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Effect of the Irrigation Canal Network on Surface and Groundwater Interactions in the Lower Valley of the Cachapoal River, Chile Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Arumí,José Luis; Rivera,Diego; Holzapfel,Eduardo; Boochs,Peter; Billib,Max; Fernald,Alexander.
Agricultural production of high value crops in Chile's Central Valley is highly dependent on surface and groundwater resources. They are connected and together form an integrated hydrological system, the individual components of which have to be studied. This research is addressed to answering two questions: 1) to what extent do irrigation and canal seepage contribute to groundwater recharge and 2) what is the influence of the interactions between the Cachapoal River and ground water. The study was carried out from 2003 to 2007 in Peumo Valley (34.3° S, 71.3° W). In winter, the irrigation canal network intercepts and diverts surface runoff, which flows to flat areas and recharges groundwater. In summer, infiltration from the canals recharges the aquifer...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Chile; Groundwater; Irrigation seepage; MODFLOW; Surface water-groundwater interactions.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000100002
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Effect of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi in Controlling Aleurodicus cocois (Curtis, 1846) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Núñez del Prado,Elizabeth; Iannacone,José; Gómez,Hilda.
Aleurodicus cocois (Curtis, 1846), the coconut whitefly, is a very damaging pest in Peru, mainly in avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.). It has been determined that entomopathogenic fungi can infect and kill white flies and can be used as biological control agents. The object of this research was to determine if there is any synergic action of the entomopathogenic fungi Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith 1957 and Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman, 1892) Viégas 1939, in controlling A. cocois. Plastic sterile dishes were prepared where 5 mL 2% agar were used for each stage; leaves infested with A. cocois were placed upon these. Three different treatments were applied by sprinkling: P. fumosoroseus (P), V. lecanii (V) or the mixture of...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Biocontrol; Pest; White flies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392008000100003
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Effect of Vermicompost and Compost on Lettuce Production Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Hernández,Adriana; Castillo,Hugo; Ojeda,Dámaris; Arras,Ana; López,Julio; Sánchez,Esteban.
A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect on total growth and leaf nutritional content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in the Agrotechnology Sciences Department of the Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Mexico in 2007. Three types of fertilization treatments were analyzed: two organic and one conventional or inorganic. Both vermicompost and compost were produced from cattle manure in a 25-wk process. The study included 12 experimental units made up of lettuce plantlets var. Great Lakes. A linear model was fitted for statistical analysis using a completely randomized experimental design. ANOVA was performed and means were compared by orthogonal contrasts. Results showed differences in weight and leaf content for the N and K variables, and the...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Fertilization; Nutrient; Growth; Quality.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000400008
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Effects of Biofertilizers Combined with Different Soil Amendments on Potted Rice Plants Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Javaid,Arshad.
This pot study investigated the effect of the combined application of two commercial biofertilizers viz. Biopower and EM (Effective Microorganisms) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and yield in soils amended with farmyard manure, green manure, and NPK fertilizers. Biopower is a product of the Nuclear Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Pakistan, which contains species of associative and endophytic diazotrophs. EM (effective microorganisms), a product developed by Japanese scientists, consists of co-existing beneficial microorganisms, mainly species of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, as well as yeast. Applying Biopower adversely affected plant growth and yield in NPK fertilizer amendment. Conversely, this biofertilizer...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Associated N2-fixers; Biopower; Effective microorganisms; Rice; Soil amendments.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000100019
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Effects of elevated air temperature on physiological characteristics of flag leaves and grain yield in rice Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Qi-Hua,Liu; Xiu,Wu; Tian,Li; Jia-Qing,Ma; Xue-Biao,Zhou.
As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effect worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT) after rice heading stage on dynamics of SPAD values, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of flag leaves, and grain yield attributes. The results showed that HAT significantly reduced SPAD values, soluble sugar and protein contents, seed-setting rate, number of filled grains...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Physiological parameters; Dynamics; Yield attributes.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392013000200001
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Effects of Fungicides on the Development of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Yáñez,Maribel; France,Andrés.
Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin is an entomopathogenic fungus used for controlling different insect pests. It is most frequently applied to berry fruit crops, where fungicides are also used for disease control. Fungicides: azoxystrobin, benomyl, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione, and metalaxyl in concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 mg L-1 were evaluated in this research study. Vegetative growth, conidia germination, and conidia germination tube length were measured on the Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430, and Qu-M984 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae fungus strains. Those strains were selected because of their present use against different insect pest in bramble fruits. Vegetative growth was measured...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Biological control; Integrated management; Fungal growth; Conidia germination.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000300006
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Effects of Hydrogen Cyanamide on the Floral Morphogenesis of Kiwifruit Buds Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Engin,Hakan; Gökbayrak,Zeliha; Dardeniz,Alper.
The influence of hydrogen cyanamide (HC) on the flower bud development of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson). ‘Hayward’ was studied. The bud samples were taken every 5-10 d starting from dormant season (March) and fixed in FAA (10% formalin, 50% ethanol, 5% glacial acetic acid). Flower bud development was compared in three HC concentrations and the control. 1%, 2%, and 3% of HC was applied 35 d before the expected natural bud break. During the onset of bud break, only 57.6% of control buds had sepal primordia developed. On the other hand, HC treated buds had almost completed their stamen formation and started stigma primordia. When the control vines were in advanced bud break, gynoecial plateau already began to...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Ovule initiation; Floral formation; Flower primordia.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000300018
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Effects of Nitrate and Labile Carbon on Denitrification of Southern Temperate Forest Soils Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Pérez,Cecilia A; Carmona,Martín R.; Fariña,José M.; Armesto,Juan J..
The pressure for anthropogenic land use changes and logging of temperate forests in southern Chile is rapidly increasing, with its potentially high impacts on the capacity of soils to retain important limiting elements. We tested the hypotheses that logging increases the denitrification rates and nitrate and C limitation of denitrifiers activity would be higher in soils of unlogged, old-growth forests than in soils of logged forests. Potential denitrification rates were estimated by the acetylene inhibition assay in intact soil cores in laboratory short-term aerobic incubations using the following treatments: 0.7 mmol NO3-N addition, the same nitrate addition plus 23.3 mmol C-glucose, and controls (no additions) with and without 10% v/v acetylene. Forest...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Acetylene inhibition assay; Lowland evergreen forests; Selective logging; Nitrogen availability.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000200008
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Effects of Nitrogen on Productivity, Grain Quality, and Optimal Nitrogen Rates in Winter Wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA in Andisols of Southern Chile Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Campillo,Ricardo; Jobet,Claudio; Undurraga,Pablo.
Nitrogen is one of the main inputs of the winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.) in southern Chile. Nitrogen efficient management is basic to optimizing its utilization while decreasing pollution risks and operational costs. Crop response and N use efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of yield to mineral N supply, regardless of source) are important for evaluating N requirements of winter wheat, and reaching maximum and economic yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N rate on grain yield, calculate the N rate that maximizes yield, and estimate the optimal grain yield rate and quality of high-yielding winter wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA. Five annual N rates were evaluated in a randomized complete block design during two successive...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Nitrogen level; Nitrogen use efficiency; Andisols.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000100013
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Effects of Soil Aluminum on Early Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Wheat an Barley Cultivars Growing in an Andisol Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Seguel,Alex; Medina,Jorge; Rubio,Rosa; Cornejo,Pablo; Borie,Fernando.
Aluminum phytotoxicity in acid soils is an important environmental stress that negatively affects crop production, but arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi performance would allow plants to better withstand this environmental condition. This study aimed to analyze the effect of soil Al on early AM colonization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. Near-isogenic Crac, Invento, and Porfiado wheat cultivars and Sebastián and Aurora barley cultivars were sown in pots in an acid soil at three Al saturation levels (60, 34, and 11%). At 20 d after sowing (DAS) 'Crac' presented higher AM colonization (27%) than other cultivars. However, 'Invento' had the fastest colonization at 41 DAS, which was inhibited in short term at lower...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Acid soils; Arbuscular mycorrhizal propagules; Cereal crop; Soil aluminum saturation.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000300022
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Effects of some Insecticides Applied in Sublethal Concentrations on the Survival and Longevity of Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) Adults Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Araya,Jaime E.; Araya,Manuel; Guerrero,María Angélica.
