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Livscyklusvurdering af økologiske og konventionelle planteavlssædskifter - fokus på drivhusgasemissioner Organic Eprints
Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas.
Life cycle assessment of organic and conventional arable crop rotations - focusing on greenhouse gas emissions. Five arable crop rotations in long-term field trials were investigated; four organic and one conventional - in three years on three different locations in Denmark. The organic crop rotations represented alternative scenarios for outphasing conventional slurry in organic systems. Crops from rotations with grass-clover for biogas in one out of four years had the lowest carbon footprint per kg crop DM. Including soil carbon changes in the life cycle assessment affected the results markedly.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Farming Systems; Crop husbandry; Air and water emissions; Environmental aspects; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19467/2/19467.pdf
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Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application Organic Eprints
Carter, Mette S.; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.; Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per.
More efficient use of green manure-derived nitrogen (N) may improve crop yields and reduce environmental impacts in stockless organic arable farming. In this 3-month incubation study, we tested a new strategy where green manure leys are harvested and preserved until the following spring either as compost mixed with straw or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release of plant-available N, nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, and soil respiration. Grass-clover silage provided the highest net N release with similar results for the two...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/25158/7/25158.pdf
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Nye miljøvenlige desinfektionsmidler til økologiske dambrug Organic Eprints
Pedersen, Lars-Flemming.
Pereddikesyre og brintoverilte kan anvendes til vandrensning og kontrol af vandkvalitet i akvakultur systemer. Her beskrives seneste praktisake erfaringer som alternativ til f. eks. formalin. De nye desinficerende midler er mildere og kan håndteres på en væsentlig mere sikker måde end formalin. Da begge produkter nedbrydes hurtigt, omsættes en stor del af den tilsatte mængde direkte i dammene. Ved nedbrydningen frigives ilt fra brintoverilte, mens pereddikesyre nedbrydes til vand og kuldioxid. Der udledes således mindre mængder af de to stoffer til vandløbet, og da de effektive behandlingskoncentrationer i forvejen er lave, er miljøpåvirkningen minimal.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Health and welfare.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/30281/1/ICROFS%20Nyt_16062016.pdf
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Does organic livestock husbandry uses less energy and produces less greenhouse gas than conventional husbandry? Analysis in lactating sheep farms Organic Eprints
Dakpo, Hervé; LAIGNEL, G; Roulenc, M.; BENOIT, M..
We have undertaken in this work an evaluation of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the Non-Renewable Energy (NRE) consumption on a sample of 1250 farms-years, operating in sheep meat production, in either organic (OA) or conventional (CA) agriculture, over the period 1987 to 2012, based on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. There was no significant difference for NRE consumption (79.6 MJ in OA and 79.7 MJ in CA, per kg of carcass); indeed the gains in OA thanks to a lower use of chemical fertilizers and purchase of lesser concentrates feed were offset by the higher level of mechanization (here fuels and equipment). For GHG emissions, we found a significant difference of 5% beneficial to organic production systems (31.1 vs. 32.7 kg CO2 eq/kg...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Animal husbandry; Air and water emissions; Sheep and goats; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/26232/1/Dakpo_2013_CIAG_Vol32.pdf
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Simulation of effect of climate, soils and management on N2O emission from grassland Organic Eprints
Chatskikh, D.; Olesen, J.E.; Berntsen, J.; Regina, K.; Yamulki, S..
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas with a high contribution from agricultural soils and emissions that depend on soil type, climate, crops and management practices. The N2O emissions therefore need to be included as an integral part of environmental assessment of agricultural production systems. A dynamical algorithm for N2O production and emission from agricultural soils was developed and included in the FASSET whole-farm model. The model simulated carbon and nitrogen (N) turnover on a daily basis. Both nitrification and denitrification was included in the model as sources for N2O production, and the N2O emissions were simulated to depend on soil microbial and physical conditions. The model was tested on experimental data of N2O emissions from...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Pasture and forage crops; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/1808/2/1808.pdf
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Analyse des Energieeinsatzes und der Energieeffizienz bei der Futtererzeugung in der Milchviehhaltung Organic Eprints
Frank, Helmut; Schmid, Harald; Hülsbergen, Kurt-Jürgen.
