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Evaluation of a Non-Destructive Impact Sensor to Determine On-Line Fruit Firmness Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Homer,Ian; García-Ramos,Francisco Javier; Ortiz-Cañavate,Jaime; Ruiz-Altisent,Margarita.
A non-destructive impact sensor to measure on-line fruit firmness was evaluated. This sensor is an adaptation of a static model used in the laboratory to measure fruit quality and was installed in an experimental fruit packing line with a commercial sizer chain. The firmness index is related to the acceleration-time curve supplied by an accelerometer attached to an impacting arm. The main objective of this study was to evaluate sensor performance and sources of variation. We made classification trials on three fruits: peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), and pears (Pyrus communis L.), as well as working trials, such as placing the fruit, orientation, and others. The sensor works correctly at a speed of 7 fruits s-1 (0.63 m...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Packing line; Fruit quality; Peach; Low-energy impact; Sorting.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000100007
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Evaluation of a SCAR RYSC3 Marker of the Ry adg Gene to Select Resistant Genotypes to Potato Virus Y (PVY) in the INIA Potato Breeding Program Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Sagredo D,Boris; Mathias R,Mónica; Barrientos P,Claudia; Acuña B,Ivette; Kalazich B,Julio; Santos Rojas,José.
The Potato virus Y (PVY) is distributed worldwide and is one of the most damaging viruses in terms of yield reduction in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop with losses sometimes reaching 80%. To reduce its impact, there is great interest in obtaining varieties carrying the Ry adg gene that provides extreme resistance to this virus. This could be facilitated with SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) RYSC3 by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). This study compared the effectiveness of the RYSC3 marker in the detection of the Ry adg gene vs. biological tests on populations of the Potato Breeding Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Chile. Within the group of 71 progenitors, 30 plants had some kind of...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: MAS; Extreme resistance.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000300002
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Evaluation of fertilization with uncoated urea and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP)-coated urea on nitrogen leaching and rose (Rosa spp.) yield Chilean J. Agric. Res.
García-Castro,Alexandra; Restrepo-Díaz,Hermann.
The negative impact of N over-fertilization has acquired importance in rose (Rosa spp.) growers in Colombia. The nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) has been considered a valuable alternative to diminish the N losses by leaching and to enable more efficient N use efficiency in crops. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of DMPP on the mineral N (NH4+- N and NO3--N) content in soil and water leaching, and physiological characteristics of rose plants. A greenhouse experiment was performed for 10 wk. Four-year-old 'Charlotte' rose cultivars grafted on 'Natal Briar' were grown in soil and fertirrigated daily with a complete nutrient solution containing 170 mg N L-1. Two N fertilizers (uncoated urea [UA], and urea...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Chlorophyll fluorescence; Leaf nitrogen concentration; Nitrate leaching; Nitrogen use efficiency.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392013000200011
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Evaluation of Low-Drift Nozzles in Agrochemical Applications in Orchards Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Behmer,Sergio; Di Prinzio,Alcides; Striebeck,Guillermina; Magdalena,Jorge.
Fruit production demands several phytosanitary treatments per year. The efficiency of these treatments is affected by product loss because of drift, a situation that is aggravated by frequent high winds and the presence of a substantial rural population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and to quantify product losses in fruit orchard applications. Fluorescent tracers with air-blast sprayers were applied, using air-induction hollow cone nozzles, compared to conventional hollow cone nozzles. To evaluate drift, pipes cleaner were placed on columns behind the adjacent row to the treated one, and for the losses under the tree, Petri dishes were located below the treated row; for the distribution in the tree, leaves were collected...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Orchards; Sprayers; Drift; Air-induction nozzles.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000300017
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Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Qu-M845 Isolate to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Laboratory and Field Trials Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Rodríguez,Marta; Gerding,Marcos; France,Andrés; Ceballos,Ricardo.
The effectiveness of the Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Qu-M845 isolate was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. It was previously selected for thermal resistance (at 30 and 35 ºC) and pathogenicity on Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman). In the laboratory, the first evaluations were carried out by spraying and increasing the concentration from zero to 10(8) conidia mL-1 on varroa adults. Lethal concentrations required for 50 and 90% mite mortality (LC50 and LC90) were 3.8 x 10(5) and 8 x 10(7) conidia mL-1, respectively (χ2 = 2.03). In the autumn field trials, three application methods (doses of 5 x 10(10) conidia per hive) were evaluated. The treatments were: a) conidia stamped on filter paper, located on every second frame...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Biological control; Entomopathogenic fungi; Varroasis; Insect pathology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000400009
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Evaluation of On-Farm Quick Tests on Slurries from Southern Chile Dairy Farms Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Salazar S,Francisco; Rosas U,Marianela.