The effects of four insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, and spinosad) applied in an ST4 Potter tower at sublethal concentrations (50% of those recommended commercially for aphid control) were studied in the laboratory on aphidiid Aphidius ervi (Haliday) adults, an important parasitoid of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). The most selective treatment on the hymenopteran was imidacloprid, followed in decreasing order by spinosad, pirimicarb, and finally dimethoate, which quickly eliminated the parasitoid and thus its capacity to produce progeny. Three toxicity groups were distinguished in the study. The least damaging treatment to adults of A. ervi was imidacloprid, followed by a group of medium toxicity made up of spinosad and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Dimethoate; Green pea aphid; Imidacloprid; Pirimicarb; Spinosad.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000200005
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Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Öztürk,Özden.
Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has potential to become an alternate oilseed crop both for edible oil production and energy agriculture (biofuel production) for Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the effect of year, N sources and doses on the yield and quality traits of winter rapeseed in a cereal system in calcareous soils over two seasons, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, in Central Anatolia. Three N sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, were applied as hand broadcast on the soil surface at five doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1). The traits investigated were plant height, number of branches and pods per plant, number of seed per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, oil and protein content. There were significantly...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Winter rapeseed; Seed yield; Oil content; Protein content.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000100014
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Encapsulated Somatic Embryos and Zygotic Embryos for Obtaining Artificial Seeds of Rauli-Beech (Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl.) Oerst.) Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Cartes R,Priscila; Castellanos B,Hermes; Ríos L,Darcy; Sáez C,Katia; Spierccolli H,Scarlette; Sánchez O,Manuel.
Somatic and zygotic embryos from mature seeds of rauli-beech, Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl.) Oerst., were encapsulated in different artificial endosperms in order to generate a cover that fulfills the function of nourishment and protection of the embryos, facilitating their later germination. The content of sodium alginate varied by 4%, 3%, and 2%, as did the immersion time in calcium chloride (CaCl2), which acts as complexing agent. The artificial endosperm components of the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) were added, supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 indolacetic acid (IAA), 0.5 mg L-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 30 g L-1 sucrose. The germinative behaviors of encapsulated somatic and zygotic embryos were...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Rauli-beech; Somatic embryogenesis; Synthetic seed; Sodium alginate.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000100014
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Endogenous Quantification of Abscisic Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Somatic and Zigotic Embryos of Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl.) Oerst Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Cartes Riquelme,Pricila; Ríos Leal,Darcy; Sáez Carrillo,Kátia; Uribe Moraga,Matilde; Valenzuela Aguilar,Sofía; Joseph Bolus,Stephen; Sánchez Olate,Manuel.
Abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) participate in the propagation of plants by somatic embryogenesis, causing polar structural differentiation of the embryo. The goal of the assay was to compare endogenous levels of ABA and IAA between somatic embryos (SE) and zygotic embryos (ZE) of Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl.) Oerst. In this study, a somatic embryo maturation assay involving the addition of varying concentrations of exogenous ABA was performed on cotyledonary-stage of N. alpina. Furthermore, the endogenous levels of ABA and IAA were quantified in the immature ZE, the mature ZE, and the embryonic axis of a mature embryo of N. alpina. The current study utilized high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification....
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Somatic embryogenesis; Maturation; Germination; HPLC.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000400007
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Endophytic Bacteria from Pinus taeda L. as Biocontrol Agents of Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Soria,Silvina; Alonso,Raquel; Bettucci,Lina.
Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell, the pitch canker fungus, has been recently reported in Uruguay affecting Pinus taeda L. seedlings. The spread of this pathogen to plantations constitute a risk to forestry production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of live bacteria and their thermostable metabolites on F. circinatum growth in vitro. Four Bacillus subtilis strains and one of Burkholderia sp. isolated as P. taeda endophytes were evaluated as biological control agents of F. circinatum. Dual cultures between live bacteria and pathogen were performed. Furthermore, bacteria metabolites obtained from liquid cultures were sterilized and added to the culture media where fungus was grown. In this study all bacteria showed...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Biological control; Pitch canker.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000200018
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Environmental Effects of Irrigation in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Fernández Cirelli,Alicia; Arumí,José Luis; Rivera,Diego; Boochs,Peter  W.
This article reviews the state of the art with respect to the environmental effects of irrigated agriculture on water and soil quality in arid and semi-arid regions on a field scale. Information is scarce and fragmentary. Examples in selected areas of other arid and semi-arid regions in the world clearly show the importance of studying the environmental impact of irrigation practices on water and soil quality. Studies mainly refer to waterlogging and salinization. As regards agrochemicals, fertilizers have been taken into account through nitrate leaching. The impact of micropollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals on water and soil quality is studied mainly by modeling. Pharmaceutical compounds emerge as pollutants when wastewater is used for...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Irrigation; Water quality; Soil quality; Agrochemicals; Micropollutants.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000500004
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Estimating Monthly Solar Radiation in South-Central Chile Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Álvarez,José; Mitasova,Helena; Allen,H. Lee.
Solar radiation is a key component in process-based models. The amount of this energy depends on the location, time of the year, and atmospheric conditions. Several equations and models have been developed for different conditions using historical data from weather station networks or satellite measurements. However, solar radiation estimates are too local since they rely on weather stations or have a resolution that is too coarse when working with satellites. In this study, we estimated monthly global solar radiation for the south-central region of Chile using the r.sun model and validated it with observations from automatic weather stations. We analyzed the performance of global radiation results with the Hargreaves-Samani (HS) and Bristow-Campbell (BC)...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Solar radiation; R. sun model.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000400016
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Ethylene, Enzymatic and Respiratory Pattern Evolution in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cv. Golden Nugget in the Last four Sequential Stages of Maturation Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Undurraga M,Pedro L; Olaeta C,José A; Cancino,Cristian.
There is some controversy regarding the respiratory pattern of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.). Thus in order to provide information on this aspect of loquat, fruit of 50-70 g, from cv. Golden Nugget were harvested in four stages of maturity: green (BBCH 709), color break (BBCH 801), yellow (BBCH 807), and orange (BBCH 809). The parameters evaluated in each stage were: soluble solids, titratable acidity, respiration, ethylene generation, and activity of the enzymes pectin methyl esterase (PME), peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO), polygalacturonase (PG), and cellulose, and the soluble solids:acidity ratio was calculated. The results show that ethylene concentration increased at the time of color break, which was not the case for the change in...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Color skin; Peroxidase; CO2; Fruit quality; Polygalacturonase.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000400005
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Evaluating the use of Atriplex nummularia Hay on Feed Intake, Growth, and Carcass Characteristics of Creole Kids Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Meneses,Raúl; Varela,Gabriel; Flores,Hugo.
There is a surplus of Atriplex nummularia Lindl. grazing that can be used as animal feed. This material was harvested to assess the effects on intake, growth, and carcass characteristics of kids. Atriplex replaced alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) in a proportion of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% for 60 creole kids weighing 13 kg and was assigned to the diets in a completely randomized design. The process was conducted from March to May. Two males and two females were used from each group to evaluate individual nutrient intake. Height at withers, thoracic diameter, and weight change were evaluated in all the animals. The carcasses of four females per group were evaluated. Offered and rejected hay diet samples were chemically analyzed. Atriplex hay crude protein...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Goats; Hay.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000100012
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Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Carrasco,Marcos; Ortega-Farías,Samuel.
Net radiation (Rn) is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.). An automatic meteorological station (AMS) was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi), air temperature (Ta), canopy temperature (Tf) and relative humidity (RH). On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf) and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf ) were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE) of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE)...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Atmospheric emissivity; Terrestrial radiation; Atmospheric radiation; Energy balance.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392008000200005
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