Fodder production requires the highest energy input in dairy farming. Taking the organic and conventional dairy farms from the project “climate effects of land use systems – evaluations on pilot farms” as an example we analyse the energy input for producing different fodder types and the influence of feeding strategies in Southern Germany. The results show that grazing is the most energy efficient form of feeding, followed by fresh grass and silage. Hay requires the highest energy input per unit forage energy. Maize silage has a lower energy input due to high yields. The higher the part of roughage in the ration the lower is the energy input for production of the ration.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Feeding and growth; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/18229/3/Frank_18229.pdf
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Environmental and economic consequences of large-scale conversion to organic farming in Croatia Organic Eprints
Znaor, Darko.
Organic farming is a rapidly growing sector both in Croatia and elsewhere. However, there is some concern as to what a widespread adoption of organic farming would bring to society as a whole. The costs and benefits of this development and the associated trade-offs are largely unknown and have hardly been explored. There is a vast body of evidence showing that organic farming in most cases environmentally outperforms non-organic systems. However, organic farming is associated with lower yields and its further expansion might lead to job losses in some other sectors and potentially jeopardise the overall economic strength of a country. This research presents an attempt to assess the environmental and economic consequences of the large-scale adoption of...
Tipo: Thesis Palavras-chave: Farm economics; Air and water emissions; Policy environments and social economy; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2008
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Comment on "Searchinger et al. (2018), Assessing the efficiency of changes in land use for mitigating climate change (Nature 564: 249)" Organic Eprints
Müller, Adrian.
Some days ago, the article from Searchinger et al. 2018 has been published and caused quite some discussion in the media, basically being reported to show that organic agriculture is bad for the climate. In the following, Adrian Müller (FiBL) present some fastly written compilation of thoughts on this article and this claim from the media that reported on it.
Tipo: Other Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34496/1/mueller-2018-Comment_Searchinger-etal-2018-Nature564-249_18_12_2018.pdf
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Bodenbelastung durch Feldrandkompostierung: neue Aspekte Organic Eprints
Fuchs, Jacques G..
Im Rahmen von Untersuchungen über die Umweltbelastung von Feldrandkompostmieten wurde anfangs dieses Sommers nach den regenreichen Wetterperioden der Einfluss von drei Mieten auf die Nährstoff- und die Schwermetallgehalte von Bodenproben unter und fünf Meter neben den Mieten untersucht. Dabei stellte sich heraus, dass nicht nur zum Teil stark erhöhte Nährstoffkonzentrationen unter den Mieten zu beobachten sind, sondern ebenfalls erhöhte Schwermetallgehalte, besonders Blei, Kupfer und Zink.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Composting and manuring; Air and water emissions; Soil.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://orgprints.org/27614/1/fuchs-1998-agrarforschung_Bd5_Nr2-p81-83-feldrandkompostierung.pdf
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Potentials to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss agriculture Organic Eprints
Necpalowa, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Skinner, Colin; Büchi, Lucie; Wittwer, Raphaël; Gattinger, Andreas; van der Heijden, Marcel; Mäder, Paul; Charles, Raphaël; Berner, Alfred; Mayer, Jochen; Six, Johan.
There is an urgent need to identify and evaluate management practices for their biophysical potential to maintain productivity under climate change while mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from individual cropping systems under specific pedo-climatic conditions. Here, we examined, through DayCent modeling, the long-term impact of soil management practices and their interactions on soil GHG emissions and GHG intensity from Swiss cropping systems. Based on experimental data from four long-term experimental sites in Switzerland (Therwil, Frick, Changins, and Reckenholz), we robustly parameterized and evaluated the model for simulating crop productivity, soil C dynamics and soil N2O emissions across a range of management practices and pedo-climatic...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Switzerland.