Currently in Chile, there is a lack of tools to determine the real-time nutrient contribution of slurries. This study aims to evaluate three quick tests for their accuracy in estimating the total contents of N (TN), P (TP), K (TK), and ammonium-N (N-NH4+) in dairy slurries. The quick tests included the Agros Nova Meter, Quantofix N Volumeter, and a hydrometer. While the Agros and Quantofix meters directly measure the ammonium-N content; the hydrometer indirectly estimates the total content of N, P, and K based on linear relationships with the slurry DM. Samples (73) were collected from dairy farms along Southern Chile (39° to 44° S and 71 to 73° W). Analyses were carried out on laboratory conditions using conventional techniques as well as using each of...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Slurry; Organic residue; Chemical analysis; Nutrients.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000300021
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Evaluation of Perennial Forage Legumes and Herbs in Six Mediterranean Environments Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Real,Daniel; Li,Guangdi D; Clark,Steve; Albertsen,Tony O; Hayes,Richard C; Denton,Matt D; D’Antuono,Mario F; Dear,B.S.
There is an absence of drought tolerant herbaceous perennial forage legume and herb options other than lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) for environments with Mediterranean-like climates common in extensive areas of Southern Australia, the Mediterranean basin, and Chile. Therefore, a collection of 174 forage perennial legume and herb entries from 103 species and 32 genera was evaluated for adaptation in a diverse range of Mediterranean climatic environments in Southern Australia. The seasonal rainfall distribution varied from moderately to highly winter dominant with long term average annual rainfall ranging from 318 to 655 mm. The entries were rated for productivity and persistence over 3 yr. The 12 entries identified as the most promising for winter, summer,...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Herbage yield; Legume persistence; Australian native germplasm.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000300003
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Evaluation of Resistance of Cucumber Cultivars to the Vegetable Leafminer (Liriomyza sativae Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Greenhouse Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Basij,Moslem; Askarianzaeh,Alireza; Asgari,Shahriyar; Moharramipou,Saeid; Rafezi,Ramin.
The leafminer, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, is distributed around the world and is an important pest of vegetables and ornamentals. Given the resistance potential of the leafminer to current insecticides, the use of resistant plant cultivars and parasitoids could be effective integrated pest management (IPM) strategies against it. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a preferred host for this insect. Seventeen cultivars of cucumber have been evaluated to study resistance mechanisms to L. sativae. All cucumber cultivars were evaluated in screening tests in greenhouse with indices such as the number of leafminer stings, the number of larval mines, the proportion of larval mines to leafminer stings, and the rate of injury. Significant differences (p < 0.01)...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Cucumber cultivar; Screening; Antibiosis; Screening.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000300008
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Evaluation of Risk Factors in Agriculture: An Application of the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) Methodology Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Toledo,Roger; Engler,Alejandra; Ahumada,Víctor.
Risk in the agricultural sector has multiple dimensions or factors and prioritization of these can support decision making. On the other hand, knowing the importance of these risk factors for distinct agricultural activities and how they vary according to geographic zone constitutes relevant information for agricultural development. The objective of this study was to prioritize risk factors that are highly relevant for farmers in Central South Chile. The multi-criteria Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology was used to define a decision structure with four risk factors or criteria: climate, price and direct cost variability, human factor, and commercialization. In general, results obtained showed that there are no important imbalances in the...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Risk analysis; AHP; Multi-criteria decisions.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000100014
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Evaluation of the Impact of Climatic Change on the Economic Value of Land in Agricultural Systems in Chile Chilean J. Agric. Res.
González U,Jorge ; Velasco H,Roberto .
