple and well defined rules and is played within a bounded environment, we can rapidly prototype new games and design new user studies. In fact, we are currently in the second iteration of...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/playing_games_with_robots_-_a_method_for_evaluating_human-robot_interaction
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Progressive Design through Staged Evolution InTech
Ricardo A. Tellez; Cecilio Angulo.
The progressive design method allows for the evolution of complex controllers in complex robots. However, the process is not performed in a complete automatic way as the evolutionary robotics approach aims to have. Instead, a gradual shaping of the controller is performed, where there is a human trainer who directs the learning process, by presenting increasingly complex learning tasks, and deciding the best combination of modules over time, until the final complex goal is reached. This process of human shaping seems unavoidable to us if a complex robot body, sensors/actuators, environment and task are imposed before hand. This point has also been suggested by other researchers (Urzelai et al. 1998; Muthuraman et al., 2003). But, different to other...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Frontiers in Evolutionary Robotics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/progressive_design_through_staged_evolution
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RoboCup@Home: Creating and Benchmarking Tomorrows Service Robot Applications InTech
Tijn van der Zant; Thomas Wisspeintner.
RoboCup@Home is a league that has its foundations in robotic soccer. Technologies developed in soccer are being transferred to the @Home domain and on top op these technologies @Home might be able to give some more back. To reach the goal of winning in 2050 it will be necessary to use technologies developed in the @Home league. Since @Home focuses on general artificial intelligence in real world scenarios, theories will probably be developed that are not being developed in the soccer scenarios. Especially if the brain, body and environment are considered to be a holistic system where interactions go in all directions, the environment should also be paid attention to. Therefore the soccer leagues might also want to experiment with more than the artificial...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Robotic Soccer.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/robocup_home__creating_and_benchmarking_tomorrows_service_robot_applications
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Robot Mapping and Navigation by Fusing Sensory Information InTech
Maki K. Habib.
This chapter presented the state of the art, the complexity, and the challenges facing simultaneous and real-time mapping, obstacle avoidance, and dynamic navigation for mobile robots. The development of an autonomous map building and maintenance method with focus on incremental map building technique that is suitable for real-time obstacle detection and avoidance has been presented. The chapter introduced a modified histogram grid based navigation techniques that is integrated with the concept of vector field histogram to support real-time obstacle avoidance in parallel with the incremental map building. Through the integrated implementation, the mobile robot was able to map the environment, avoid obstacles and move towards its target successfully. The...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robots: Perception & Navigation.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/robot_mapping_and_navigation_by_fusing_sensory_information
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Telerobotic Surgery for Right and Sigmoid Colectomy InTech
Arthur Rawlings; David Crawford.
The first reported robotic colectomy was performed in March, 2001. Since then, fourteen other studies have been published showing the safety and feasibility of using the da Vinci system for a colectomy and one study showed the safety and feasibility of using the ZEUS system. No robot specific complication has yet to be reported. There are definite advantages as well as disadvantages of using the da Vinci system for a colectomy. Though studies have been done comparing the cost of a laparoscopic colectomy with a robotic colectomy, more work needs to be done looking at cost from an even wider perspective than just cost per case. Is there any true marketing advantage to an institution having the da Vinci system? How does the cost of the robot as well as the...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Medical Robotics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/telerobotic_surgery_for_right_and_sigmoid_colectomy
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The SocRob Project: Soccer Robots or Society of Robots InTech
Pedro U. Lima; Luis M. M. Custodio.
This paper described the SocRob project (on the development of methodologies for analysis, design and implementation of multi-robot cooperative systems), its objectives, past, current and intended future work. One interesting feature of the project is that it enables different approaches to the solution of the problem at hand. This naturally motivates competing research approaches, as well as research on analysis methods to compare the different results. Furthermore, the project fosters education in AI and Robotics related topics, because so many issues must be solved to handle the overall problem. Students from different levels (undergraduate, graduate, post-doctorate) can get involved at different difficulty levels and accomplish project sub-goals. They...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Cutting Edge Robotics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the_socrob_project__soccer_robots_or_society_of_robots
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