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Provedor de dados:  Organic Eprints
País:  Germany
Título:  Organic Food and Agriculture - Ethics
Autores:  Paull, John
Data:  2018-03-01
Ano:  2018
Palavras-chave:  Farming Systems Values
Standards and certification World History of organics
Resumo:  Organic food is produced without the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Four further exclusions in organic production are: genetically modified organisms (GMOs), irradiation, prophylactic antibiotics, and engineered nanoparticles. These six exclusions differentiate organic agriculture from chemical agriculture. Agriculture and food harvesting and production date back millennia, and until about a century ago that history is de facto organic. The Industrial Revolution ushered in an era of novel production strategies. Agriculture was not immune to new views of industrialization and reductionism. Advances in chemistry enabled some implementation of such views. Early in the diffusion of chemical farming practices, the Austrian mystic Rudolf Steiner (1865–1924) called for a differentiated agriculture free of these new synthetic chemical inputs. The terminology, theory, and practices of biodynamic agriculture evolved (in the 1920s and 1930s) from Steiner’s Agriculture Course of 1924. It was a guided evolution, coordinated by Ehrenfried Pfeiffer (1899–1961) in Switzerland. The UK agriculturist, Lord Northbourne (1896–1982), invited Pfeiffer to lead a conference on biodynamics at his farm in Kent (in 1939). The following year Northbourne published his manifesto of organic farming, “Look to the Land.” In that book, he coined the term “organic farming” and wrote of a contest of “organic versus chemical farming”.The ideas and ideals of organic farming quickly proliferated internationally off the back of Northbourne’s 1940 book. Organic farming is now practiced in at least 179 countries, accounts for 50.9 million agricultural hectares, and a market value of US$ 81.6 billion (€75 billion).
Tipo:  Book chapter
Idioma:  Inglês

Paull, John (2018) Organic Food and Agriculture - Ethics. In: Thompson, P and Kaplan, D (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. Springer, Dordrecht, chapter O, pp. 1-7.
Editor:  Springer
Formato:  application/pdf
Direitos:  cc_by

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