Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a focal adhesion serine/threonine protein kinase that binds to the cytoplasmic domain of β1 integrin and has an important role in integrin and growth factor signaling pathways. Clustering of integrins on the cell surface in contact with the extracellular matrix induces focal adhesion that recruits numerous mitogenic signaling proteins other than ILK, such as growth factor receptors, mitogenactivated protein kinase, and small GTP-binding proteins, to integrin receptors and forms signaling centers where adhesive and mitogenic pathways can integrate. ILK is highly expressed in neuronal cells and its enzyme activity is activated by cell adhesion on the extracellular matrix in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinasedependent manner. Recent studies demonstrated that ILK interacts with and regulates many different signaling pathways in neuronal cells, which implies an important role for ILK in a variety of neuronal functions. This article discusses the role of ILK in neuronal cells and also the possible involvement of ILK in neuronal disorders.