Ano: 2018
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Grundvandsbeskyttelse ved økologisk jordbrug Organic Eprints
Hansen, Birgitte; Kristensen, Erik Steen.
Økologisk jordbrug udgør et samlet koncept, som både kombinerer stor dannelse af grundvand, pesticicforbud, mange positive miljøeffekter og merindtjening i landbrugserhvervet som følge af en merpris på produkterne. Økologisk jordbrug er derfor i mange tilfælde at foretrække frem for f.eks. skovrejsning eller pesticidfri dyrkning. Der er imidlertid problemer med at kunne forudsige kvælstofudvaskningen fra økologisk jordbrug især på grund af vanskeligheder med at kunne simulere udvaskningen fra forskellige typer græsmarker, som anvendes i stor udstrækning i økologisk jordbrug. Hvis der i grundvandsfølsomme områder stilles krav om pesticidfri dyrkning og at nitratkoncentrationen skal være under f.eks. 50 mg/l vurderes det, at disse krav vil kunne opfyldes...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://orgprints.org/511/1/Grundvandsbeskyttelse_BGH.pdf
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Klimawirkung und Nachhaltigkeit ökologischer Betriebssysteme - Untersuchung in einem Netzwerk von Pilotbetrieben Organic Eprints
Im Verbundprojekt „Klimawirkungen und Nachhaltigkeit ökologischer und konventioneller Betriebssysteme – Untersuchungen in einem Netzwerk von Pilotbetrieben“ wurde in enger Kooperation von Forschung, Beratung und Praxis eine einzigartige Struktur für Forschungsarbeiten aufgebaut. In verschiedenen Agrarräumen Nord-, West-, Ost- und Süddeutschlands sind 40 ökologische und 40 konventionelle landwirtschaftliche Betriebe nach definierten Kriterien ausgewählt worden. Sie repräsentieren unterschiedliche Betriebstypen, Intensitätsniveaus und Standortbedingungen. In den Pilotbetrieben wurden nach genau definierten methodischen Vorgaben mehrjährig Betriebsdaten erfasst, mit Modellen umfassend ausgewertet sowie Monitoringsysteme mit georeferenzierten Testflächen...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Dairy cattle; Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions; Technology transfer; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/32172/1/32172-06OE160-353-tum-ti-huelsbergen-2013-klimawirkungen-pilotbetriebe-teil1.pdf
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Økologi i stribevis Organic Eprints
Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik.
Kløvergræs, rug, vikke og majs i striber skal vise vej til fremtidens økologiske multilandbrug
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Soil quality; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/16226/1/16226.pdf
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Lohnt sich klimafreundlicher Bioackerbau? Organic Eprints
Schader, Christian; Meier, Matthias.
Ergebnisse ❯ Die Gesamtdeckungsbeiträge liegen bei den Varianten mit reduzierter Bodenbearbeitung um 21-35% höher als bei den Pflugvarianten. Ein Grund sind die höheren Mais- und Weizenerträge bei reduzierter Bodenbearbeitung. ❯ Bei den Produktionskosten bestehen keine Unterschiede. Einsparungen beim Verzicht auf den Pfl ug stehen zusätzliche Geräte und der Anbau einer Zwischenfrucht gegenüber. ❯ Bei den Arbeitskraft- und Zugkraftstunden bestehen keine Unterschiede.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farm economics; Soil tillage; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/18867/4/schader-meier-2011-poster-schlatthof.pdf
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Wissen, wo man steht. Ergebnisse des Projektes "COMPASS". Organic Eprints
Kelm, Michael; Taube, Friedhelm; Hüwing, Hinrich; Kemper, Nicole; Neumann, Helge.