Climatic change will affect crop yields and management. By the year 2050, the mean temperature could increase by 1.5 ºC; and by the year 2100 between 1.0 to 3.5 ºC. There are few studies on this subject in Chile. At the international level, estimated climatic changes in temperate and tropical zones could negatively affect wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) production, as examples. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between agricultural systems and climatic change by using the Ricardian Method. Specific objectives were to evaluate and quantify the relationship of climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) with economic variables under several realities of farms, to simulate the impact of scenarios of...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Climate change; Ricardian method; Land productivity; Land value; Policy of adaptation.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392008000100006
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Evaluation of the ORYZA2000 Rice Growth Model under Nitrogen-Limited Conditions in an Irrigated Mediterranean Environment Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Artacho,Pamela; Meza,Francisco; Alcalde,José Antonio.
ORYZA2000 is a growth model for tropical lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) developed by the International Rice Research Institute and Wageningen University. This model has been evaluated extensively in a wide range of environments. However, reports examining japonica cultivars growing in temperate climates are scarce. In this study, ORYZA2000 was calibrated and evaluated using data from experiments carried out in the South-Central area of Chile. These experiments were performed on a japonica rice cultivar growing under an irrigated Mediterranean environment at various N rates. ORYZA2000 was then applied to explore potential yield and grain yield response to N fertilization under likely weather conditions in the major rice-producing area in Chile. ORYZA2000...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: ORYZA2000 model; Irrigated rice; Nitrogen; Mediterranean environment; Chile.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000100003
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Evaluation of the Resistance of Transgenic C5 Plum (Prunus domestica L.) against Four Chilean Plum Pox Virus Isolates through Micro-Grafting Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Wong,Wendy; Barba,Paola; Álvarez,Catalina; Castro,Álvaro; Acuña,Manuel; Zamora,Pablo; Rosales,Marlene; Dell´Orto,Paola; Moynihan,Michael R; Scorza,Ralph; Prieto,Humberto.
The transgenic plum (Prunus domestica L.) C5, in which the coat protein (CP) gene of the Plum pox virus (PPV) is inserted, represents a unique example of the use of genetic engineering for fruit crop improvement in Prunus spp. Field trials in Poland, Romania, and Spain have demonstrated resistance of C5 to several D and M strain PPV isolates. In Chile, the quarantine regulations for PPV and for genetically modified (GM) plants require that the testing of C5 for resistance to Chilean PPV isolates be done under controlled isolated conditions. To carry out these tests C5 shoots were multiplied in vitro and micro-grafted onto four Adesoto101 (Prunus insititia L.) rootstock populations that had been previously infected each with one of four Chilean PPV-Ds....
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: C5; Chilean isolates; Micro-grafting.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000300004
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Evaluation of the Water Requirements for a Greenhouse Tomato Crop using the Priestley-Taylor Method Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Valdés-Gómez,Héctor; Ortega-Farías,Samuel; Argote,Mauricio.
The Priestley-Taylor (PT) model was evaluated for estimating the real evapotranspiration (ETreal) of a drip-irrigated greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) crop. The net radiation incorporated in the PT model was estimated using meteorological variables. For this experiment, an automatic weather station (AWS) was installed inside the greenhouse to measure solar radiation (Rgi), net radiation (Rn), air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH). Another AWS was installed over a grass cover to measure atmospheric conditions outside the greenhouse. The experiment was carried out at the Panguilemo experimental station (35°23' S, 71°40' W, 110 m.a.s.l.) from August to December 2000. The PT model was evaluated using the ETreal obtained from the...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Irrigation; Model; Crop coefficients; Net radiation; Soil heat flu.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000100001
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Evaluation of Top-Cross Popcorn Hybrids Using Mixed Linear Model Methodology Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Arnhold,Emmanuel; Mora,Freddy; G. Silva,Ricardo; I.V. Good-God,Pedro; Rodovalho,Marcos A.
The market for popcorn (Zea mays L.) has been continuously growing in Brazil fact has required the development of cultivars adapted to local environmental conditions. For this reason, the analytical objectives of this study were to evaluate top-cross popcorn hybrids in relation to popping expansion and grain yield in three different eco-geographic regions of Brazil, in order to estimate variance components using Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) and predict breeding values using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). Genetic evaluation considered a linear model with heterogeneous residual (environmental) variances. The Restricted Likelihood Ratio Test (RLRT) evidenced significant differences (p < 0.01) for the genotypic effect. Grain yield showed a...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Popping expansion; REML; BLUP; Improvement.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000100006
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Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Moraga-Suazo,Priscila; Opazo,Alex; Zaldúa,Salomé; González,Gastón; Sanfuentes,Eugenio.
