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Ordenar por: RelevânciaAutorTítuloAnoImprime registros no formato resumido
Registros recuperados: 29
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The Cost of Reducing Municipal Solid Waste AgEcon
Palmer, Karen L.; Sigman, Hilary; Walls, Margaret.
This paper explores public policies for reduction of municipal solid waste. We parameterize a simple model of waste disposal using supply and demand elasticities from the economics literature and 1990 prices and quantities of recyclable and recycled materials. Using this model, we calculate the waste reduction in response to three public policies: (i) deposit/ refunds, (ii) advance disposal fees, and (iii) recycling subsidies. The results illustrate the effects of the three policies on source reduction and recycling of five recyclable materials that comprise 56 percent of municipal solid waste: aluminum, glass, paper, plastic, and steel. The calculated responses provide information about the cost of reducing municipal solid waste through various policies....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Solid waste; Deposit/refund; Recycling subsidy; Secondary materials; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; H2.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10898
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The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Recycling Program Features and Unit Pricing AgEcon
Jenkins, Robin R.; Martinez, Salvador A.; Palmer, Karen L.; Podolsky, Michael J..
This paper examines the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling has a significant and substantial positive effect on the percentage recycled of all five materials and that the level of this effect varies across different materials. The length of the recycling program's life has a significant and positive effect on two of the five materials and a mandatory recycling requirement does not affect any materials. The level...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Solid waste; Recycling; Unit pricing; Incentives; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; H31.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10798
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The Effect of Allowance Allocation on the Cost of Carbon Emission Trading AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Paul, Anthony.
We investigate the cost-effectiveness and distributional effects of a revenue-raising auction, grandfathering, and a generation performance standard as alternative approaches for distributing carbon emission allowances in the electricity sector. We solve a detailed national electricity market model and find the auction is roughly one-half the societal cost of the other approaches. This result holds under a variety of assumptions about the future state of economic regulation and competition in the electricity sector. The differences in the cost of the approaches flow from the effect of each approach on electricity price. Grandfathering is the best for producers but it imposes a substantial cost on consumers. The generation performance standard yields the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon; Emission allowance trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Restructuring; Air pollution; Safety valve; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10536
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The Effect on Asset Values of the Allocation of Carbon Dioxide Emission Allowances AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Paul, Anthony.
Paradoxically, owners of existing generation assets may be better off paying for carbon dioxide emission allowances than having them distributed for free. This analysis shows that it takes just 7.5% of the revenue raised under an auction to preserve the asset values of existing generators.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon dioxide; Emission allowance trading; Allocation; Electricity; Restructuring; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Outputbased allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10705
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The Environmental Impacts of Electricity Restructuring: Looking Back and Looking Forward AgEcon
Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas.
In the mid-1990s, when the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission was preparing to release Order 888 requiring open access to the transmission grid, the commission, environmental groups, and the Environmental Protection Agency, among others, raised the question of how open access and greater competition in wholesale electricity markets might affect the environment. If open access worked as expected, underutilized older coal-fired generators in the Midwest and elsewhere might find new markets for their power, leading to associated increases in air pollution emissions. Restructuring also might lead to retirements of inefficient nuclear facilities, whose generation would be replaced by fossil generation, further increasing emissions. On the other hand, some...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Electric utilities; Regulation; Competition; Environment; Air pollution; Natural gas; Coal; Nuclear; Renewables; Customer choice; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L51; L94; L98.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10656
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The Impact of Long-Term Generation Contracts on Valuation of Electricity Generating Assets under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative AgEcon
Wilson, Nathan E.; Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas.
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is an effort by nine states to constrain carbon dioxide emissions from the electric power sector using a cap-and-trade program. This paper assesses the importance of long-term electricity contracts under the program. We find that 12.2% of generation will be accounted for by long-term contracts in 2010, affecting select nuclear, hydroelectric, and cogeneration units. The contracts will have a negligible effect on the wholesale marginal cost of electricity and a small effect on retail price. States may want to consider contracts on a case-by-case basis when making decisions about the initial distribution of emission allowances, but they should account for effects on the portfolio of plants owned at the firm level, not...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate; State policy; Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative; Long-term contracts; Electricity; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54; Q58; L14; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10556
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The Paparazzi Take a Look at a Living Legend: The SO2 Cap-and-Trade Program for Power Plants in the United States AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L..
For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The SO2 allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) presents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. This paper provides an overview of the origins, design, and performance of the U.S. acid rain program, and an analysis of its specific features and its adaptability as a model for addressing other pollution problems, such as control of NOX or CO2 emissions. The program also has resulted in innovation through changes in organizational technology, in the organization of markets, and through experimentation at individual boilers, much of which arguably would...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission trading; Cap and trade; Air pollution; Cost-benefit analysis; Electricity; Particulates; Sulfur dioxide; SO2; Health benefits; Acid rain; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q4; D62; Q28.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10665
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Upstream Pollution, Downstream Waste Disposal, and the Design of Comprehensive Environmental Policies AgEcon
Walls, Margaret; Palmer, Karen L..
Many environmentalists and policymakers are shifting their focus from media-specific pollution problems to product-specific, life-cycle environmental problems. In this paper, we develop a model of production and consumption that incorporates life-cycle environmental externalities-specifically, an upstream manufacturing byproduct, air or water pollution from manufacturing, and downstream solid waste disposal. We then use the model to derive optimal government policies to address all three externalities. We assume throughout that a Pigovian tax on waste disposal is precluded because of the potential for illegal dumping. We then examine four cases: one in which Pigovian taxes on the upstream externalities are feasible, one in which such taxes are infeasible,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Life-cycle externalities; Solid waste; Deposit-refund; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10837
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Winner, Loser, or Innocent Victim? Has Renewable Energy Performed As Expected? AgEcon
McVeigh, James; Burtraw, Dallas; Darmstadter, Joel; Palmer, Karen L..
This study provides an evaluation of the performance of five renewable energy technologies used to generate electricity: biomass, geothermal, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, and wind. We compared the actual performance of these technologies against stated projections that helped shape public policy goals over the last three decades. Our findings document a significant difference between the success of renewable technologies in penetrating the U.S. electricity generation market and in meeting cost-related goals, when compared with historic projections. In general, renewable technologies have failed to meet expectations with respect to market penetration. They have succeeded, however, in meeting or exceeding expectations with respect to their cost. To a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Renewable energy; Regulation; Electricity generation; Energy cost; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q42; L94.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10627
Registros recuperados: 29
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
 

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