Das Projekt "COMPASS" der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Kiel beschäftigt sich seit 2004 mit dem Monitoring von Leistungen und ökologischen Effekten auf 32 konventionellen und ökologischen Praxisbetrieben. Im vorliegenden Band sind die zentralen Ergebnisse aus den Bereichen Nährstoffmanagement, Pflanzenschutz, Rückstandsproblematik, Tiergesundheit und Biodiversität (EU-Projekt AVI-LAND) umfassend und gleichzeitig anschaulich dargestellt.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Health and welfare; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/11002/1/CAU_Kiel_Broschuere_COMPASS.pdf
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Landscape Agroecology: managing interactions between agriculture, nature and socio-economy Organic Eprints
Dalgaard, Tommy.
State of the art GIS and database technologies for landscape scale analysis and the modelling of land use and environmental impacts are presented. These methods have been developed at University of Aarhus in multidisciplinary collaboration with other research institutions throughout Europe; for example during the EU research projects www.mea-scope.org and www.sensor-ip.eu. In the years to come, these landscape scale research methods are further developed and integrated with similar frameworks in other EU countries, and used for scenario studies (see for example the landscape components of http://www.nitroeurope.eu/, http://www.darcof.dk/research/darcofiii/refugia.html or http://www.darcof.dk/research/darcofiii/bioconcens.html). Scenario studies,...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Landscape and recreation; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/19313/1/19313a.pdf
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DoubleCrop: Såtidsforsøg med efterafgrøder Organic Eprints
Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard.
Resultater fra et forsøg om effekten af så-tidspunkt på efterafgrøders kvælstof-optag
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/35463/1/S%C3%A5tidsfors%C3%B8g%20med%20efterafgr%C3%B8der%20J%C3%B8rn%20Nygaard%20S%C3%B8rensen%2005mar2019%20PP.pptx
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Organic farming and the challenges of climate change Organic Eprints
Olesen, Jørgen E..
Climate change is without question one of the largest challenges that humankind has ever faced. This is not the least due to the enormous consequences that climate change will have for ecosystems and human society. Unfortunately, climate change also poses a very difficult problem for politicians to deal with. The core of the problem affecting modern democracies is that most people experience very little relationship between greenhouse gas emissions, climate change and their everyday life. There is both a temporal and spatial separation between emissions and impacts of climate change. The industrialized countries, which currently emit most of the greenhouse gases, are in general the least vulnerable to climate change effects. Additionally, many of the...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/16314/1/16314.pdf
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Fachgespräch "Klimawandel und Ökolandbau" Organic Eprints
Im Rahmen eines KTBL-Fachgesprächs kamen am 1. und 2. Dezember in Göttingen über 70 Fachleute aus Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis des ökologischen Landbaus zusammen. Diskutiert wurde der Stand des Wissens bezüglich der Emission klimawirksamer Gase im ökologischen Landbau, Möglichkeiten zu deren Minderung sowie zur Anpassung des ökologischen Landbaus an den Klimawandel. Zielsetzung war es, offene Fragen und Forschungsbedarf zu formulieren. Der ökologische Landbau weist Vorteile im Hinblick auf den Klimaschutz auf, insbesondere weil er auf den Einsatz synthetisch erzeugter Stickstoffdünger verzichtet. Jedoch zeigen aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse, dass der Ökolandbau pro Fläche weniger, pro Produkteinheit mehr Emissionen aufweist als der konventionelle...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/15682/1/15682%2D07OE033%2Dktbl%2Dde_Baey%2DErnsten%2D2009%2Dklimawandel.pdf
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Nutrient losses from organic and conventional crop rotations - a case study on fine sand soil Organic Eprints
Turtola, Eila; Lemola, Riitta; Esala, Martti; Kiljala, Janne; Joki-Tokola, Erkki.
P and N losses were highest from the conventional crop rotation. The losses were most affected by single management practices. The four-year study is, however, too short for soil derived, long-term differences to come fully out in the leaching losses.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/11171/1/njfb.pdf
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