The fungus Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg &amp; O’Donnell causes pine pitch canker, an important disease for conifers worldwide. F. circinatum was first detected in Chile in 2001 and to date is present in nurseries and clonal hedges from Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins Region to Los Rios Region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains to control F. circinatum in Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings in the absence of other effective control methods. Eighty-one Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains were evaluated through in vitro assays to determine their ability to act as antagonists of F. circinatum and 21 strains were tested for their ability to reduce post-emergence mortality...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Antagonists; Biological control; Seedling death; Pitch canker.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000300011
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Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.)Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L.) Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Araneda Durán,Ximena; Breve Ulloa,Rodrigo; Aguilera Carrillo,José; Lavín Contreras,Jorge; Toneatti Bastidas,Marcelo.
Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L.) contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1), partial exclusion (T2) and free pollination (T0) with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Bee hives; Pollination.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000200014
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Exogenous Application of Polyamines Improves Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Hot Pepper Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Aziz Khan,Hammad; Ziaf,Khurram; Amjad,Muhammad; Iqbal,Qumer.
Polyamines are low molecular weight organic compounds involved in diverse range of biological processes in all living organisms. Seed priming is a technique that improves seed performance by rapid and uniform germination with normal and vigorous seedlings. A laboratory study was performed to explore the benefits of seed priming with polyamines on seed germination and seedling growth of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Hot pepper seeds were primed in aerated solution of putrescine, spermine, or spermidine (25, 50, 75, and 100 mM) for 48 h at 25 ± 2 °C. Significant results (P < 0.05) were observed for different attributes of seed germination and early seedling growth. Polyamines priming resulted in earlier and synchronized germination via improving final...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Seed priming; Capsicum annuum; Polyamines.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000300018
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Exploring the Potential use of Photo-Selective Nets for Fruit Growth Regulation in Apple Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Bastías,Richard M; Manfrini,Luigi; Corelli Grappadelli,Luca.
The effect of shading (i.e. reduction of sunlight availability) on fruit growth physiology has been widely studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), but little knowledge exist about fruit growth responses to changes in the light spectrum. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of use of colored nets with differential sunlight transmission in the blue (B, 400-500 nm), red (R, 600-700 nm) and far-red (FR, 700-800 nm) spectra on apple fruit growth and physiological associated responses. Three year old 'Fuji' apple trees were covered with 40% photo-selective blue and red shade nets, 40% neutral grey shade net, and 20% neutral white net as control. Red and blue net reduced in the same proportion (27%) the photosynthetically active radiation...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Sunlight spectrum management; Fruit size; Photosynthesis; Morphogenesis.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000200010
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Export Behaviour in the Chilean Agribusiness and Food Processing Industry Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Echeverría,Rodrigo; Gopinath,Munisamy.
This paper analyzes the export-behavior of Chilean agribusiness and food processing firms and the relative importance of firm-specific and geographic characteristics in this behavior. Using firm level data and regional geographic indicators, a dynamic model was used to study the export decisions and the export intensity of three industries: processing fish, processing fruits and vegetables, and wine production. Results showed that determinants of exporting behavior vary among the three industries, except the effect of sunk costs, which strongly impacts the export decisions of all analyzed industries. This implies that firms with prior export experience will have higher probability of exporting in the future. Foreign ownership positively impacts the export...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Export decision; Export intensity; Geography.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392008000400007
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Expression of Early Light Induced Protein in Grapevine and Pea, under Different Conditions and its Relation with Photoinhibition Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Berti,Maritza; Pinto,Manuel.
Early light induced proteins (ELIP) are a type of proteins which are expressed before than other chloroplast proteins in the presence of light. These proteins have been studied in a large number of annual species such as pea (Pisum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Arabidopsis sp. In perennials plants the studies about ELIPs are very scarce. The possible photoprotective function of the ELIPs has motivated the interest in investigating the presence of this type of proteins in a perennial plant such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and if their characteristics differ from those found in annual plants. In this paper a comparative study was conducted on the ELIPs expression in grapevine and pea to investigate whether there are differences regarding...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Photoinhibition; ELIPs induction; Abiotic stress; Vitis vinifera; Pisum sativum.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000300011
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