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Provedor de dados:  ArchiMer
País:  France
Título:  Approche empirique de la pecherie d'espadon (Xiphias gladius) dans l'ocean Indien et modelisation des deplacements des poissons dans le paysage oceanique tropical
Autores:  Guyomard, David
Data:  2005-03-29
Ano:  2005
Resumo:  Long-line fishing has been growing on the island of La Réunion since the beginning of the 1990s. The target species is the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), fished mainly in the tropical waters surrounding the island between longitudes 45 degree E and 60 degree E, and latitudes 17 degree S and 27 degree S. From 1998 to 2000, a finalised research programme enabled the collection of precise data concerning the lines' positions and the parameters of the fishing efforts: 3,602 nettings were thus informed by the catches (in numbers of individuals caught) and 12 descriptive variables of the effort. In parallel with this collection effort, satellite maps that described the ocean's landscape of this region of the Indian Ocean exploited by La Réunion's fisheries were made available to sailors and scientists. Extractions from these environmental variables were made at the fishing lines' positions, which allowed us to propose 20 variables describing the environmental conditions of swordfish catches applied to the nettings. In an early part of this study, after a descriptive analysis and a first selection of the variables, we used several GAM (Generalised Additive Models) to model the respective effects of effort and environmental variables on the variability of swordfish catches. We thus highlighted the predominance of factors linked to fishermen (fishing effort) on oceanographic factors in the explanation of this variability. Following these results, a summary on the biology and ecology of the swordfish was proposed in order to draw up hypotheses on the characteristics of this species' population in the Indian Ocean. The aspects linked to the individual behaviour and movements of the population were particularly highlighted. In a latter part of this study and in order to complete the empirical approach by an exploratory constructivist approach, we proposed a modelling tool in order to simulate the possible movements of individuals within the oceanic landscape described by the available satellite maps. After reading in the literature about the various forms of modelling the movements of the large pelagics, we developed an original computer modelling architecture of the multi-agent type that made it possible to manipulate in a dynamic way the satellite maps (and derived products), the individual movements of "animats" whose behaviours were based on this environmental information, and agents that clarify the process of long-line fishing in a geographical way. The computer model that was implemented (MUFINS, for MUlti-Fish INdian ocean Simulator) was next used by calibrating the behaviour of the animats on the real data originally from the analysis of commercial catches proposed in the first part, using robust techniques based on fuzzy logic. The results of the simulations were compared, on the one hand, with the large-scale hypotheses of movement proposed in the first part, and, on the other hand, to swordfish catches both real and corrected for the effect of the fishing effort modelled by the GAM models. Even if the results of these simulations in this study do not allow for proposing convincing interpretations of the underlying processes, the MUFINS tool showed its ability to address questions associated with the swordfish's behaviour in the tropical oceanic landscape and to the effects of scale transfers between the individual level and the collective level. We now envisage its use in a more operational framework, as an interface for dialogue between fishermen and scientists with a goal of sustainable management of the resource.

La peche palangriere s'est developpee a l'ile de La Reunion depuis le debut des annees 1990. L'espece cible est l'espadon (Xiphias gladius), principalement exploite dans les eaux tropicales autour de l'ile entre les longitudes 45 degree E et 60 degree E, et les latitudes 17 degree S et 27 degree S. De 1998 a 2000, un programme de recherche finalisee a permis de collecter des informations precises concernant les positions des lignes et les parametres de l'effort de peche : 3602 filages sont ainsi renseignes par les captures (en nombre d'individus captures) et 12 variables descriptives de l'effort. En parallele de cet effort de collecte, des cartes satellitales ont pu etre mises a la disposition des marins et des scientifiques, decrivant le paysage oceanique de cette region de l'ocean Indien exploitee par la pecherie reunionnaise. Des extractions de ces variables environnementales ont ete effectuees aux positions des lignes de peche, nous permettant de proposer 20 variables descriptives des conditions environnementales de captures d'espadon appliquees aux filages. Dans une premiere partie de ce travail, apres une analyse descriptive et une premiere selection des variables, on a modelise par plusieurs modeles GAM (Generalized Additive Models) les effets respectifs des variables d'effort et des variables environnementales sur la variabilite des captures d'espadon. On a ainsi mis en evidence la predominance des facteurs lies aux pecheurs (effort de peche) sur les facteurs oceanographiques dans le caractere explicatif de cette variabilite. A la suite de ces resultats, une synthese sur la biologie et l'ecologie de l'espadon a ete proposee afin de degager des hypotheses sur les caracteristiques de la population de cette espece dans l'ocean Indien. Les aspects lies au comportement individuel et aux deplacements de la population ont ete particulierement mis en evidence. Dans une deuxieme partie de ce travail et afin de completer l'approche empirique par une approche constructiviste exploratoire, nous avons propose un outil de modelisation afin de simuler les deplacements possibles d'individus au sein du paysage oceanique decrit par les cartes satellitales disponibles. Apres avoir passe en revue dans la litterature les differentes formes de modelisation des deplacements des grands, pelagiques, nous avons developpe une architecture originale de modelisation informatique de type multi-agents permettant de manipuler de maniere dynamique les cartes satellitales (et les produits derives), les mouvements individuels < d'animats >, dont les comportements sont bases sur cette information environnementale, et des agents qui explicitent le processus de capture palangriere de maniere geographique. Le modele informatique ainsi implemente (MUFINS, pour MUlti-Fish INdian ocean Simulator) a ensuite ete utilise en calibrant les comportements des animats sur les donnees reelles issues de l'analyse des captures commerciales proposee en premiere partie, a partir de techniques robustes basee sur la logique floue. Les resultats des simulations ont ete confrontes d'une part aux hypotheses de deplacement a grande echelle proposees en premiere partie, et d'autre part aux captures d'espadon reelles et corrigees de l'effet de l'effort de peche modelise par les modeles GAM. Meme si les resultats de simulations presentes dans ce travail ne permettent pas de proposer d'interpretations convaincantes des processus sous-jacents, l'outil MUFINS a demontre son aptitude a aborder les questions liees au comportement de l'espadon dans le paysage oceanique tropical et aux effets des transferts d'echelle entre le niveau individuel et le niveau collectif. On envisage desormais son utilisation dans un cadre plus operationnel, comme interface de dialogue entre les pecheurs et les scientifiques a des fins de gestion durable de la ressource.
Tipo:  Text
Idioma:  Francês
Identificador:  http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/these-2592.pdf
Editor:  Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Rennes
Relação:  http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/2592/
Formato:  application/pdf
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